The Puerco River or Rio Puerco is a tributary of the Little Colorado River in northwestern New Mexico and northeastern Arizona. It flows through arid terrain, including the Painted Desert; the Puerco River is sometimes called Rio Puerco of the West, to distinguish it from the Rio Puerco of the East that rises in the same vicinity but flows east to the Rio Grande. Although the word Puerco means pig, it used to mean dirty or filthy in Spanish, this usage in the southwest United States is better translated as Dirty River or Muddy River due its high content of silt and mud; the intermittent river is the main tributary of the Little Colorado River, a tributary of the Colorado River. It is 167 miles long; the river's average discharge is low, less than 70 cubic feet per second in normal years, because its drainage basin is dry. For most of the year, the Puerco River is a braided wash containing little or no water, although large flash floods can occur in downpours; the Puerco River headwaters are on the western slopes of the Continental Divide of the Americas, 0.5 miles east of Hosta Butte, in McKinley County, New Mexico.
It flows first north, west, through a wide and barren desert valley bordered by high rocky buttes and cliffs. It passes under Interstate 40, receives the South Fork Puerco River from the right-south near Gallup. For most of its remaining course, I-40 and the former Atchison and Santa Fe Railway tracks follow the river's valley; the Puerco River crosses into Arizona. It flows by Houck and Chambers, flows through the middle of Petrified Forest National Park, where Lithodendron Wash enters from the left-north; the river flows southwest to its confluence with the Little Colorado River, near the eastern side of Holbrook. The United States Geological Survey operates a Puerco River stream gauge 1 mile southwest of Chambers in Arizona; the maximum discharge recorded by this gauge between 1971 and 2009 was 17,800 cubic feet per second on Sept. 30, 1971, the minimum discharge was zero, from a drainage basin of 2,156 square miles. Navajos in the Puerco River Valley have used surface waters in the Puerco River for livestock watering for decades.
From the 1950s through the early 1980s, the Puerco River ran continuously from being fed by mining wastewater, some untreated, from uranium mines upstream. The Church Rock uranium mill spill is one of the worst radioactive spills in U. S. history. On July 16, 1979, a tailings pond at the Church Rock uranium mill, owned by United Nuclear Corporation, breached its dam and 93 million gallons of radioactive, acidic uranium tailings solution flowed into the North Fork of the Puerco River. 1,100 short tons of uranium mine waste contaminated 250 acres of land and up to 50 miles of the Puerco River. List of tributaries of the Colorado River Petrified Forest National Park List of rivers of Arizona List of rivers of New Mexico
The caddisflies, or order Trichoptera, are a group of insects with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. There are 14,500 described species, most of which can be divided into the suborders Integripalpia and Annulipalpia on the basis of the adult mouthparts. Integripalpian larvae construct a portable casing to protect themselves as they move around looking for food, while Annulipalpian larvae make themselves a fixed retreat in which they remain, waiting for food to come to them; the affinities of the small third suborder Spicipalpia are unclear, molecular analysis suggests it may not be monophyletic. Called sedge-flies or rail-flies, the adults are small moth-like insects with two pairs of hairy membranous wings, they are related to the Lepidoptera which have scales on their wings. The aquatic larvae are found in a wide variety of habitats such as streams, lakes, spring seeps and temporary waters; the larvae of many species use silk to make protective cases, which are strengthened with gravel, twigs, bitten-off pieces of plants, or other debris.
The larvae exhibit various feeding strategies, with different species being predators, leaf shredders, algal grazers, or collectors of particles from the water column and benthos. Most adults have short lives. In fly fishing, artificial flies are tied to imitate adults, while larvae and pupae are used as bait. Common and widespread genera such as Helicopsyche and Hydropsyche are important in the sport, where caddisflies are known as "sedges". Caddisflies are useful as bioindicators, as they are sensitive to water pollution and are large enough to be assessed in the field. In art, the French artist Hubert Duprat has created works by providing caddis larvae with small grains of gold and precious stones for them to build into decorative cases; the name of the order "Trichoptera" derives from the Greek: θρίξ, genitive trichos + πτερόν, refers to the fact that the wings of these insects are bristly. The origin of the word "caddis" is unclear, but it dates back to at least as far as Izaak Walton's 1653 book The Compleat Angler, where "cod-worms or caddis" were mentioned as being used as bait.
The term cadyss was being used in the fifteenth century for silk or cotton cloth, "cadice-men" were itinerant vendors of such materials, but a connection between these words and the insects has not been established. Fossil caddisflies have been found in rocks dating back to the Triassic; the largest numbers of fossilised remains are those of larval cases, which are made of durable materials that preserve well. Body fossils of caddisflies are rare, the oldest being from the Early and Middle Triassic, some 230 million years ago, wings are another source of fossils; the evolution of the group to one with aquatic larvae seems to have taken place some time during the Triassic. The finding of fossils resembling caddisfly larval cases in marine deposits in Brazil may push back the origins of the order to the early Permian period. Nearly all adult caddisflies are terrestrial, they share this characteristic with several distantly-related groups, namely the dragonflies, stoneflies and lacewings. The ancestors of all these groups were terrestrial, with open tracheal systems, convergently evolving different types of gills for their aquatic larvae as they took to the water to avoid predation.
About 14,500 species of caddisfly in 45 families have been recognised worldwide, but many more species remain to be described. Most can be divided into the suborders Integripalpia and Annulipalpia on the basis of the adult mouthparts; the characteristics of adults depend on the palps, wing genitalia of both sexes. The latter two characters have undergone such extensive differentiation among the different superfamilies that the differences between the suborders is not clear-cut; the larvae of Annulipalpians are campodeiform. The larvae of Integripalpians are polypod; the affinities of the third suborder, are unclear. The cladogram of external relationships, based on a 2008 DNA and protein analysis, shows the order as a clade, sister to the Lepidoptera, more distantly related to the Diptera and Mecoptera; the cladogram of relationships within the order is based on a 2002 molecular phylogeny using ribosomal RNA, a nuclear elongation factor gene, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The Annulipalpia and Integripalpia are clades, but the relationships within the Spicipalpia are unclear.
Caddisflies are found worldwide, with the greater diversity being in warmer regions. They are associated with bodies of freshwater, the larvae being found in lakes, river and other water bodies; the land caddis, Enoicyla pusilla, lives in the damp litter of the woodland floor. In the United Kingdom it is found around the county of Worcestershire in oakwoods. Caddisfly larvae can be found in all feeding guilds in freshwater habitats. Most early stage larvae and some late stage ones are collector-gatherers, picking up fragments of organic matter from the benthos. Other species are collector-filterers, sieving organic particles from the water using silken nets, or hairs on their legs; some species are scrapers, feeding on the film of algae and other periphyton that grows on underwater objects in s
Coconino County, Arizona
Coconino County is a county located in the north central part of the U. S. state of Arizona. The population was 134,421 at the 2010 census; the county seat is Flagstaff. The county takes its name from Cohonino, a name applied to the Havasupai, it is the second-largest county by area in the contiguous United States, behind San Bernardino County, with its 18,661 square miles, or 16.4% of Arizona's total area, making it larger than each of the nine smallest states. Coconino County comprises Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area. Coconino County contains Grand Canyon National Park, the Havasupai Nation, parts of the Navajo Nation, Hualapai Nation, Hopi Nation, it has a large Native American population at nearly 30% of the county's total population, being Navajo with smaller numbers of Havasupai and others. The county was the setting for George Herriman's early-20th-century Krazy Kat comic strip. After the building of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad in 1883 the region of northern Yavapai County began experiencing rapid growth.
The people of the northern reaches had tired of the rigors of travelling all the way to Prescott for county business. They believed that they were a significant enough entity that they should have their own county jurisdiction. Therefore, they decided in 1887 to petition for secession from Yavapai and the creation of a new Frisco County, they remained part of Yavapai, until 1891 when Coconino County was formed and its seat declared to be Flagstaff. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 18,661 square miles, of which 18,619 square miles is land and 43 square miles is water, it is the largest county by area in Arizona and the second-largest county in the United States after San Bernardino County in California. It has more land area than each of the following U. S. states: Connecticut, Hawaii, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Vermont. The highest natural point in the county, as well as the entire state, is Humphreys Peak at 12,637 feet or 3,852 metres.
The Barringer Meteor Crater is located in Coconino County. Mohave County – west Yavapai County – south Gila County – south Navajo County – east San Juan County, Utah – northeast Kane County, Utah – north Coconino County has 7,142.42 square miles of federally designated Indian reservation, second only to Apache County. In descending order of area within the county, the reservations are the Navajo Nation, Hualapai Indian Reservation, Hopi Indian Reservation, Havasupai Indian Reservation, the Kaibab Indian Reservation; the Havasupai Reservation is the only one that lies within the county's borders. As of the 2000 census, there were 116,320 people, 40,448 households, 26,938 families residing in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 53,443 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.09% White, 28.51% Native American, 1.04% Black or African American, 0.78% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 4.13% from other races, 2.36% from two or more races.
10.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.59 % reported speaking Navajo at home. There were 40,448 households out of which 34.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.70% were married couples living together, 12.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.36. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.70% under the age of 18, 14.40% from 18 to 24, 29.20% from 25 to 44, 20.70% from 45 to 64, 7.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,256, the median income for a family was $45,873. Males had a median income of $32,226 versus $25,055 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $17,139. About 13.10% of families and 18.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.30% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 134,421 people, 46,711 households, 29,656 families residing in the county; the population density was 7.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 63,321 housing units at an average density of 3.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 61.7% white, 27.3% American Indian, 1.4% Asian, 1.2% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 5.2% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 13.5% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were: Of the 46,711 households, 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.0% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families, 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.26. The median age was 31.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $49,510 and the median income for a family was $58,841. Males had a median income of $42,331 versus $31,869 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,632. About 11.6% of families and 18.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over. Flagstaff Page Sedona Williams Fredonia Tu
The Cambrian Muav Limestone is the upper geologic unit of the 3-member Tonto Group. It is about 650 feet thick at its maximum, it is a resistant cliff-forming unit. The Muav consists of dark to light-gray and orange red limestone with dolomite and calcareous mudstone; the Muav is overlain in some areas by the Devonian Temple Butte Limestone, but the major unit above are the vertical cliffs of Mississippian Redwall Limestone. The Muav is located in the lower elevations of the Grand Arizona; the Muav is in-part younger than, in-part grades into, the Bright Angel Shale, less erosion resistant and is categorized as a slope-forming unit. The Muav is about 350 feet thick in the east and reaches about 600 feet thick in the western part of its exposure area in the Grand Canyon; the two units lie above the erosion-resistant cliff-forming Tapeats Sandstone. In the eastern canyon, the Tapeats creates the horizontal Tonto Platform. In west Grand Canyon, the north-south Toroweap Fault is the west perimeter of the Tonto Platform, west Grand Canyon is dominated by the erosion resistant unit of the Esplanade Sandstone.
The Tonto Trail is a horizontal trail on the south side of Granite Gorge, on the platform. The Tonto Group units were deposited on an ancient erosion surface on the Vishnu Basement Rocks; the Vishnu sequence has a dip of about 45 degrees. As this unconformity represents about 1,000 million years of non–deposition, tectonic activity and erosion on the Vishnu Basement Rocks is called the Great Unconformity. Beyond the Grand Canyon area the Muav occurs in southern Utah, southern Nevada and southern California. In the California occurrence it is known as the Muav Marble; the units of the Tonto Group: -Temple Butte Limestone, Devonian-, channel deposits upon Muav Limestone Tonto Group 3-Muav Limestone 2-Bright Angel Shale 1-Tapeats Sandstone Geology of the Grand Canyon area Blakey, Ranney, 2008. Ancient Landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, Ron Blakey, Wayne Ranney, c 2008, Grand Canyon Association, 176 pages, with Appendix, Index. Contains 75 shaded topographic maps, for geology, etc. with 54 for Colorado Plateau specifically.
Chronic, Halka. Roadside Geology of Arizona, c. 1983, 23rd printing, Mountain Press Publishing Co. 322 pages. Pp. 229–232. Arizona Geological Society, Arizona Geological Survey, c. 1998 Geologic Highway Map of Arizona. Contains geologic map, Arizona Shaded Relief Map, Geologic Cross Sections, Shaded Relief Map of Arizona, Geologic Map of the Grand Canyon in the Vicinity of the South Rim Visitor Center, etc. Abbot, W, Revisiting the Grand Canyon – Through the Eyes of Seismic Sequence Stratigraphy. Search and Discovery Article # 40018, America Association of Petroleum Geologists, Oklahoma. Anonymous Tonto Group, Stratigraphy of the Parks of the Colorado Plateau. U. S. Geological Survey, Virginia. Anonymous Tapeats Sandstone, Stratigraphy of the Parks of the Colorado Plateau. U. S. Geological Survey, Virginia. Anonymous Bright Angel Shale, Stratigraphy of the Parks of the Colorado Plateau. U. S. Geological Survey, Virginia. Anonymous Muav Limestone, Stratigraphy of the Parks of the Colorado Plateau. U. S. Geological Survey, Virginia.
Hartman, J. H. Muav Limestone, Grand Canyon National Park, Coconino County, Arizona. GeoDIL, A Geoscience Digital Image Library, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Mathis, A. and C. Bowman The Grand Age of Rocks: The Numeric Ages for Rocks Exposed within Grand Canyon, Grand Canyon National Park, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. Noble, L. F. Unconformity between Temple Butte limestone and Muav limestone, Coconino County, Plate 22-A. U. S. Geological Survey Photographic Library, Virginia. Noble, L. F. Unconformity between Temple Butte limestone and Muav limestone, Coconino County, Plate 22-B. U. S. Geological Survey Photographic Library, Virginia. Noble, L. F. Unconformity between Temple Butte limestone and Muav limestone, Coconino County, Plate 23-A. U. S. Geological Survey Photographic Library, Virginia. Rowland, S. Frenchman Mountain and the Great Unconformity. Department of Geoscience, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada. Rowland, S. Geologic Map of Frenchman Mountain.
Department of Geoscience, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada. Stamm, N. Geologic Unit Muav, National Geologic Database. U. S. Geological Survey, Virginia. Timmons, S. S. Learning to Read the Pages of a Book, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona
Black Creek (Arizona)
Black Creek of Arizona is a 55-mi long north tributary of the Puerco River, in northeast Arizona and northwest New Mexico. The Black Creek flows south along an southeast perimeter section of the Defiance Plateau. Red Lake is located at the north of the river valley, Black Creek Valley, which extends south to Window Rock, Arizona. Fort Defiance, Arizona, is at a northwest section of Black Creek. Other sources of the creek are from the east in New Mexico; the Chuska Mountains, of Arizona and New Mexico, trend southeasterly, form the east border of Black Creek Valley. Black Creek continues south, south of Window Rock the Black Creek Valley ends south of St. Michaels, Arizona. 6-mi south of St. Michaels, the smaller Oak Springs Valley begins. Bear Creek exits the valley southwest, through a 4-mi long canyon to enter a due-south flowing stretch to Houck and its confluence with the Puerco River. Black Creek and Black Creek Valley are due-north, south trending, paralleling the New Mexico border; the origin of the Puerco River, on the other hand, is east of Gallup, New Mexico, at the Continental Divide south of Crownpoint, New Mexico.
Mouth Confluence with the Puerco River, Apache County, Arizona: 35°16′00″N 109°14′02″W Source McKinley County, New Mexico: 35°54′55″N 109°01′50″W List of townsites/roadways/etc. The townsites north of Window Rock are Fort Navajo. Sawmill, Arizona, on Indian Route 7 from Fort Defiance, lies northwest on the Defiance Plateau, which had an operational sawmill industry; the Black Creek and rivercourse Black Creek Valley is traversed by the north–south IR-12. South of Oak Springs, Arizona, IR-12 traverses south-southeasterly out of Oak Springs Valley to Interstate 40, about 8-mi distant. At Window Rock, IR-12 traverses due-north at the east bank of Black Creek. At Fort Defiance, IR-12 enters New Mexico to reach Navajo, New Mexico, at the southeast corner of Red Lake. IR-12 becomes New Mexico State Road 134 and turns northeast to meet a north-traversing stretch of U. S. Route 491 in New Mexico. Arizona Road & Recreation Atlas, Benchmark Maps, 2nd Edition, c. 1998, 112 pages. Arizona DeLorme Atlas & Gazetteer, 5th Edition, c.
2002, 76 pages. New Mexico DeLorme Atlas & Gazetteer, 5th Edition, c. 2009, 72 pages. List of rivers of Arizona List of rivers of New Mexico List of tributaries of the Colorado River
Rhus glabra, the smooth sumac, is a species of sumac in the family Anacardiaceae, native to North America, from southern Quebec west to southern British Columbia in Canada, south to northern Florida and Arizona in the United States and Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico. One of the easiest shrubs to identify throughout the year, smooth sumac has a spreading, open-growing shrub growing up to 3 m tall to 5 m; the leaves are alternate, 30–50 cm long, compound with 11–31 oppositely paired leaflets, each leaflet 5–11 cm long, with a serrated margin. The leaves turn scarlet in the fall; the flowers are tiny, produced in dense erect panicles 10–25 cm tall, in the spring followed by large panicles of edible crimson berries that remain throughout the winter. The buds are small, borne on fat, hairless twigs; the bark on older wood is grey to brown. In late summer it sometimes forms galls on the underside of leaves, caused by the parasitic sumac leaf gall aphid, Melaphis rhois; the galls are not harmful to the tree.
Bioimages: Rhus glabra Smooth Sumac on eNature Smooth Sumac of Kansas Identifying Invasive Plants Detailed photos to distinguish Smooth Sumac from similar plants Vegetation Management Guideline Control Recommendations
The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide and attains a depth of over a mile; the canyon and adjacent rim are contained within Grand Canyon National Park, the Kaibab National Forest, Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, the Hualapai Indian Reservation, the Havasupai Indian Reservation and the Navajo Nation. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of preservation of the Grand Canyon area, visited it on numerous occasions to hunt and enjoy the scenery. Nearly two billion years of Earth's geological history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted. While some aspects about the history of incision of the canyon are debated by geologists, several recent studies support the hypothesis that the Colorado River established its course through the area about 5 to 6 million years ago.
Since that time, the Colorado River has driven the down-cutting of the tributaries and retreat of the cliffs deepening and widening the canyon. For thousands of years, the area has been continuously inhabited by Native Americans, who built settlements within the canyon and its many caves; the Pueblo people considered the Grand Canyon a holy site, made pilgrimages to it. The first European known to have viewed the Grand Canyon was García López de Cárdenas from Spain, who arrived in 1540; the Grand Canyon is a river valley in the Colorado Plateau that exposes uplifted Proterozoic and Paleozoic strata, is one of the six distinct physiographic sections of the Colorado Plateau province. It is not the deepest canyon in the world. However, the Grand Canyon is known for its visually overwhelming size and its intricate and colorful landscape. Geologically, it is significant because of the thick sequence of ancient rocks that are well preserved and exposed in the walls of the canyon; these rock layers record much of the early geologic history of the North American continent.
Uplift associated with mountain formation moved these sediments thousands of feet upward and created the Colorado Plateau. The higher elevation has resulted in greater precipitation in the Colorado River drainage area, but not enough to change the Grand Canyon area from being semi-arid; the uplift of the Colorado Plateau is uneven, the Kaibab Plateau that Grand Canyon bisects is over one thousand feet higher at the North Rim than at the South Rim. All runoff from the North Rim flows toward the Grand Canyon, while much of the runoff on the plateau behind the South Rim flows away from the canyon; the result is deeper and longer tributary washes and canyons on the north side and shorter and steeper side canyons on the south side. Temperatures on the North Rim are lower than those on the South Rim because of the greater elevation. Heavy rains are common on both rims during the summer months. Access to the North Rim via the primary route leading to the canyon is limited during the winter season due to road closures.
The Grand Canyon is part of the Colorado River basin which has developed over the past 70 million years, in part based on apatite /He thermochronometry showing that Grand Canyon reached a depth near to the modern depth by 20 Ma. A recent study examining caves near Grand Canyon places their origins beginning about 17 million years ago. Previous estimates had placed the age of the canyon at 5–6 million years; the study, published in the journal Science in 2008, used uranium-lead dating to analyze calcite deposits found on the walls of nine caves throughout the canyon. There is a substantial amount of controversy because this research suggests such a substantial departure from prior supported scientific consensus. In December 2012, a study published in the journal Science claimed new tests had suggested the Grand Canyon could be as old as 70 million years. However, this study has been criticized by those who support the "young canyon" age of around six million years as " attempt to push the interpretation of their new data to their limits without consideration of the whole range of other geologic data sets."The canyon is the result of erosion which exposes one of the most complete geologic columns on the planet.
The major geologic exposures in the Grand Canyon range in age from the 2-billion-year-old Vishnu Schist at the bottom of the Inner Gorge to the 230-million-year-old Kaibab Limestone on the Rim. There is a gap of about a billion years between the 500-million-year-old stratum and the level below it, which dates to about 1.5 billion years ago. This large unconformity indicates a long period. Many of the formations were deposited in warm shallow seas, near-shore environments, swamps as the seashore advanced and retreated over the edge of a proto-North America. Major exceptions include the Permian Coconino Sandstone, which contains abundant geological evidence of aeolian sand dune deposition. Several parts of the Supai Group were deposited in non–marine environments; the great depth of the Grand Canyon and the height of its strata can be attributed to 5–10 thousand feet of uplift of the Colorado Plateau, starting about 65 million years ago. This uplift has steepened the stream gradient of the Colorado River