SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Thrombosis

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel is injured, the body uses platelets and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss; when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the body under certain conditions. A clot, or a piece of the clot, that breaks free and begins to travel around the body is known as an embolus. Thrombosis may occur in arteries. Venous thrombosis leads to congestion of the affected part of the body, while arterial thrombosis affects the blood supply and leads to damage of the tissue supplied by that artery. A piece of either an arterial or a venous thrombus can break off as an embolus which can travel through the circulation and lodge somewhere else as an embolism; this type of embolism is known as a thromboembolism. Complications can arise. An arterial embolus may travel further down the affected blood vessel where it can lodge as an embolism. Thrombosis is defined by the type of blood vessel affected and the precise location of the blood vessel or the organ supplied by it.

Deep vein thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein. It most affects leg veins, such as the femoral vein. Three factors are important in the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein—these are the rate of blood flow, the thickness of the blood and qualities of the vessel wall. Classical signs of DVT include swelling and redness of the affected area. Paget-Schroetter disease or upper extremity DVT is the obstruction of an arm vein by a thrombus; the condition comes to light after vigorous exercise and presents in younger, otherwise healthy people. Men are affected more than women. Budd-Chiari syndrome is the blockage of a hepatic vein or of the hepatic part of the inferior vena cava; this form of thrombosis presents with abdominal pain and enlarged liver. Treatment varies between surgical intervention by the use of shunts. Portal vein thrombosis affects the hepatic portal vein, which can lead to portal hypertension and reduction of the blood supply to the liver, it happens in the setting of another disease such as pancreatitis, diverticulitis or cholangiocarcinoma.

Renal vein thrombosis is the obstruction of the renal vein by a thrombus. This tends to lead to reduced drainage from the kidney. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare form of stroke which results from the blockage of the dural venous sinuses by a thrombus. Symptoms may include headache, abnormal vision, any of the symptoms of stroke such as weakness of the face and limbs on one side of the body and seizures; the diagnosis is made with a CT or MRI scan. The majority of persons affected make a full recovery; the mortality rate is 4.3%. Jugular vein thrombosis is a condition that may occur due to infection, intravenous drug use or malignancy. Jugular vein thrombosis can have a varying list of complications, including: systemic sepsis, pulmonary embolism, papilledema. Though characterized by a sharp pain at the site of the vein, it can prove difficult to diagnose, because it can occur at random. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a specialised form of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, where there is thrombosis of the cavernous sinus of the basal skull dura, due to the retrograde spread of infection and endothelial damage from the danger triangle of the face.

The facial veins in this area anastomose with the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins of the orbit, which drain directly posteriorly into the cavernous sinus through the superior orbital fissure. Staphyloccoal or Streptococcal infections of the face, for example nasal or upper lip pustules may thus spread directly into the cavernous sinus, causing stroke-like symptoms of double vision, squint, as well as spread of infection to cause meningitis. Arterial thrombosis is the formation of a thrombus within an artery. In most cases, arterial thrombosis follows rupture of atheroma, is therefore referred to as atherothrombosis. Arterial embolism occurs when clots migrate downstream, can affect any organ. Alternatively, arterial occlusion occurs as a consequence of embolism of blood clots originating from the heart; the most common cause is atrial fibrillation, which causes a blood stasis within the atria with easy thrombus formation, but blood clots can develop inside the heart for other reasons too.

A stroke is the rapid decline of brain function due to a disturbance in the supply of blood to the brain. This can be due to ischemia, embolus or hemorrhage. In thrombotic stroke, a thrombus forms around atherosclerotic plaques. Since blockage of the artery is gradual, onset of symptomatic thrombotic strokes is slower. Thrombotic stroke can be divided into two categories -- small vessel disease; the former affects vessels such as the internal carotids and the circle of Willis. The latter can affect smaller vessels such as the branches of the circle of Willis. Myocardial infarction or heart attack, is caused by ischemia due to the obstruction of a coronary artery by a thrombus; this restriction gives an insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart muscle which results in tissue death. A lesion is formed, the i

Miranda v. Arizona

Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U. S. 436, was a landmark decision of the U. S. Supreme Court in which the Court ruled that the Fifth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution prevents prosecutors from using a person's statements made in response to interrogation in police custody as evidence at their trial unless they can show that the person was informed of the right to consult with an attorney before and during questioning, of the right against self-incrimination before police questioning, that the defendant not only understood these rights, but voluntarily waived them. Miranda was viewed by many as a radical change in American criminal law, since the Fifth Amendment was traditionally understood only to protect Americans against formal types of compulsion to confess, such as threats of contempt of court, it has had a significant impact on law enforcement in the United States, by making what became known as the Miranda warning part of routine police procedure to ensure that suspects were informed of their rights.

The Supreme Court decided Miranda with three other consolidated cases: Westover v. United States, Vignera v. New York, California v. Stewart; the Miranda warning is the name of the formal warning, required to be given by law enforcement in the United States to criminal suspects in police custody before they are interrogated, in accordance with the Miranda ruling. The purpose of such is to ensure the accused are aware of, reminded of, these rights before questioning or actions that are reasonably to elicit an incriminating response. Pursuant to the U. S. Supreme Court decision Berghuis v. Thompkins, criminal suspects who are aware of their right to silence and to an attorney, but choose not to "unambiguously" invoke them, may find any subsequent voluntary statements treated as an implied waiver of their rights, used as or as part of evidence. At least one scholar has argued that Thompkins gutted Miranda. During the 1960s, a movement which provided defendants with legal aid emerged from the collective efforts of various bar associations.

In the civil realm, it led to the creation of the Legal Services Corporation under the Great Society program of President Lyndon B. Johnson. Escobedo v. Illinois, a case which foreshadowed Miranda, provided for the presence of counsel during police interrogation; this concept extended to a concern over police interrogation practices, which were considered by many to be barbaric and unjust. Coercive interrogation tactics were known in period slang as the "third degree". On March 13, 1963, Ernesto Miranda was arrested by the Phoenix Police Department, based on circumstantial evidence linking him to the kidnapping and rape of an eighteen-year-old woman ten days earlier. After two hours of interrogation by police officers, Miranda signed a confession to the rape charge on forms that included the typed statement: "I do hereby swear that I make this statement voluntarily and of my own free will, with no threats, coercion, or promises of immunity, with full knowledge of my legal rights, understanding any statement I make may be used against me."However, at no time was Miranda told of his right to counsel.

Before being presented with the form on which he was asked to write out the confession that he had given orally, he was not advised of his right to remain silent, nor was he informed that his statements during the interrogation would be used against him. At trial, when prosecutors offered Miranda's written confession as evidence, his court-appointed lawyer, Alvin Moore, objected that because of these facts, the confession was not voluntary and should be excluded. Moore's objection was overruled, based on this confession and other evidence, Miranda was convicted of rape and kidnapping, he was sentenced to 20 -- 30 years of imprisonment with sentences to run concurrently. Moore filed Miranda's appeal to the Arizona Supreme Court, claiming that Miranda's confession was not voluntary and should not have been admitted into the court proceedings; the Arizona Supreme Court affirmed the trial court's decision to admit the confession in State v. Miranda, 401 P.2d 721. In affirmation, the Arizona Supreme Court emphasized the fact that Miranda did not request an attorney.

Attorney John Paul Frank, former law clerk to Justice Hugo Black, represented Miranda in his appeal to the U. S. Supreme Court. On June 13, 1966, the Supreme Court issued a 5–4 decision in Miranda's favor that overturned his conviction and remanded his case back to Arizona for retrial. Five justices joined an opinion written by Chief Justice Earl Warren; the Court ruled that because of the coercive nature of the custodial interrogation by police, no confession could be admissible under the Fifth Amendment self-incrimination clause and Sixth Amendment right to an attorney unless a suspect has been made aware of his rights and the suspect has waived them: The person in custody must, prior to interrogation, be informed that he has the right to remain silent, that anything he says will be used against him in court. Thus, Miranda's conviction was overturned; the Court made clear what must happen if a suspect chooses to exercise his or her rights: If the individual indicates in any manner, at any time prior to or during questioning, that he wishes to remain silent, the interrogation must cease...

If the individual states that he wants an attorney, the inter

IARS

Isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, cytoplasmic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IARS gene. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid; because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAS, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Isoleucine-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family and has been identified as a target of autoantibodies in the autoimmune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Two alternatively spliced. IARS has been shown to interact with EPRS