The wingspan of a bird or an airplane is the distance from one wingtip to the other wingtip. For example, the Boeing 777-200 has a wingspan of 60.93 metres, a wandering albatross caught in 1965 had a wingspan of 3.63 metres, the official record for a living bird. The term wingspan, more technically extent, is used for other winged animals such as pterosaurs, insects, etc. and other fixed-wing aircraft such as ornithopters. In humans, the term wingspan refers to the arm span, distance between the length from one end of an individual's arms to the other when raised parallel to the ground at shoulder height at a 90º angle. Former professional basketball player Manute Bol stands at 7 ft 7 in and owns one of the largest wingspans at 8 ft 6 in; the wingspan of an aircraft is always measured in a straight line, from wingtip to wingtip, independently of wing shape or sweep. The lift from wings is proportional to their area, so the heavier the animal or aircraft the bigger that area must be; the area is the product of the span times the width of the wing, so either a long, narrow wing or a shorter, broader wing will support the same mass.
For efficient steady flight, the ratio of span to chord, the aspect ratio, should be as high as possible because this lowers the lift-induced drag associated with the inevitable wingtip vortices. Long-ranging birds, like albatrosses, most commercial aircraft maximize aspect ratio. Alternatively and aircraft which depend on maneuverability need to be able to roll fast to turn, the high moment of inertia of long narrow wings produces lower roll rates. For them, short-span, broad wings are preferred; the highest aspect ratio man-made wings are aircraft propellers, in their most extreme form as helicopter rotors. To measure the wingspan of a bird, a live or freshly-dead specimen is placed flat on its back, the wings are grasped at the wrist joints and the distance is measured between the tips of the longest primary feathers on each wing; the wingspan of an insect refers to the wingspan of pinned specimens, may refer to the distance between the centre of the thorax to the apex of the wing doubled or to the width between the apices with the wings set with the trailing wing edge perpendicular to the body.
In basketball and gridiron football, a fingertip-to-fingertip measurement is used to determine the player's wingspan called armspan. This is called reach in boxing terminology; the wingspan of 16-year-old BeeJay Anya, a top basketball Junior Class of 2013 prospect who played for the NC State Wolfpack, was measured at 7 feet 9 inches across, one of the longest of all National Basketball Association draft prospects, the longest for a non-7-foot player, though Anya went undrafted in 2017. The wingspan of Manute Bol, at 8 feet 6 inches, is the longest in NBA history, his vertical reach was 10 feet 5 inches. Aircraft: Scaled Composites Stratolaunch — 117 m Aircraft: Hughes H-4 Hercules "Spruce Goose" – 97.51 m Aircraft Antonov An-225 Mriya - 88.4 m Bat: Large flying fox – 1.5 m Bird: Wandering albatross – 3.63 m Bird: Argentavis – Estimated 7 m Reptile: Quetzalcoatlus pterosaur – 10–11 m Insect: White witch moth – 28 cm Insect: Meganeuropsis – estimated up to 71 cm Aircraft: Starr Bumble Bee II – 1.68 m Aircraft: Bede BD-5 – 4.27 m Aircraft: Colomban Cri-cri – 4.9 m Bat: Bumblebee bat – 16 cm Bird: Bee hummingbird – 6.5 cm Insect: Tanzanian parasitic wasp – 0.2 mm
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
In aviation, V-speeds are standard terms used to define airspeeds important or useful to the operation of all aircraft. These speeds are derived from data obtained by aircraft designers and manufacturers during flight testing for aircraft type-certification testing. Using them is considered a best practice to maximize aviation safety, aircraft performance or both; the actual speeds represented by these designators are specific to a particular model of aircraft. They are expressed by the aircraft's indicated airspeed, so that pilots may use them directly, without having to apply correction factors, as aircraft instruments show indicated airspeed. In general aviation aircraft, the most used and most safety-critical airspeeds are displayed as color-coded arcs and lines located on the face of an aircraft's airspeed indicator; the lower ends of the green arc and the white arc are the stalling speed with wing flaps retracted, stalling speed with wing flaps extended, respectively. These are the stalling speeds for the aircraft at its maximum weight.
The yellow range is the range in which the aircraft may be operated in smooth air, only with caution to avoid abrupt control movement, the red line is the VNE, the never exceed speed. Proper display of V-speeds is an airworthiness requirement for type-certificated aircraft in most countries; the most common V-speeds are defined by a particular government's aviation regulations. In the United States, these are defined in title 14 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations, known as the Federal Aviation Regulations. In Canada, the regulatory body, Transport Canada, defines 26 used V-speeds in their Aeronautical Information Manual. V-speed definitions in FAR 23, 25 and equivalent are for designing and certification of airplanes, not for their operational use; the descriptions below are for use by pilots. These V-speeds are defined by regulations, they are defined with constraints such as weight, configuration, or phases of flight. Some of these constraints have been omitted to simplify the description.
Some of these V-speeds are specific to particular types of aircraft and are not defined by regulations. Whenever a limiting speed is expressed by a Mach number, it is expressed relative to the speed of sound, e.g. VMO: Maximum operating speed, MMO: Maximum operating Mach number. V1 is takeoff decision speed, it is the speed above which the takeoff will continue if an engine fails or another problem occurs, such as a blown tire. The speed will vary among aircraft types and varies according to factors such as aircraft weight, runway length, wing flap setting, engine thrust used and runway surface contamination, thus it must be determined by the pilot before takeoff. Aborting a takeoff after V1 is discouraged because the aircraft will by definition not be able to stop before the end of the runway, thus suffering a "runway overrun". V1 is defined differently in different jurisdictions: The US Federal Aviation Administration defines it as: "the maximum speed in the takeoff at which the pilot must take the first action to stop the airplane within the accelerate-stop distance.
V1 means the minimum speed in the takeoff, following a failure of the critical engine at VEF, at which the pilot can continue the takeoff and achieve the required height above the takeoff surface within the takeoff distance." Transport Canada defines it as: "Critical engine failure recognition speed" and adds: "This definition is not restrictive. An operator may adopt any other definition outlined in the aircraft flight manual of TC type-approved aircraft as long as such definition does not compromise operational safety of the aircraft." Getting to grips with aircraft performance. Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance. Airbus Customer Services. January 2002
Rate of climb
In aeronautics, the rate of climb is an aircraft's vertical speed – the positive or negative rate of altitude change with respect to time. In most ICAO member countries in otherwise metric countries, this is expressed in feet per minute; the RoC in an aircraft is indicated with a vertical speed indicator or instantaneous vertical speed indicator. The temporal rate of decrease in altitude is referred to as the rate of sink rate. A negative rate of climb corresponds to a positive rate of descent: RoD = -RoC. There are a number of designated airspeeds relating to optimum rates of ascent, the two most important of these are VX and VY. VX is the indicated forward airspeed for best angle of climb; this is the speed at which an aircraft gains the most altitude in a given horizontal distance used to avoid a collision with an object a short distance away. By contrast, VY is the indicated airspeed for best rate of climb, a rate which allows the aircraft to climb to a specified altitude in the minimum amount of time regardless of the horizontal distance required.
Except at the aircraft’s ceiling, where they are equal, VX is always lower than VY. Climbing at VX allows pilots to maximize altitude gain per horizontal distance; this occurs at the speed for which the difference between drag is the greatest. In a jet airplane, this is minimum drag speed, occurring at the bottom of the drag vs. speed curve. Climbing at VY allows pilots to maximize altitude gain per time; this occurs at the speed where the difference between engine power and the power required to overcome the aircraft's drag is greatest. Vx increases with altitude and VY decreases with altitude until they converge at the airplane's absolute ceiling, the altitude above which the airplane cannot climb in steady flight; the Cessna 172 is a four-seat aircraft. At maximum weight it has a VY of 75 knots indicated airspeed providing a rate of climb of 721 ft/min. Rate of climb at maximum power for a small aircraft is specified in its normal operating procedures but for large jet airliners it is mentioned in emergency operating procedures.
Climb V speeds Variometer
An aircraft engine is a component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power. Aircraft engines are always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines, except for small multicopter UAVs which are always electric aircraft. In commercial aviation, the major players in the manufacturing of turbofan engines are Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, CFM International. A major entrant into the market launched in 2016 when Aeroengine Corporation of China was formed by organizing smaller companies engaged in designing and manufacturing aircraft engines into a new state owned behemoth of 96,000 employees. In general aviation, the dominant manufacturer of turboprop engines has been Whitney. General Electric announced in 2015 entrance into the market. 1848: John Stringfellow made a steam engine for a 10-foot wingspan model aircraft which achieved the first powered flight, albeit with negligible payload. 1903: Charlie Taylor built an inline aeroengine for the Wright Flyer.
1903: Manly-Balzer engine sets standards for radial engines. 1906: Léon Levavasseur produces a successful water-cooled V8 engine for aircraft use. 1908: René Lorin patents a design for the ramjet engine. 1908: Louis Seguin designed the Gnome Omega, the world's first rotary engine to be produced in quantity. In 1909 a Gnome powered Farman III aircraft won the prize for the greatest non-stop distance flown at the Reims Grande Semaine d'Aviation setting a world record for endurance of 180 kilometres. 1910: Coandă-1910, an unsuccessful ducted fan aircraft exhibited at Paris Aero Salon, powered by a piston engine. The aircraft never flew, but a patent was filed for routing exhaust gases into the duct to augment thrust. 1914: Auguste Rateau suggests using exhaust-powered compressor – a turbocharger – to improve high-altitude performance. VI heavy bomber becomes the earliest known supercharger-equipped aircraft to fly, with a Mercedes D. II straight-six engine in the central fuselage driving a Brown-Boveri mechanical supercharger for the R.30/16's four Mercedes D.
IVa engines. 1918: Sanford Alexander Moss picks up Rateau's idea and creates the first successful turbocharger 1926: Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar IV, the first series-produced supercharged engine for aircraft use. 1930: Frank Whittle submitted his first patent for a turbojet engine. June 1939: Heinkel He 176 is the first successful aircraft to fly powered by a liquid-fueled rocket engine. August 1939: Heinkel HeS 3 turbojet propels the pioneering German Heinkel He 178 aircraft. 1940: Jendrassik Cs-1, the world's first run of a turboprop engine. It is not put into service. 1943 Daimler-Benz DB 670, first turbofan runs 1944: Messerschmitt Me 163B Komet, the world's first rocket-propelled combat aircraft deployed. 1945: First turboprop-powered aircraft flies, a modified Gloster Meteor with two Rolls-Royce Trent engines. 1947: Bell X-1 rocket-propelled aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. 1948: 100 shp 782, the first turboshaft engine to be applied to aircraft use. 1949: Leduc 010, the world's first ramjet-powered aircraft flight.
1950: Rolls-Royce Conway, the world's first production turbofan, enters service. 1968: General Electric TF39 high bypass turbofan enters service delivering greater thrust and much better efficiency. 2002: HyShot scramjet flew in dive. 2004: NASA X-43, the first scramjet to maintain altitude. In this entry, for clarity, the term "inline engine" refers only to engines with a single row of cylinders, as used in automotive language, but in aviation terms, the phrase "inline engine" covers V-type and opposed engines, is not limited to engines with a single row of cylinders; this is to differentiate them from radial engines. A straight engine has an number of cylinders, but there are instances of three- and five-cylinder engines; the greatest advantage of an inline engine is that it allows the aircraft to be designed with a low frontal area to minimize drag. If the engine crankshaft is located above the cylinders, it is called an inverted inline engine: this allows the propeller to be mounted high up to increase ground clearance, enabling shorter landing gear.
The disadvantages of an inline engine include a poor power-to-weight ratio, because the crankcase and crankshaft are long and thus heavy. An in-line engine may be either air-cooled or liquid-cooled, but liquid-cooling is more common because it is difficult to get enough air-flow to cool the rear cylinders directly. Inline engines were common in early aircraft. However, the inherent disadvantages of the design soon became apparent, the inline design was abandoned, becoming a rarity in modern aviation. For other configurations of aviation inline engine, such as U-engines, H-engines, etc.. See Inline engine. Cylinders in this engine are arranged in two in-line banks tilted 60–90 degrees apart from each other and driving a common crankshaft; the vast majority of V engines are water-cooled. The V design provides a higher power-to-weight ratio than an inline engine, while still providing a small frontal area; the most famous example of this design is the legendary Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, a 27-litre 60° V12 engine used in, among others, the Spitfires that played a major role in the Battle of Britain.
A horizontally opposed engine called a flat or boxer engine, ha
De Havilland Tiger Moth
The de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth is a 1930s British biplane designed by Geoffrey de Havilland and built by the de Havilland Aircraft Company. It was operated by many other operators as a primary trainer aircraft. In addition to the type's principal use for ab-initio training, the Second World War saw RAF Tiger Moths operating in other capacities, including maritime surveillance and defensive anti-invasion preparations; the Tiger Moth remained in service with the RAF until it was succeeded and replaced by the de Havilland Chipmunk during the early 1950s. Many of the military surplus aircraft subsequently entered into civil operation. Many nations have used the Tiger Moth in both military and civil applications, it remains in widespread use as a recreational aircraft in several countries, it is still used as a primary training aircraft for those pilots wanting to gain experience before moving on to other tailwheel aircraft. Many Tiger Moths are now employed by various companies offering trial lesson experiences.
The de Havilland Moth club, founded in 1975, is now an owners' association offering a mutual club and technical support. Among the reasons for which de Havilland came to pursue development of the Tiger Moth was the personal dissatisfaction of Geoffrey de Havilland, the company's owner and founder, who sought to produce a light aircraft superior to two of his previous designs, the de Havilland Humming Bird and de Havilland DH.51. From earlier experience, de Havilland knew the difficulty and importance of sizing such an aircraft to appeal to various sectors of the civil market, such as touring, flying club and private aviation customers; the starting point for the Tiger Moth was, in fact, the successful Gypsy Tiger. Successively more capable engines had been developed, the company had produced a prototype to test the new de Havilland Gipsy III engine; this prototype, a low-wing monoplane, was a modification of the standard Gypsy Tiger. Improvements made on the Tiger Moth monoplane were first incorporated into a military trainer variant of the de Havilland DH.60 Moth, designated the DH.60T Moth – in parlance the T came to stand for'Tiger' in addition to'Trainer'.
According to aviation author A. J. Jackson, development of the standard Tiger Moth version from the monoplane prototype had proceeded straightforward after this point; the DH.60T Moth had several shortcomings, thus was subject to several alterations, such as the adoption of shortened interplane struts in order to raise the wingtips after insufficient ground clearance was discovered while it was undergoing trials at RAF Martlesham Heath. As a result of the Martlesham trials, a favourable report for the type was produced, which in turn led to the type soon being formally adopted as the new basic trainer of the Royal Air Force. A single prototype, designated the DH.82 Tiger Moth, was ordered by the British Air Ministry under Specification 15/31, which sought a suitable ab-initio training aircraft. One of the main changes made from the preceding Moth series was necessitated by a desire to improve access to the front cockpit since the training requirement specified that the front seat occupant had to be able to escape especially when wearing a parachute.
Access to the front cockpit of the Moth's predecessors was restricted by the proximity of the aircraft's fuel tank, directly above the front cockpit and the rear cabane struts for the upper wing. The solution adopted was to shift the upper wing forward but sweep the wings back to maintain the centre of lift. Other changes included a strengthened structure, fold-down doors on both sides of the cockpit and a revised exhaust system. On 26 October 1931 the first'true' Tiger Moth, the prototype E6, conducted its maiden flight at Stag Lane Aerodrome, London. Shortly thereafter construction of the first 35 production aircraft for the RAF, designated K2567-K2601, began following the issuing of Specification T.23/31. The Tiger Moth became a commercial success, various models were exported to more than 25 air forces of various nations. In addition to the military demand, aircraft were produced for the civil market. At one point the flow of orders for the Tiger Moth occupied the entirety of de Havilland's capacity to manufacture aircraft, little capacity could be spared to accommodate domestic customers.
In 1932 de Havilland developed an affordable air taxi from the Tiger Moth. Following the end of all manufacturing, third parties would re-build Tiger Moths to a similar configuration to the Fox Moth, such as the Thruxton Jackaroo. In late 1934 50 Tiger Moths of a more refined design, sometimes referred to as the Tiger Moth II, were delivered to the RAF. Throughout the period 1934–1936 production activity was centred upon meeting the demand for military trainers, including several contracts having been placed by the RAF to Specification T.7/35 a
De Havilland Gipsy Major
The de Havilland Gipsy Major or Gipsy IIIA is a four-cylinder, air-cooled, inline engine used in a variety of light aircraft produced in the 1930s, including the famous Tiger Moth biplane. Many Gipsy Major engines still power vintage aircraft types worldwide today. Engines were produced both by de Havilland in the UK, by the Australian arm of the company, de Havilland Australia, the latter modifying the design to use imperial measures rather than the original metric measurements; the engine was a modified Gipsy III, a de Havilland Gipsy engine modified to run inverted so that the cylinders pointed downwards below the crankcase. This allowed the propeller shaft to be kept in a high position without having the cylinders blocking the pilot's forward view over the nose of the aircraft. One initial disadvantage of the inverted configuration was the high oil consumption requiring regular refills of the external oil tank, this problem improved over time with the use of modified piston rings; the Major was a bored-out Gipsy III.
First built in 1932, total production of all Gipsy Major versions was 14,615 units. In 1934, when Geoffrey de Havilland needed a more powerful engine for his twin-engined transport aircraft, the four-cylinder Gipsy Major was further developed into the 200 hp six-cylinder Gipsy Six. In 1937 more power was needed for the new D. H.91 Albatross four-engined transatlantic mailplane, so two Gipsy Six cylinder banks were combined to form one 525 hp Gipsy Twelve 12-cylinder inverted Vee. In military service, the Gipsy Twelve became known as the Gipsy King and the Gipsy Six the Gipsy Queen; the advent of World War II cut short all civilian flying and after the war de Havilland was too busy concentrating on jet engines to put much energy into its piston engines. The Gipsy did not go without a fight though. In Canada the Gipsy Major was the engine of choice for the DHC1 Chipmunk trainer, which replaced the Tiger Moth in the RAF. By that time however, the Gipsy Major was eclipsed by the Blackburn Cirrus Major in Britain and the American Lycoming and Continental horizontally opposed engines abroad.
In its final supercharged form, the Gipsy Major used in helicopter applications delivered 220 hp. By 1945 the Gipsy Major had been cleared for a world record 1,500 hours Time between overhaul, surpassing its held world record of 1,260 hours TBO achieved in 1943. 1,000 hours TBO had earlier been achieved in 1938. Gipsy Major I Gipsy Major IC Higher compression ratio and maximum RPM for racing use. Gipsy Major ID Fuel pump added, plus screened ignition priming system. Gipsy Major IF Aluminium cylinder heads, 5.25:1 compression ratio. Gipsy Major II Variable pitch propeller Gipsy Major 7 Military version of Gipsy Major 1D, increased climb RPM. Gipsy Major 8 Sodium cooled exhaust valves, cartridge starter for DHC Chipmunk. Gipsy Major 10 Electric starter option. Gipsy Major 30 Major redesign and stroke increased. 6.5:1 compression ratio. Gipsy Major 50 Supercharged. 197 hp. Gipsy Major 200 Designed as a light helicopter engine. 200 hp. Gipsy Major 215 Turbo-supercharged helicopter engine. 220 hp. Alfa Romeo 110 Alfa Romeo licence production/derivative de Havilland L-375-1 US military designation for the Gipsy Major I IAR 4-G1 IAR licence produced in Romania Application list from Lumsden unless otherwise noted.
Many Gipsy Major engines remain in service today worldwide, in the United Kingdom alone 175 de Havilland Tiger Moths were noted on the Civil Aviation Authority register in September 2011 although not all of these aircraft were airworthy. Examples of the Gipsy Major are on display at the following museums: de Havilland Aircraft Museum Fleet Air Arm Museum Shuttleworth Collection Royal Air Force Museum Cosford Data from Jane's. Type: 4-cylinder air-cooled inverted inline piston aircraft engine Bore: 4.646 in Stroke: 5.512 in Displacement: 373.7 in³ Length: 48.3 in Width: 20.0 in Height: 29.6 in Dry weight: 300 lb Mk 1F to 322 lb Mk 1D Valvetrain: OHV Fuel system: Downdraught Hobson A. I.48 H3M or H1M Oil system: Dry sump, gear-type pump Cooling system: Air-cooled Power output: 122 hp at 2,100 rpm, 145 hp at 2,550 rpm Specific power: 0.39 hp/in³ Compression ratio: 5.25:1 or 6.0:1 Fuel consumption: 6.5 to 6.75 gph at 2,100 rpm Oil consumption: 1.75 pints per hour. Power-to-weight ratio: 0.48 hp/lb de Havilland Aircraft Museum Frank HalfordRelated development de Havilland Gipsy Comparable engines Alfa Romeo 110 Argus As 8 Blackburn Cirrus Major Elizalde Tigre IV Hirth HM 504 Menasco PirateRelated lists List of aircraft engines Wesselink, Theo.
De Nederlandse vliegtuigen. Haarlem: Romem. ISBN 90 228 3792 0. Royal Air Force Museum - Gipsy Major