The Storting is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway. The unicameral parliament has 169 members, and is elected every four years based on party-list proportional representation in nineteen plural member constituencies, a member of the Storting is known in Norwegian as a Stortingsrepresentant, literally Storting representative. The assembly is led by a president and, since 2009 five vice presidents — the presidium, the members are allocated to twelve standing committees, as well as four procedural committees. Three ombudsmen are directly subordinate to parliament, the Parliamentary Intelligence Oversight Committee, in 2009, qualified unicameralism was replaced by unicameralism, through the dissolution of the two chambers, the Lagting and the Odelsting. Since 2013 Olemic Thommessen has been president, the alltings were where legal and political matters were discussed. As oral laws became codified and Norway unified as an entity in the 10th century.
The Parliament of Norway Building opened in 1866, on 27 June 1940 the presidium signed an appeal to King Haakon, about his abdication. In September 1940 the representatives were summoned to Oslo, and voted in favour of the results of the negotiations between the presidium and the authorities of the German invaders, directives from Adolf Hitler resulted in the obstruction of the agreement of cooperation between parliament and occupation force. Although the Storting has always been unicameral, until 2009 it would divide itself into two departments in legislative matters. After elections, the Storting would elect a quarter of its membership to form the Lagting a sort of upper house, the division was used on very rare occasions in cases of impeachment. The original idea in 1814 was probably to have the Lagting act as an upper house. Bills were submitted by the Government to the Odelsting or by a member of the Odelsting, a standing committee, with members from both the Odelsting and Lagting, would consider the bill, and in some cases hearings were held.
If passed by the Odelsting, the bill would be sent to the Lagting for review or revision, most bills were passed unamended by the Lagting and sent directly to the king for royal assent. If the Lagting amended the Odelstings decision, the bill would be sent back to the Odelsting, if the Odelsting approved the Lagtings amendments, the bill would be signed into law by the King. If it did not, the bill would return to the Lagting, if the Lagting still proposed amendments, the bill would be submitted a plenary session of the Storting. In order to be passed, the bill should have had the approval of a majority of the plenary session. In all other cases a majority would suffice. Three days had to pass between each time a department voted on a bill, in all other cases, such as taxes and appropriations, the Storting would meet in plenary sessions
Silver is a metallic element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. The symbol Ag stems from Latin argentum, derived from the Greek ὰργὀς, a soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earths crust in the pure, free form, as an alloy with gold and other metals. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, lead, Silver is more abundant than gold, but it is much less abundant as a native metal. Its purity is measured on a per mille basis, a 94%-pure alloy is described as 0.940 fine. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had a role in most human cultures. Silver has long valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many premodern monetary systems in bullion coins, Silver is used in numerous applications other than currency, such as solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, and as an investment medium. Silver is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, Silver compounds are used in photographic film and X-rays.
Dilute silver nitrate solutions and other compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings, catheters. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with an electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell. Silver is a soft and malleable transition metal. Silver crystallizes in a cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak and this observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of silver. Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a polish. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm, at wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silvers reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm.
The electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater even than copper, during World War II in the US,13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium, mainly because of the wartime shortage of copper
Haakon VII of Norway
Haakon VII, known as Prince Carl of Denmark until 1905, was a Danish prince who became the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the union with Sweden. He reigned from November 1905 until his death in September 1957, as one of the few elected monarchs, Haakon quickly won the respect and affection of his people. He played a role in uniting the Norwegian nation in its resistance to the Nazi invasion. He became King of Norway before his father and older brother became kings of Denmark, during his reign, he saw his father, his brother and his nephew, Frederick IX, ascend the throne of Denmark, respectively in 1906,1912 and 1947. He died at the age of 85 on 21 September 1957 and he was succeeded by his only son, Olav V. Prince Carl of Denmark was the son of King Frederik VIII of Denmark. Furthermore, he was a brother of Christian X, a paternal grandson of King Christian IX of Denmark. Prince Carl was born at Charlottenlund Palace near Copenhagen and he belonged to the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg branch of the House of Oldenburg.
The House of Oldenburg had been the Danish royal family since 1448, the house was originally from northern Germany, where the Glucksburg branch held their small fief. The family had permanent links with Norway beginning from the late Middle Ages, several of his paternal ancestors had been kings of independent Norway. Christian Frederick, who was King of Norway briefly in 1814, Prince Carl was raised in the royal household in Copenhagen and educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy. Their son, Prince Alexander, the future Crown Prince Olav, was born on 2 July 1903, Prince Carl became the leading candidate, largely because he was descended from independent Norwegian kings. The new royal family of Norway left Denmark on the Danish royal yacht Dannebrog, at Oscarsborg Fortress, they boarded the Norwegian naval ship Heimdal. After a three-day journey, they arrived in Kristiania early on the morning of 25 November 1905, two days later, Haakon took the oath as Norways first independent king in 518 years.
The coronation of Haakon and Maud took place in Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim on 22 June 1906, King Haakon gained much sympathy from the Norwegian people. Although the Constitution of Norway vests the King with considerable executive powers, Haakon confined himself to non-partisan roles without interfering in politics, a practice continued by his son and grandson. However, his long rule gave him moral authority as a symbol of the countrys unity. Haakon and Crown Prince Olav became interested in skiing and this sport is often viewed as typically Norwegian
The narwhal, or narwhale, is a medium-sized toothed whale that possesses a large tusk from a protruding canine tooth. It lives year-round in the Arctic waters around Greenland, Canada and it is one of two living species of whale in the Monodontidae family, along with the beluga whale. The narwhal males are distinguished by a long, helical tusk, the narwhal was one of many species described by Carl Linnaeus in his publication Systema Naturae in 1758. Like the beluga, narwhals are medium-sized whales, for both sexes, excluding the males tusk, the total body size can range from 3.95 to 5.5 m, the males are slightly larger than the females. The average weight of an adult narwhal is 800 to 1,600 kg, at around 11 to 13 years old, the males become sexually mature, females become sexually mature at about 5 to 8 years old. Narwhals do not have a fin, and their neck vertebrae are jointed like those of other mammals, not fused as in dolphins. Found primarily in Canadian Arctic and Greenlandic and Russian waters, the narwhal is a uniquely specialized Arctic predator, in winter, it feeds on benthic prey, mostly flatfish, under dense pack ice.
During the summer, narwhals mostly eat Arctic cod and Greenland halibut, each year, they migrate from bays into the ocean as summer comes. In the winter, the male narwhals occasionally dive up to 1,500 m in depth, with dives lasting up to 25 minutes, like most toothed whales, communicate with clicks and knocks. Narwhals can live up to 50 years and they are often killed by suffocation when the sea ice freezes over. Another cause of fatality, specifically among young whales, is starvation, the current population of the narwhal is about 75,000, so narwhals qualify for Near Threatened under the criterion of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Narwhals have been harvested for over a thousand years by Inuit people in northern Canada and Greenland for meat and ivory, the narwhal was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae. The scientific name, Monodon monoceros, is derived from the Greek, the narwhal is most closely related to the beluga whale.
Together, these two species comprise the extant members of the family Monodontidae, sometimes referred to as the white whales. The Monodontidae are distinguished by size, forehead melons, short snouts. Although the narwhal and the beluga are classified as separate genera, with one each, there is some evidence that they may, very rarely. The complete skull of a whale was discovered in West Greenland circa 1990. The white whales and porpoises together comprise the superfamily Delphinoidea, fossil evidence shows that ancient white whales lived in tropical waters
Peter Elfelt was a Danish photographer and film director known as the first movie pioneer in Denmark when he began making documentary films in 1897. Peter Elfelt was born Peter Lars Petersen in Denmark on 1 January 1866 and he apprenticed in photography in Hillerød in 1893 with the photographer Carl Rathsack. He studied with the camera builder Jens Poul Andersen, in 1893, Elfelt opened his own atelier in Copenhagen with his two brothers as his assistants. As his photographic skills became appreciated, his business flourished and by 1901 Elfelt was named Kongelige Hoffotograf, during a trip to Paris in 1896, Elfelt obtained a set of detailed Cinematographe plans from the French inventor Jules Carpentier. He had a film camera constructed by Jens Poul Andersen, in the beginning of 1897, he shot the first Danish film — a one-minute sequence called Kørsel med Grønlandske Hunde. During the following 15 years, he made short nature films, Elfelt shot almost 200 short films in all. In 1903 Elfelt filmed his only drama, the short film, titled Henrettelsen, was the first fiction film made in Denmark.
Based upon the execution of a French woman who murdered her two children, it starred the singer Francesca Nathansen and was filmed in the arcade of the Christiansborg Castle. There is some doubt whether the film was shown in public. When Elfelt was asked in 1926 if he had filmed a drama. Elfelt shot the first advertising film, there is a 1904 example which advertises bock beer for the Svendborg Brewery. Elfelt opened the København Kinoptikon movie theater in 1901, although Elfelt was Denmarks first pioneer of filmmaking, he considered film as secondary to his work as a photographer. Elfelt died on 18 February 1931
The ceremony can be conducted for the monarchs consort, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event. A ceremony without the placement of a crown on the head is known as an enthronement. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom, Tonga, in addition to investing the monarch with symbols of state, Western-style coronations have often traditionally involve anointing with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called. Wherever a ruler is anointed in this way, as in Great Britain and Tonga, some other lands use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country, in the past, concepts of royalty and deity were often inexorably linked. Rome promulgated the practice of worship, in Medieval Europe. Coronations were once a direct expression of these alleged connections. Thus, coronations have often been discarded altogether or altered to reflect the nature of the states in which they are held.
However, some monarchies still choose to retain an overtly religious dimension to their accession rituals, others have adopted simpler enthronement or inauguration ceremonies, or even no ceremony at all. In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites. The ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC, judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11,12 and II Chronicles 23,11. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one gradually evolved over the following century, the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers, he wore a jewel-studded diadem.
Later emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperors head. Historians debate when exactly this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II. This ritual included recitation of prayers by the Byzantine prelate over the crown, after this event, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the ecclesiastical element in the coronation ceremonial rapidly develop. This was usually performed three times, following this, the king was given a spear, and a diadem wrought of silk or linen was bound around his forehead as a token of regal authority
Absolute monarchy, or despotic monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority that is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies, in contrast, in constitutional monarchies, the head of states authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature. Some monarchies have weak or symbolic legislatures and other bodies that the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where a monarch still maintains absolute power are Brunei, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the individual emirates composing the United Arab Emirates, Swaziland, in Ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh wielded absolute power over the country and was considered a living god by his people. In ancient Mesopotamia, many rulers of Assyria and Sumer were absolute monarchs as well, in ancient and medieval India, rulers of the Maurya, Satahavana and Chalukya Empires, as well as other major and minor empires, were considered absolute monarchs.
In the Khmer Empire, the kings were called Devaraja and Chakravartin, in Kingdom of Siam, the kings were esestablished Somburanaya-sittiraj. Throughout Chinese history, many emperors and one empress wielded absolute power through the Mandate of Heaven, in pre-Columbian America, the Inca Empire was ruled by a Sapa Inca, who was considered the son of Inti, the sun god and absolute ruler over the people and nation. Throughout much of European history, the right of kings was the theological justification for absolute monarchy. Many European monarchs, such as those of Russia, claimed supreme autocratic power by right. James VI of Scotland and his son Charles I of Scotland and England tried to import this principle, there is a considerable variety of opinion by historians on the extent of absolutism among European monarchs. Some, such as Perry Anderson, argue that quite a few monarchs achieved levels of absolutist control over their states, a widely held story about Louis XIV of France is that he proclaimed Létat, cest moi.
What Louis did say was, The interests of the state come first, when one gives these priority, one labors for ones own good. These advantages to the state redounds to ones glory, although often criticized for his extravagances, such as the Palace of Versailles, he reigned over France for a long period, and some historians consider him a successful absolute monarch. More recently, revisionist historians have questioned whether Louis reign should be considered absolute, the King of France concentrated in his person legislative and judicial powers. He was the judicial authority. He could condemn men to death without the right of appeal and it was both his duty to punish offenses and stop them from being committed. From his judicial authority followed his power both to make laws and to annul them and this law consequently authorized the king to abolish all other centers of power. Most important was the abolition of the Council of the Realm and his actions largely originated the militaristic streak of the Hohenzollern
A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary, especially the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions, or the seat occupied by a pope or bishop on ceremonial occasions. Throne in an abstract sense can refer to the monarchy or the Crown itself, an instance of metonymy. These have ranged from stools in places such as a Africa to ornate chairs and bench-like designs in Europe and Asia, respectively. Accordingly, many thrones are typically held to have been constructed or fabricated out of rare or hard to find materials that may be valuable or important to the land in question, when used in a religious sense, throne can refer to one of two distinct uses. The other use for throne refers to a belief among many of the worlds monotheistic and polytheistic religions that the deity or deities that they worship are seated on a throne. Such beliefs go back to ancient times, and can be seen in surviving artwork, Thrones were found throughout the canon of ancient furniture. The depiction of monarchs and deities as seated on chairs is a topos in the iconography of the Ancient Near East.
The word throne itself is from Greek θρόνος, chair, early Greek Διὸς θρόνους was a term for the support of the heavens, i. e. the axis mundi, which term when Zeus became an anthropomorphic god was imagined as the seat of Zeus. In Ancient Greek, a thronos was a specific but ordinary type of chair with a footstool, the Achaeans were known to place additional, empty thrones in the royal palaces and temples so that the gods could be seated when they wished to be. The most famous of these thrones was the throne of Apollo in Amyclae, the Romans had two types of thrones- one for the Emperor and one for the goddess Roma whose statues were seated upon thrones, which became centers of worship. The word throne in English translations of the Bible renders Hebrew כסא kissē, the Pharaoh of the Exodus is described as sitting on a throne, but mostly the term refers to the throne of the kingdom of Israel, often called the throne of David or throne of Solomon. The literal throne of Solomon is described in 1 Kings 10, 18-20, Moreover the king made a great throne of ivory, and overlaid it with the best gold.
The throne had six steps, and the top of the throne was round behind, and there were stays on either side on the place of the seat, and two lions stood beside the stays. And twelve lions stood there on the one side and on the other upon the six steps, in the Book of Esther, the same word refers to the throne of the king of Persia. And He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, Jesus promised his Apostles that they would sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Johns Revelation states, And I saw a white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth. The Apostle Paul speaks of thrones in Colossians 1,16, pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, in his work, De Coelesti Hierarchia interprets this as referring to one of the ranks of angels. This concept was expanded upon by Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theologica, in Medieval times the Throne of Solomon was associated with the Virgin Mary, who was depicted as the throne upon which Jesus sat
Christian V of Denmark
Christian V was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until his death in 1699. As king he wanted to show his power as absolute monarch through architecture and he was the first to use the 1671 Throne Chair of Denmark, partly made for this purpose. His motto was, Pietate et Justitia, Christian was elected successor to his father in June 1650. This was not a choice, but de facto automatic hereditary succession. Escorted by his chamberlain Christoffer Parsberg, Christian went on a trip abroad, to Holland, France. On this trip, he saw absolutism in its most splendid achievement at the young Louis XIVs court and he returned to Denmark in August 1663. From 1664 he was allowed to attend proceedings of the State College, hereditary succession was made official by Royal Law in 1665. ChristIan was hailed as heir in Copenhagen in August 1665, in Odense and Viborg in September, only a short time before he became king, he was taken into the Council of the Realm and the Supreme Court. He became king upon his fathers death on 9 February 1670 and he was the first hereditary king of Denmark, and in honor of this, Denmark acquired costly new crown jewels and a magnificent new ceremonial sword.
The war exhausted Denmarks economic resources without securing any gains, to accommodate non-aristocrats into state service, he created the new noble ranks of count and baron. One of the elevated in this way by the king was Peder Schumacher, named Count Griffenfeld by Christian V in 1670. The results of the war efforts proved politically and financially unremunerative for Denmark, the damage to the Danish economy was extensive. After the Scanian War, his sister, Princess Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark, married the Swedish king Charles XI, Christian V was often considered dependent on his councillors by contemporary sources. The Danish monarch did nothing to dispel this notion, in his memoirs, he listed hunting, love-making and maritime affairs as his main interests in life. Christian V introduced Danske Lov in 1683, the first law code for all of Denmark and it was succeeded by the similar Norske Lov of 1687. He introduced the land register of 1688, which attempted to out the land value of the united monarchy in order to create a more just taxation.
During his reign, science witnessed a golden age due to the work of the astronomer Ole Rømer in spite of the king’s personal lack of scientific knowledge and he died from the after-effects of a hunting accident and was interred in Roskilde Cathedral. Christian V had eight children by his wife and six by his Maîtresse-en-titre, Sophie Amalie Moth, Sophie was the daughter of his former tutor Poul Moth
Royal Palace, Oslo
The palace is the official residence of the present Norwegian monarch. The crown prince resides at Skaugum in Asker west of Oslo, during the last years of the union with Denmark it was used by the viceroys of Norway, and in 1814 by the first king of independent Norway, Christian Frederick. King Charles III John of the Bernadotte dynasty resided there as crown prince, the Parliament approved the stipulated cost of 150000 speciedaler to be financed by the sale of government bonds. Work on the site started in 1824, and on 1 October 1825 the king laid down the stone beneath the altar of the future royal chapel. Linstow originally planned a building of two storeys with projecting wings on both sides of the main façade. The costly foundation works caused the budget to be exceeded, in the meantime, the Storting refused additional grants as a demonstration against the kings unpopular efforts to establish a closer union between his two kingdoms. In 1833, Linstow produced a less costly project without the projecting wings, improved relations with the king made the Storting grant the necessary funds to complete the building.
The roof was laid in 1836, and the interiors were finished during the late 1840s, King Charles John never had the pleasure of residing in his palace before he died in 1844, and its first occupants were his son Oscar I and his queen Josephine. It was soon found that the family needed a more spacious residence. The next Bernadotte kings Charles IV and Oscar II continued to use the palace in Christiania. King Oscars wife, Sophia of Nassau, preferred to spend summers in Norway and he was the first monarch to use the palace as his permanent residence. During the reign and residence of King Olav V from 1957 to 1991, there was no money for renovation, after Norway became Scandinavias most wealthy member, the current monarch, King Harald V, started a comprehensive renovation project. He was criticized because of the amount of money needed to bring the Palace up to a state even if much of this went to rectify construction deficits from a century