Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology
The Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology is a museum affiliated with Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1866, the Peabody Museum is one of the oldest and largest museums focusing on anthropological material, with particular focus on the ethnography and archaeology of the Americas; the museum is caretaker to over 1.2 million objects, some 900 linear feet of documents, 2,000 maps and site plans, 500,000 photographs. The museum is located at Divinity Avenue on the Harvard University campus; the museum is one of the four Harvard Museums of Culture open to the public. The museum was established as a gift from George Peabody, a native of South Danvers, a wealthy American financier and philanthropist on October 8, 1866. Peabody committed $150,000 to be used, according to the terms of the trust, to establish the position of Peabody Professor-Curator, to purchase artifacts, to construct a building to house its collections. Peabody directed his trustees to organize the construction of "a suitable fireproof museum building, upon land to be given for that purpose, free of cost or rental, by the President and Fellows of Harvard College."
The museum opened its first exhibition consisting of a small number of prehistoric artifacts from the Merrimack Valley in Harvard University's Boylston Hall in 1867. In 1877, the long-awaited museum building was ready for occupancy; the building that houses the Peabody was expanded in 1888 and again in 1913. Peabody Museum is steward to archaeological, ethnographic and archival collections from many countries and covering millions of years of human cultural and biological history, with particular focus on the cultures of North and South America and the Pacific Islands, as well as collections from Africa and Asia. North America; the Peabody’s archaeological and ethnographic holdings from North America form more than a quarter of its collections, with artifacts from many parts of the continent and spanning 10,000 years, including from the earliest excavations in the Northeast and Mimbres collections from the Southwest, the Grace Nicholson Collection of California baskets, the Lewis and Clark Collection.
Central America. The museum’s Central American collection focuses on archaeological materials from eastern Honduras, lower Central America, the Caribbean islands and Central Mexico; the museum hosts a large collection of Mayan material culture from Copán, Labna, Piedras Negras, Uaxactun, stone sculptures from Copán, fine artifacts from the Sacred Cenote of Chichén Itza, 600 plaster casts of monuments at important Central American sites. South America; some of the Peabody’s earliest accessions, collected by Louis Agassiz and his son Alexander Emanuel Agassiz, form the main part of the Peabody's South American ethnographic collections. These include the collection of nineteenth- and twentieth-century featherwork headdresses and ornaments from the Amazon Basin, Andean textiles and the William Farabee collection of Bolivian and Peruvian ceremonial and domestic objects. Important archaeological collections include Chimú, Moche pottery. Asia; the museum’s Asian holdings include one of the earliest collections of objects made and used by the Ainu people, Japan’s indigenous people.
Archaeological materials dominate the Asia collections with an extensive collection of excavated artifacts from Tepe Yahya and Tarsus. Africa; the museum’s holdings include over 20,000 items in four significant collections. The three principal collections, gathered from Liberia, southern Cameroon and Uganda during the first half of the twentieth century, include a diverse range of objects used in daily or ritual life; the fourth collection contains more than 200 musical instruments including hand pianos. Archaeological collections are represented by George Andrew Reisner's excavations in Egypt and Nubia. Oceania. Collected by eighteenth-century Boston merchants and researchers during their Pacific voyages the 23,000 items of this collection include Easter Island tapa figures and carved wooden statues. Europe. In addition to Paleolithic collections from France from the site of Abri Pataud where Cro-Magnon man once lived, there are materials from Neolithic through Iron Age Europe, with the notable collection of the Duchess Marie Antoinette of Mecklenburg materials, excavated at Hallstatt Archaeological Site in Vače, surveyed by her mother Princess Marie of Windisch-Graetz.
The collection includes a portion of the French archaeologist and political activist Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet’s collections from Central Europe, a Venus figurine from the Grimaldi Man caves in Italy, Neolithic stone tools from northwestern Europe. Paintings and Drawing Collections. Numbering nearly 200 paintings and 950 works on paper, the collection of artwork is a complementary addition to the object collections. About half, representing the David I. Bushnell, Jr. Collection of American Art, contains works by Alexander de Batz, George Catlin, Charles Bird King, George Gibbs, Edward Kern, John Webber, over 130 oils and drawings by Seth Eastman, the pictorial historian of native North Americans. There are painted portraits of Native Americans by Elbridge Ayer Burbank
Cultural depictions of ravens
Many references to ravens exist in world lore and literature. Most depictions allude to the behaviour of the wide-ranging common raven; because of its black plumage, croaking call and diet of carrion, the raven is associated with loss and ill omen. Yet its symbolism is complex; as a talking bird, the raven represents prophecy and insight. Ravens in stories act as psychopomps, connecting the material world with the world of spirits. French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss proposed a structuralist theory that suggests the raven obtained mythic status because it was a mediator animal between life and death; as a carrion bird, ravens became associated with lost souls. In Swedish folklore, they are the ghosts of murdered people without Christian burials and, in German stories, damned souls; the Raven has appeared in the mythology of many ancient people. Some of the more common stories are from those of Greek, Norse, Pacific Northwest, Roman mythology. In Greek mythology, ravens are associated with the god of prophecy.
They are said to be a symbol of bad luck, were the god's messengers in the mortal world. According to the mythological narration, Apollo sent a white raven, or crow in some versions to spy on his lover, Coronis; when the raven brought back the news that Coronis has been unfaithful to him, Apollo scorched the raven in his fury, turning the animal's feathers black. That's. According to Livy, the Roman general Marcus Valerius Corvus had a raven settle on his helmet during a combat with a gigantic Gaul, which distracted the enemy's attention by flying in his face; the raven is the first species of bird to be mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, ravens are mentioned on numerous occasions thereafter. In the Book of Genesis, Noah releases a raven from the ark after the great flood to test whether the waters have receded. According to the Law of Moses, ravens are forbidden for food, a fact that may have colored the perception of ravens in sources. In the Book of Judges, one of Kings of the Midianites defeated by Gideon is called "Orev" which means "Raven".
In the Book of Kings 17:4-6, God commands the ravens to feed the prophet Elijah. King Solomon is described as having hair as black as a raven in the Song of Songs 5:11. Ravens are an example of God's gracious provision for all his creatures in Psalm 147:9 and Job 38:41. Philo of Alexandria, who interpreted the Bible allegorically, stated that Noah's raven was a symbol of vice, whereas the dove was a symbol of virtue. In the Talmud, the raven is described as having been only one of three beings on Noah's Ark that copulated during the flood and so was punished; the Rabbis believed that the male raven was forced to ejaculate his seed into the female raven's mouth as a means of reproduction. Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer explains that the reason the raven Noah released from the ark did not return to him was that the raven was feeding on the corpses of those who drowned in the flood. According to the legend of the fourth-century Iberian Christian martyr Saint Vincent of Saragossa, after St. Vincent was executed, ravens protected his body from being devoured by wild animals, until his followers could recover the body.
His body was taken to. A shrine was erected over his grave; the Arab geographer Al-Idrisi noted this constant guard by ravens, for which the place was named by him كنيسة الغراب "Kanīsah al-Ghurāb". King Afonso Henriques had the body of the saint exhumed in 1173 and brought it by ship to Lisbon, still accompanied by the ravens; this transfer of the relics is depicted on the coat of arms of Lisbon. A raven is said to have protected Saint Benedict of Nursia by taking away a loaf of bread poisoned by jealous monks after he blessed it. In the legends about the German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, depicting him as sleeping along with his knights in a cave in the Kyffhäuser mountain in Thuringia or the Untersberg in Bavaria, it is told that when the ravens cease to fly around the mountain he will awake and restore Germany to its ancient greatness. According to the story, the Emperor's eyes are half closed in sleep, but now and he raises his hand and sends a boy out to see if the ravens have stopped flying.
In the Qur'an's version of the story of Cain and Abel, a raven is mentioned as the creature who taught Cain how to bury his murdered brother, in Al-Ma'ida 5:31. To the Germanic peoples, Odin was associated with ravens. Examples include depictions of figures identified as Odin appear flanked with two birds on a 6th-century bracteate and on a 7th-century helmet plate from Vendel, Sweden. In Norse mythology, Odin is depicted as having two ravens Huginn and Muninn serving as his eyes and ears – Huginn being referred to as thought and Muninn as memory; each day the ravens bring Odin news from Midgard. The Old English word for a raven was hræfn; the raven was a common device used by the Vikings. Ragnar Lothbrok had a raven banner called Reafan, embroidered with the device of a raven, it was said that if this banner fluttered, Lothbrok would carry the day, but if it hung lifeless the battle would be lost. King Harald Hardrada had a raven banner, called Landeythan; the bir
Pterosaurs were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria. They existed during most of the Mesozoic: from the late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous. Pterosaurs are the earliest vertebrates known to have evolved powered flight, their wings were formed by a membrane of skin and other tissues stretching from the ankles to a lengthened fourth finger. Early species had long toothed jaws and long tails, while forms had a reduced tail, some lacked teeth. Many sported furry coats made up of hair-like filaments known as pycnofibers, which covered their bodies and parts of their wings. Pterosaurs spanned a wide range of adult sizes, from the small anurognathids to the largest known flying creatures of all time, including Quetzalcoatlus and Hatzegopteryx. Pterosaurs are referred to in the popular media and by the general public as "flying dinosaurs", but the term "dinosaur" is restricted to just those reptiles descended from the last common ancestor of the groups Saurischia and Ornithischia, current scientific consensus is that this group excludes the pterosaurs, as well as the various groups of extinct marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs and mosasaurs.
Unlike these other reptiles, pterosaurs are nonetheless more related to birds and dinosaurs than to crocodiles or any other living reptile. Pterosaurs are colloquially referred to as pterodactyls in fiction and by journalists. However, pterodactyl only refers to members of the genus Pterodactylus, more broadly to members of the suborder Pterodactyloidea of the pterosaurs; the anatomy of pterosaurs was modified from their reptilian ancestors by the adaption to flight. Pterosaur bones were air-filled, like the bones of birds, they had a keeled breastbone, developed for the attachment of flight muscles and an enlarged brain that shows specialised features associated with flight. In some pterosaurs, the backbone over the shoulders fused into a structure known as a notarium, which served to stiffen the torso during flight, provide a stable support for the shoulder blade. Pterosaur wings were formed by membranes of skin and other tissues; the primary membranes attached to the long fourth finger of each arm and extended along the sides of the body to the ankles.
While thought of as simple leathery structures composed of skin, research has since shown that the wing membranes of pterosaurs were complex dynamic structures suited to an active style of flight. The outer wings were strengthened by spaced fibers called actinofibrils; the actinofibrils themselves consisted of three distinct layers in the wing, forming a crisscross pattern when superimposed on one another. The function of the actinofibrils is unknown. Depending on their exact composition, they may have been stiffening or strengthening agents in the outer part of the wing; the wing membranes contained a thin layer of muscle, fibrous tissue, a unique, complex circulatory system of looping blood vessels. As shown by cavities in the wing bones of larger species and soft tissue preserved in at least one specimen, some pterosaurs extended their system of respiratory air sacs into the wing membrane; the pterosaur wing membrane is divided into three basic units. The first, called the propatagium, was the forward-most part of the wing and attached between the wrist and shoulder, creating the "leading edge" during flight.
This membrane may have incorporated the first three fingers of the hand, as evidenced in some specimens. The brachiopatagium was the primary component of the wing, stretching from the elongated fourth finger of the hand to the hind limbs. At least some pterosaur groups had a membrane that stretched between the legs connecting to or incorporating the tail, called the uropatagium, it is agreed though that non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs had a broader uro/cruropatagium, with pterodactyloids only having membranes running along the legs. A bone unique to pterosaurs, known as the pteroid, connected to the wrist and helped to support a forward membrane between the wrist and shoulder. Evidence of webbing between the three free fingers of the pterosaur forelimb suggests that this forward membrane may have been more extensive than the simple pteroid-to-shoulder connection traditionally depicted in life restorations; the position of the pteroid bone itself has been controversial. Some scientists, notably Matthew Wilkinson, have argued that the pteroid pointed forward, extending the forward membrane.
This view was contradicted in a 2007 paper by Chris Bennett, who showed that the pteroid did not articulate as thought and could not have pointed forward, but rather inward toward the body as traditionally thought. Peters proposed that the pteroid articulated with the ‘saddle' of the radiale and both the pteroid and preaxial carpal were migrated centralia; this view of the articulation of the pteroid has since been supported by specimens of Changchengopterus pani and Darwinopterus linglongtaensis, both of which show the pteroid in articulation with the proximal syncarpal. The pterosaur
Prime Minister of Iran
The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution. In the Qajar era, prime ministers were known by different titles; the post itself was known as ataabak or ataabak-e a'zam, or sometimes sadr-e a'zam at the beginning, but became ra'is ol-vozaraa at the end. The title of nakhost vazir was used; the prime minister was called by the honorific title hazrat-e ashraf. Reza Khan Sardar Sepah became the last prime minister of the Qajar dynasty in 1923. For a list of Iranian'prime ministers' prior to 1907 see List of Premiers of Iran. In 1925, Reza Shah became Shah of Iran, he installed Mohammad-Ali Foroughi as the prime minister. In 1941 his son Mohammad, he installed Mohammad-Ali Foroughi as the prime minister too. In 1951, Mohammed Mosaddeq became Prime Minister but was overthrown in a counter coup d'état in 1953. Amir-Abbas Hoveyda became Prime minister of Iran in 1965 and remained in office until 1977.
Shapour Bakhtiar was the last prime minister of Pahlavi era. After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini installed Mehdi Bazargan as the Prime Minister of an interim government, which served until November 1979; the government resigned during the Iran hostage crisis, but mentioned that it has not been the sole reason, the decision for mass resignation had been reached one day before the invasion of the United States embassy by the Iranian students. The post was left empty until Abolhassan Banisadr became president in January 1980 and chose Mohammad Ali Rajai as his prime minister because of pressures imposed by Majlis representatives, specially those close to Islamic Republic Party. Rajai served in the post until Banisadr's impeachment in June, 1981, was elected as president in the elections of July 24, 1981. Rajai chose Mohammad Javad Bahonar as his prime minister, but they were assassinated together in Prime Minister's office only a few weeks on August 30, 1981; when Ali Khamenei became president in the elections of October, 1981, he first introduced right-leaning Ali Akbar Velayati to the Majlis as his prime minister, but he was voted down by the left-leaning majority of the parliament, which forced their own preferred prime minister to Khamenei, namely Mir-Hossein Mousavi.
The dispute was ended by interference of the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Khomeini, who advised the president to accept Mousavi. Mousavi served under the title until 1989, when the constitution was amended to remove the title of Prime Minister and divide his responsibilities between the president and a newly created title of First Vice President. List of Prime Ministers of Iran List of Premiers of Iran Politics of Iran President of Iran History of Iran For a full list of Viziers of Iran in the last 2000 years, see: "Iranian Viziers: From Bozorgmehr to Amir Kabir" by Abdolrafi' Haqiqat. Perry–Castañeda Library collection DS 271 F34 1995 Mohammad Taghi Bahar, Taarikh-e Mokhtasar-e Ahzaab-e Siaasi-e Iraan, Amirkabir, 1978. Encyclopædia Iranica's entries on "Ala-al-Saltana, Mohammad-Ali" and "Akbar Sepahdar-e Azam, Fathallah" various articles in The Persian Encyclopedia'Alí Rizā Awsatí, Iran in the Past Three Centuries, Volumes 1 and 2. ISBN 964-93406-6-1, ISBN 964-93406-5-3
Douglas World Cruiser
The Douglas World Cruiser was developed to meet a requirement from the United States Army Air Service for an aircraft suitable for an attempt at the first flight around the world. The Douglas Aircraft Company responded with a modified variant of their DT torpedo bomber, the DWC. Five aircraft were ordered for the round-the-world flight, one for testing and training and four for the actual expedition; the success of the World Cruiser bolstered the international reputation of the Douglas Aircraft Company. The design of the DWC was modified to create the O-5 observation aircraft, operated by the Army Air Service. In 1923, the U. S. Army Air Service was interested in pursuing a mission to be the first to circumnavigate the earth by aircraft, a program called "World Flight". Donald Douglas proposed a modified Douglas Aircraft Company DT to meet the Army's needs; the two-place, open cockpit DT biplane torpedo bomber had been supplied to the Navy, thus shortening production time for the new series. The DTs to be modified were taken from the assembly lines at the company's manufacturing plants in Rock Island and Dayton, Ohio.
Douglas promised. The Air Service agreed and lent Lieutenant Erik Nelson, a member of the War Department planning group, to assist Douglas. Nelson worked directly with Douglas at the Santa Monica, California factory, to formulate the new proposal; the modified aircraft known as the Douglas World Cruiser, powered by a 420 hp Liberty L-12 engine was the first major project at Douglas for Jack Northrop. Northrop designed the fuel system for the series; the conversion involved incorporating a total of six fuel tanks in wings and fuselage. For greater range, the total fuel capacity went from 115 gallons to 644 gallons. Other changes from the DT involved having increased cooling capacity, as well as adding two separate tanks for oil and water. To ensure a more robust structure, a tubular steel fuselage, strengthened bracing, a modified wing of 49 ft wingspan and larger rudder were required; the dual cockpits for the pilot and copilot/crewman were located more together with a cutout in the upper wing to increase visibility.
Like the DT, the DWC could be fitted with either floats or a conventional landing gear for water or ground landings. Two different radiators were available, with a larger version for tropical climes. After the prototype was delivered in November 1923, upon the successful completion of tests on 19 November, the Army commissioned Douglas to build four production series aircraft. Due to the demanding expedition ahead, spare parts, including 15 extra Liberty engines, 14 extra sets of pontoons, enough replacement airframe parts for two more aircraft were specified and sent to way points along the route; the last aircraft was delivered on 11 March 1924. From 17 March 1924, the pilots practiced in the prototype. On 6 April 1924, the four expedition aircraft, named Boston, New Orleans and Seattle, departed Sand Point, near Seattle, Washington. Seattle, the lead aircraft, crashed in Alaska on 30 April; the other three aircraft with Chicago assuming the lead, continued west across Asia and Europe relying on a planned logistics system, including prepositioned spare engines and fuel caches maintained by the U.
S. Navy and Coast Guard; the Boston was damaged beyond repair in the Atlantic, off the Faroe Islands. The remaining two aircraft continued across the Atlantic to North America, where they were joined by the Boston II at Pictou, Nova Scotia; the re-christened prototype continued with the flight back to Washington and on the World Flight's ceremonial flypast across the United States. The three surviving aircraft returned to Seattle on 28 September 1924; the flight covered 23,942 nm. Time in flight was 70 miles per hour. After the success of the World Cruiser, the Army Air Service ordered six similar aircraft as observation aircraft, retaining the interchangeable wheel/float undercarriage, but with much less fuel and two machine guns on a flexible mounting in the rear cockpit; these aircraft were designated DOS, but were redesignated O-5 in May 1924. The success of the DWC established Douglas Aircraft Company among the major aircraft companies of the world and led it to adopt the motto "First Around the World – First the World Around".
The company adopted a logo that showed aircraft circling a globe, replacing the original winged heart logo. In returning to their starting point, during the ceremonial flight across the United States, when the aircraft made it to Chicago for a celebration attended by thousands, Lieutenant Smith, as the spokesman for the mission, addressed the crowd. Eddie Rickenbacker, the celebrated flying ace and chair of the welcoming committee, formally requested that the Chicago, as the mission flagship, remain in its host city, donated to the Field Museum of Natural History. Major General Mason M. Patrick, Chief of the Air Service, was on hand to accept the request, promised its formal consideration. Upon the request of the Smithsonian Institution, the U. S. War Department transferred ownership of the Chicago to the national museum, it made its last flight, from Dayton, Ohio to Washington, D. C. on 25 September 1925. It was immediately put on display in the Smithsonian's Arts and Industries Building. In 1974, the Chicago was restored under the direction of Walter Roderick, transferred to the new National Air and Space Museum building for display in their Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight exhibition gallery.
Beginning in 1957, the Ne
The Piasa or Piasa Bird is a Native American dragon depicted in one of two murals painted by Native Americans on bluffs above the Mississippi River. Its original location was at the end of a chain of limestone bluffs in Madison County, Illinois at present-day Alton, Illinois; the original Piasa illustration no longer exists. The location of the present-day mural is at 38.898055, -90.19915. The limestone rock quality on the new site is unsuited for holding an image, the painting must be restored; the original site of the painting was a high-quality layer of lithographic limestone, predominantly quarried away in the late 1870s by the Mississippi Lime Company. The ancient mural was created prior to the arrival of any European explorers in the region, before 1200 CE; the location of the image was at a river-bluff terminus of the American Bottoms floodplain. It may have been an older iconograph from the large Mississippian culture city of Cahokia, which began developing about 900 CE. Cahokia was with 20,000 to 30,000 residents.
It was the largest prehistoric city north of a major chiefdom. Icons and animal pictographs, such as falcons, thunder-birds, bird men, monstrous snakes were common motifs of the Cahokia culture; the Piasa creature may have been painted as a graphic symbol to warn strangers traveling down the Mississippi River that they were entering Cahokian territory. An Alton Evening Telegraph newspaper article of May 27, 1921 stated that seven smaller painted images, believed to be of archaic American Indian origin, were found in the early 20th century about 1.5 miles upriver from the ancient Piasa creature's location. These pictures were carved and painted in rocks located in the Levis Bluffs area by George Dickson and William Turk in 1905. Four of these paintings were of "an owl, a sun circle, a squirrel, a piece showing two birds or some kind of animals in a contest", the other three paintings were of "a great animal a lion, another an animal about as large as a dog"; these paintings were photographed by Prof. William McAdams and were to be placed in his book Records of Ancient Races in the Mississippi Valley: being an account of some of the pictographs, sculptured hieroglyphs, symbolic devices and traditions of the prehistoric races of America, with some suggestions as to their origin, William McAdams, C. R. Barns Publishing Co. 1887..
These seven archaic American Indian paintings were lost in transit to the Missouri Historical Society c. 1922. Other Native American carved petroglyphs of a similar time period and region as the Piasa monster are carved into the rocks at Washington State Park in Missouri about 60 miles southwest of the current Piasa image; the 1797-1798 map of French explorer Nicolas De Finiels' shows the cliffs above the Piasa labeled as Hauteurs De Paillisa. An earlier 1778 map titled "A new map of the western parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania and North Carolina. Author Hutchins, Thomas, 1730-1789" shows the place name "PIASAS" where the present day City of Alton is located and bounded by the Wood River to the east.. In 1673, Father Jacques Marquette saw the painting on a limestone bluff overlooking the Mississippi River while exploring the area, he recorded the following description: "While Skirting some rocks, which by Their height and length inspired awe, We saw upon one of them two painted monsters which at first made Us afraid, upon Which the boldest savages dare not Long rest their eyes.
They are as large As a calf. Green and black are the three Colors composing the Picture. Moreover, these 2 monsters are so well painted that we cannot believe that any savage is their author. Here is The shape of these monsters, As we have faithfully Copied It." French explorers, like St. Cosme, reported that by 1699 the series of images were badly worn due to the habits of the local Indians to "discharge their weapons" at the images as they passed. Author A. D. Jones, in his book "Illinois and the West" c. 1838 describes the ravages of weapons upon the images, further refers to the paintings as being named "Piasua". This original was the largest Native American painting found in North America; the monster depicted in the mural was first referred to as the "Piasa Bird" in an article published c. 1836 by John Russell of Bluffdale, Illinois. John Russell was an imaginative professor of Greek and Latin at Shurtleff College, Upper Alton, Illinois; the article was entitled "The Tradition of The Piasa" and Russell claimed the origin of the word to be from a nearby stream: "This stream is the Piasa.
Its name is Indian, signifies, in the Illini, "The Bird That Devours Men"." According to the story pu