Big Thunder Mountain Railroad
Big Thunder Mountain Railroad is a mine train roller coaster located in Frontierland at several Disneyland-style Disney Parks worldwide. The ride exists at Disneyland Park and the Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World as Big Thunder Mountain Railroad, at Tokyo Disneyland and Disneyland Park as Big Thunder Mountain. Big Thunder Mountain Railroad is the name of the fictional rail line the roller coaster depicts. Although the details of the backstory vary from park to park, all follow the same general story arc; some time in the late 1800s, gold was discovered on Big Thunder Mountain in the American Southwest. Overnight, a small mining town became a thriving one. Mining was prosperous, an extensive line of mine trains was set up to transport the ore. Unknown to the settlers, the Mountain was cursed. Before long, the settlers' desecration of the mountain caused a great tragedy, depending on the park, is depicted to be an earthquake, a tsunami, a flash flood, which befell the mines and town, the town was abandoned.
Some time the locomotives were found to be racing around the mountain on their own, without engineers or a crew. The Big Thunder Mountain Railroad was founded in the old mining camp to allow wanderers to take rides on the possessed trains; the detailed backstory, while present in park literature and training materials, is not communicated to park guests directly. The station buildings on all four versions of the ride are themed to appearance of a mining company office from the mid to late 19th century. In the Disneyland, CA park, there is music and laughing in one of the saloons, a typewriter is heard from a newspaper office; the mountains themselves are themed to the red rock formations of the American Southwest. The rock work designs in the California version are based on the hoodoos of Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah. In the Florida and Paris versions of the ride, the rockwork designs are based on the rising buttes that are located in Arizona and Utah's Monument Valley. Special care was taken by the Imagineers to make it appear that the rocks were there and the track was built around the rocks, unlike a number of earlier mine rides, which were built the other way around.
There is a dinosaur skeleton that the train passes by, built into the side of the mountain. A cracked eggshell is nearby, there is a pleasant lake with water, shot up while the train passes on the warmer days. Sound effects of a typical locomotive operation are piped into the surrounding scenery to add realism to guests viewing the ride from observation platforms, including the steam whistle sounding though there is no whistle displayed on the locomotives. Big Thunder Mountain Railroad was designed by Imagineer Tony Baxter and ride design engineer Bill Watkins; the concept came from Baxter's work on fellow Imagineer Marc Davis's concept for the Western River Expedition, a western-themed pavilion at the Magic Kingdom, designed to look like an enormous plateau and contain many rides, including a runaway mine train roller coaster. However, because the pavilion as a whole was deemed too expensive in light of the construction and 1973 opening of Pirates of the Caribbean, Baxter proposed severing the mine train and building it as a separate attraction.
The Big Thunder Mountain Railroad project was put on hold again in 1974 as resources and personnel were being diverted to work on constructing Space Mountain in Tomorrowland, but this delay may have produced a smoother ride as the use of computers in attraction design was just beginning when the project was resumed. Big Thunder Mountain Railroad was one of the first Disney rides to utilize computer-aided design; the attraction first opened at Disneyland in 1979, the Magic Kingdom's larger version in Florida opened in 1980. Tokyo Disneyland's version opened in 1987 and Disneyland Paris opened with its version in 1992; the Paris version's layout and structure were based on the Florida version of the ride, but with several significant differences. The revised European ride takes the form of a large island in the center of the Rivers of the Far West, accessed from its riverside station by tunnels underneath the water; the attraction in Disneyland Paris is the only Big Thunder Mountain to have been an opening-day attraction at its park.
Hong Kong Disneyland does not have a Big Thunder Mountain Railroad attraction. However, Grizzly Gulch has a theme similar to Frontierland; the main attraction, Big Grizzly Mountain Runaway Mine Cars, carries a similar theme to Big Thunder Mountain Railroad. 1972-3: Big Thunder Mountain Railroad was conceived by Imagineer Tony Baxter for Walt Disney World, but it was put on hold due to the construction of Pirates of the Caribbean in Florida. 1974: The project is put on hold again due to the construction of Space Mountain. 1979: Construction begins on the ride at Disneyland. September 2, 1979: Big Thunder Mountain Railroad opens at Disneyland. November 15, 1980: Big Thunder Mountain Railroad opens at Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom. July 4, 1987: Big Thunder Mountain opens at Tokyo Disneyland. April 12, 1992: Big Thunder Mountain opens at Disneyland Paris along with the park. March 17, 2014: Big Thunder Mountain Railroad reopens at Disneyland following a 14-month refurbishment that included an entir
Pearl Zane Grey was an American author and dentist best known for his popular adventure novels and stories associated with the Western genre in literature and the arts. Riders of the Purple Sage was his best-selling book. In addition to the commercial success of his printed works, his books have had second lives and continuing influence when adapted as films and television productions, his novels and short stories have been adapted into 112 films, two television episodes, a television series, Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theater. Pearl Zane Grey was born January 1872, in Zanesville, Ohio, his birth name may have originated from newspaper descriptions of Queen Victoria's mourning clothes as "pearl grey." He was the fourth of five children born to Alice "Allie" Josephine Zane, whose English Quaker immigrant ancestor Robert Zane came to the North American colonies in 1673, her husband, Lewis M. Gray, a dentist, his family changed the spelling of its last name to "Grey" after his birth. Grey dropped Pearl and used Zane as his first name.
He grew up in Zanesville, a city founded by his maternal great-grandfather Ebenezer Zane, an American Revolutionary War patriot, from an early age, he was intrigued by history. Grey developed interests in fishing and writing, all of which contributed to his writing success, his first three novels recounted the heroism of ancestors who fought in the American Revolutionary War. As a child, Grey engaged in violent brawls, despite his father's punishing him with severe beatings. Though irascible and antisocial like his father, Grey was supported by a loving mother and found a father substitute. Muddy Miser was an old man who approved of Grey's love of fishing and writing, who talked about the advantages of an unconventional life. Despite warnings by Grey's father to steer clear of Miser, the boy spent much time during five formative years in the company of the old man. Grey was an avid reader of adventure stories such as Robinson Crusoe and the Leatherstocking Tales, as well as dime novels featuring Buffalo Bill and "Deadwood Dick."
He was enthralled by and crudely copied the great illustrators Frederic Remington. He was impressed with Our Western Border, a history of the Ohio frontier that inspired his earliest novels. Zane wrote Jim of the Cave, when he was fifteen, his father tore it to beat him. Both Zane and his brother Romer were active, athletic boys who were enthusiastic baseball players and fishermen. Due to shame from a severe financial setback in 1889 caused by a poor investment, Lewis Grey moved his family from Zanesville and started again in Columbus, Ohio. While his father struggled to re-establish his dental practice, Zane Grey made rural house calls and performed basic extractions, which his father had taught him; the younger Grey practiced. His brother Romer earned money by driving a delivery wagon. Grey worked as a part-time usher in a theater and played summer baseball for the Columbus Capitols, with aspirations of becoming a major leaguer. Grey was spotted by a baseball scout and received offers from many colleges.
Romer attracted scouts' attention and went on to have a professional baseball career. Grey chose the University of Pennsylvania on a baseball scholarship, where he studied dentistry and joined Sigma Nu fraternity; when he arrived at Penn, he had to prove himself worthy of a scholarship before receiving it. He rose to the occasion by coming in to pitch against the Riverton club, pitching five scoreless innings and producing a double in the tenth which contributed to the win; the Ivy League was competitive and an excellent training ground for future pro baseball players. Grey was a solid hitter and an excellent pitcher who relied on a dropping curve ball; when the distance from the pitcher's mound to the plate was lengthened by ten feet in 1894, the effectiveness of Grey's pitching suffered. He was re-positioned to the outfield; the short, wiry baseball player remained a campus hero on the strength of his timely hitting. He was an indifferent scholar achieving a minimum average. Outside class he spent his time on baseball and creative writing poetry.
His shy nature and his teetotaling set him apart from other students, he socialized little. Grey struggled with the idea of becoming a writer or baseball player for his career, but unhappily concluded that dentistry was the practical choice. During a summer break, while playing "summer nines" in Delphos, Grey was charged with, settled, a paternity suit, his father paid the $133.40 cost and Grey resumed playing summer baseball. He concealed the episode. Grey went on to play minor league baseball with several teams, including the Newark, New Jersey Colts in 1898 and with the Orange Athletic Club for several years, his brother Romer Carl "Reddy" Grey played professionally in the minor leagues. Romer played a single major league game in 1903 for the Pittsburgh Pirates. After graduating, Grey established his practice in New York City under the name of Dr. Zane Grey in 1896, it was a competitive area but he wanted to be close to publishers. He began to write in the evening to offset the tedium of his dental practice.
He struggled emotionally. Grey was a natural writer but his early efforts were stiff and grammatically weak. Whenever possible, he played baseball with the Orange Athletic Club in New Jersey, a team of former collegiate players, one of the best amateur teams in the country. Gr
Thunder Mountain Monument
The Thunder Mountain Monument is a series of outsider art sculptures and architectural forms that were assembled by Frank Van Zant starting in 1969 upon his arrival in Imlay, Nevada. A World War II veteran from Oklahoma, Frank Van Zant had served with the 7th Armoured Division, fought in several campaigns in Europe, been badly burned in a tank battle outside Leipzig. A self-identified Creek Indian, he took the Native American name Rolling Mountain Thunder after experiencing an epiphany, took on the twin but related tasks of both building shelters from the presumed coming apocalypse, making a de facto spiritual haven for spiritual seekers of the hippie era; the site covers five acres on the south side of a 1,000-foot stretch of Interstate 80. There were seven buildings, including a three-story hostel where many hippies stayed in the 1970s. Three stone and concrete buildings remain, more than 200 concrete sculptures depicting Native Americans and their protective spirits and injustices against them.
Thunder Mountain Monument is replete with found objects, such as car hoods, dolls' heads and gas pumps, many of which are incorporated into the buildings themselves. The site was destroyed by arson in 1983, the same year Van Zant was named Nevada's Artist of the Year; the monument was neglected and subject to vandalism until it was declared a Nevada State Historic Site in 1992. Van Zant has been the subject of two short documentaries. Thunder Mountain Monument Thunder Mountain, Travel Nevada.com The Monument of Chief Rolling Mountain Thunder, documentary film
Dall Island is an island in the Alexander Archipelago off the southeast coast of Alaska, just west of Prince of Wales Island and north of Canadian waters. Its peak elevation is 2,443 feet above sea level, its land area is 254.0 square miles. Dall is used economically for limestone quarrying; the 2000 census recorded 20 persons living on the island. Alaska Natives are known to have inhabited coastal caves on the island two to three thousand years ago. Dall Island was first called Quadra, after Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, until 1879, when it was renamed in honor of naturalist William H. Dall. Dall Island had been thought to be part of Prince of Wales Island as as 1903. Cape Muzon, the southernmost point of the island, is the western terminus, known as Point A, of the A–B Line, which marks the marine boundary between the state of Alaska and the Canadian province of British Columbia, per the position of the Canadian government on the decision of the arbitration tribunal under the Alaska Boundary Treaty of 1903.
This line is the northern boundary of the waters known as the Dixon Entrance. Cape Muzon was established as the "point of commencement" of the international boundary between Russia and British North America in the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1825; the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey charts produced in 1884 and 1894–95 laid down the boundary line with Canada from Cape Muzon through Dixon Entrance and Portland Canal. In its decision on the delimitation of the disputed Alaska Panhandle boundary, the six-judge 1903 Court of Arbitration unanimously agreed that Cape Muzon was the initial point of the boundary and designated Point A as one endpoint of the A–B Line. Canada considers Point A as part of the delimited international boundary, just like the other defined turning points set forth in 1903 for the resolved boundary. Further, Canada regards the A–B line as defining Canada's internal waters within the Dixon Entrance. On the other hand, the U. S. regards the A–B line as having been defined to allocate sovereignty over the land masses within the Dixon Entrance, with Canada's land to the south of the line, while it considers the waters to be subject to international marine law.
Dall Island is an island used for its timber resource. The island houses many logging camps. Columbia Helicopters of Oregon is one of the main companies using the island for its timber. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Dall Island
Thunder Mountain (Amador County, California)
Thunder Mountain in the Sierra Nevada of California is located east of Silver Lake and west of Kirkwood Mountain Resort in the Eldorado National Forest. The mountain has two peaks, the 9,414-foot main peak and a 9,412-foot sub-peak west of the main peak; the main summit is the highest point in Amador County. Due to the high elevation, most precipitation that falls on Thunder Mountain consists of snow; the peak was named by United States Forest Service personnel because "thunderstorms appear to build up in that area." "Thunder Mountain". SummitPost.org
Berkshire East Ski Resort
Berkshire East Ski Resort is a medium-sized alpine ski area located on Mount Institute in Charlemont and Hawley, Massachusetts. Organized skiing started on Mt. Institute in the mid-1950s when Arthur Parker opened a small rope tow operation. Due to weather and other difficulties, it closed after one short season. Parker spent the balance of the decade gathering investors for a much larger operation on the same mountain; the first double chairlift, a Mueller, was installed for the grand re-opening 1961-62 season. A second double chairlift, another Mueller, was installed in 1962. Notable skiers during this time included former Massachusetts Governor Endicott Peabody and Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy. New ownership took over in late 1965; the ownership group struggled. By 1975, Berkshire East was bankrupt and outdated with two installed chairlifts and two antiquated Mueller chairlifts. Current management soon began a steady series of investments. A Hall double chairlift was installed in 1978. A fourth chairlift, an SLI, was installed in the late 1970s.
In 1995, the first Mueller double chairlift was replaced with a Poma triple chairlift. A Hall double chairlift was added in 2001. In 2003, the second Mueller double chairlift was replaced with a Borvig-Leitner quad chairlift. In 2008, Berkshire East replaced; as of 2008, the ski area has five lifts, in addition to the tubing slope and lift. Berkshire East is the only alpine ski area in Franklin County open to the public. In 2010, the Diamond Express Hall double chairlift was replaced with a Poma triple chairlift. In 2011, the ski area added a PowerWind 56 900 kWh wind turbine; this addition, makes Berkshire East the first ski area in the world to be 100% powered by onsite renewable energy. In 2014, the Summit Triple lift was replaced by a brand new SkyTrac quad chairlift with a moving carpet loading area; the new lift will run at a faster speed than typical fixed grip lifts with a moving carpet that moves skiers into the loading area and assists with loading onto the faster moving chairs. The old Poma Summit Triple lift is being saved for a future install elsewhere on the mountain.
Berkshire East offers mixed terrain from beginner to expert level ability: 30% Beginner Runs, 35% Intermediate Runs, 30% Advanced Runs, 5% Expert Runs. Summit Quad Chairlift - serves all abilities, including an array of expert trails, the intermediate Mohawk, the beginner Outback complex; the quad chair opened the 2014/2015 ski season. Mountain Top Triple Chairlift - serves all abilities as well reaching to the top of the mountain beyond the Summit Triple lift; the same trails serviced by the Summit Triple Chairlift can be accessed via this lift. This lift doesn't operate during night skiing hours; this chair was the Diamond Express Double Chairlift, upgraded in the 2009-2010 season. Wilderness Peak Quad Chairlift - services beginner and intermediate terrain on the west side of the mountain, including the intermediate Wilderness Peak complex and the beginner Exhibition and Roundabout trails. Top Notch Double Chairlift - services the novice Top Notch slope. Bobcat Magic Carpet - services the Bobcat novice slope.
Berkshire East can make snow on all of its trails. The snowmaking system is composed exclusively of fan guns; the snowmaking fleet is dominated by SMI Wizzards, as well as Areco fan guns. Berkshire East and Thunder Mountain have both been known for strong racing programs. Numerous successful racers, ranging from Massachusetts high school state champions to United States Ski Team members have trained and raced at Berkshire East. Berkshire East hosts USSA and MIAA slalom and giant slalom championship races. In 2007, Berkshire East expanded operations beyond skiing and snowboarding by opening a snow tubing slope, serviced by a magic carpet surface lift. In 2009, Berkshire East announced the construction of multiple zip lines, creating a canopy tour business called Berkshire East Canopy Tours. Berkshire East Canopy Tours is one of the largest zip lines companies in North America, it boasts nearly 4.5 miles of zip lines, features two of the longest zip lines in the United States with X1, X2. These zips are nearly 200' above the ground.
In 2013, Berkshire East was given approval to build the longest Alpine Coaster in North America, which would feature a mile of steel track. In the summer of 2014, the new mountain coaster was constructed and in the fall construction began on a new downhill mountain bike park. Berkshire East Ski Area - Official site Berkshire East Canopy Tours - Official site SkiBerkshireEast.com - History and photos
Thunder Mountain (1935 film)
Thunder Mountain is a 1935 American Western film directed by David Howard, written by Daniel Jarrett and Don Swift, starring George O'Brien, Barbara Fritchie, Frances Grant, Morgan Wallace, George "Gabby" Hayes and Edward LeSaint. It is based on the novel Thunder Mountain by Zane Grey; the film was released on September 1935, by 20th Century Fox. George O'Brien as Kal Emerson Barbara Fritchie as Sydney Blair Frances Grant as Nugget Morgan Wallace as Rand Leavitt George "Gabby" Hayes as Foley Edward LeSaint as Samuel Blair Dean Benton as Steve Sloan William Bailey as Cliff Borden Sid Jordan as Warns Leavitt Thunder Mountain on IMDb