Thunderbirds is a British science-fiction television series created by Gerry and Sylvia Anderson, filmed by their production company AP Films and distributed by ITC Entertainment. It was produced between 1964 and 1966 using a form of electronic marionette puppetry combined with scale-model special effects sequences. Two series were filmed. Set in the mid-2060s, Thunderbirds is a follow-up to the earlier Supermarionation productions Four Feather Falls, Fireball XL5 and Stingray, it follows the exploits of International Rescue, a life-saving organisation equipped with technologically-advanced land, sea and space rescue craft. The main characters are ex-astronaut Jeff Tracy, the founder of IR, his five adult sons, who pilot the Thunderbird machines. Thunderbirds began its first run in the United Kingdom on the ITV network in 1965 and has since been broadcast in at least 66 other countries. Periodically repeated, it was adapted for radio in the early 1990s and has influenced many TV programmes and other media.
As well as inspiring various merchandising campaigns, the series has been followed by two feature-length film sequels, a 2004 live-action film adaptation and a mimed stage show tribute. The second of two TV remakes, Thunderbirds Are Go, debuted in 2015. Considered to be the Andersons' most popular and commercially successful series, Thunderbirds has received particular praise for its effects and musical score, it is well remembered for its title sequence, which opens with an often-quoted countdown by actor Peter Dyneley: "5, 4, 3, 2, 1: Thunderbirds Are Go!" A real-life rescue service, the International Rescue Corps, is named after the organisation featured in the series. Set between 2065 and 2067, Thunderbirds follows the exploits of the Tracy family, headed by American ex-astronaut Jeff Tracy. Jeff is a widower with five adult sons: Scott, Virgil and Alan; the Tracys make up International Rescue, a secret organisation founded to save human life. They are aided in this mission by technologically-advanced land, sea and space vehicles that are called into service when conventional rescue methods prove ineffective.
The most important of these vehicles are the five "Thunderbird machines", each assigned to one of the five Tracy brothers: Thunderbird 1: a blue and silver hypersonic rocket plane used for fast response and disaster zone reconnaissance. Piloted by Scott, IR's rescue co-ordinator. Thunderbird 2: a green supersonic carrier aircraft that transports rescue vehicles and equipment in detachable capsules called "pods". Piloted by Virgil. Thunderbird 3: a red single-stage-to-orbit spacecraft. Piloted alternately by Alan and John, with Scott as co-pilot. Thunderbird 4: a utility yellow submersible. Piloted by Gordon and launched from Thunderbird 2. Thunderbird 5: a grey and gold space station that relays distress calls from around the world. Manned alternately by "space monitors" John and Alan; the family live on Tracy Island, IR's base in the South Pacific Ocean, in a luxurious villa that they share with Jeff's mother, engineer Brains, Brains' assistant Tin-Tin and Tin-Tin's father, Malaysian retainer Kyrano.
In this remote location, IR is safe from spies and criminals who envy the organisation's technology and try to acquire the secrets of the Thunderbird machines. Some of IR's missions are prompted not sabotage or negligence. For missions requiring criminal investigation or intelligence-gathering, the organisation incorporates a network of undercover agents headed by English aristocrat Lady Penelope Creighton-Ward and her butler Aloysius Parker. Based at Creighton-Ward Mansion in Kent and Parker travel in FAB 1, a specially-modified Rolls-Royce. IR's most persistent opponent is a master criminal known only as "The Hood". Operating from a temple in the Malaysian jungle, possessing powers of hypnosis and dark magic, The Hood exerts telepathic control over Kyrano, his estranged half-brother, manipulates the Tracys into rescue situations that unfold according to his own designs; this gives him opportunities to spy on the Thunderbird machines and, by selling their secrets, make himself rich. Thunderbirds was the fourth Supermarionation puppet TV series to be produced by APF, founded by the husband-and-wife duo of Gerry and Sylvia Anderson with their business partners Arthur Provis, Reg Hill, John Read.
Pitched in late 1963, the series was commissioned by Lew Grade of ITC, APF's parent company, on the back of the positive audience response to Stingray. Gerry Anderson drew inspiration for the series' underlying concept from the West German mining disaster known as the Wunder von Lengede. In October 1963, the collapse of a nearby dam flooded an iron mine in the municipality of Lengede, killing 29 miners and trapping 21 others underground. Lacking the means to drill an escape shaft, the authorities were forced to requisition a heavy-duty bore from Bremen. Recognising the advantages of swifter crisis response, Anderson conceived the idea of an "international rescue" organisation that c
Major Sir Hector Joseph Richard Clayton, ED was an Australian politician and soldier. He was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council for 36 years from 1937 to 1973 representing the Liberal Party and its predecessor, the United Australia Party, becoming Leader of the New South Wales Opposition in the Legislative Council from 1960 until 1962. Hector Joseph Richard Clayton was born in Surry Hills, New South Wales in 1885, the son of solicitor John Horatio Clayton and Isabel Woodward. After being educated at Sydney Grammar School, Clayton undertook studies at the University of Sydney, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Laws. After qualifying as a solicitor in 1911, Clayton was made a partner in his father's firm, John H. Clayton and Son from 1911 until 1920; when the First World War broke out in 1914, Clayton signed up to the First Australian Imperial Force with a commission and was posted to the 4th Battalion, AIF. He embarked for Egypt in October as a captain and took part in the landing on Gallipoli on 25 April 1915.
In 1916, he was transferred to the Western Front, was promoted to major in November, commanded the 4th Division Base, being mentioned in dispatches. He undertook administrative duties in England from June 1918. On 24 July 1917 he married Phyllis Edith Midwood at Market Drayton, Shropshire. After demobilisation, Clayton returned to the law as a partner in Clayton and Utz and in Clayton and Company. A member of the conservative United Australia Party, Clayton was elected to the indirectly elected New South Wales Legislative Council on 8 December 1936 and took his seat on 23 Apr 1937. However, he subsequently resigned from the UAP, as he believed that the council should be a non-partisan house of review, but remained a consistent supporter of his former party. Having been placed on the Reserve of Officers, Clayton was mobilised on the outbreak of war on 4 September 1939. After undertaking administrative tasks, from July 1942 he commanded the 1st Movement Control Group in the New South Wales Lines of Communication Area.
In August 1945, he was placed on the Retired List as honorary colonel. A distinguished though uncombative member in the council, Clayton succeeded as the Leader of the New South Wales Opposition in the Legislative Council, in 1960, his most significant achievement was found in attacking the Labor Government's attempts to abolish the Legislative Council, leading the campaign through the Supreme Court and the High Court of Australia and the subsequent referendum in April 1961, which overwhelmingly rejected the abolition proposal and marked the decline of the Labor government, in power since 1941. He stood down as leader after problems with the leadership of the Liberal Party. In August 1966, Clayton decided to run for President of the New South Wales Legislative Council, being nominated by his friend and colleague Thomas Playfair. However, on the morning of the council meeting, Playfair suffered a fatal heart attack and Clayton withdrew his nomination. Having served as a company director of several insurance companies and a protector of the rights of businesses from government regulation, in 1968 he was made a Knight Bachelor "In recognition of service to commerce".
A lunar station called a lunar mansion or lunar house, is a segment of the ecliptic through which the Moon passes in its orbit around the Earth. The concept was used by several ancient cultures as part of their calendrical system. In general, though not always, the zodiac is divided into 27 or 28 segments relative to the fixed stars – one for each day of the lunar month; the Moon's position is charted with respect to those fixed segments. Since the Moon's position at given stage will vary according to Earth's position in its own orbit, lunar stations are an effective system for keeping track of the passage of seasons. Various cultures have used sets of lunar stations astrologically. Western astrology does not use stations; the Chinese system groups houses into four groups related to the seasons. The concept of lunar stations is thought to originate in Babylonian astronomy. In his A History of Western Astrology, Jim Tester explains that they appear in Hellenistic astrology in the 2nd-century list of fixed stars in the Katarchai by Maximus, the Arabic lists by Alchandri and Haly Abenragel, a similar Coptic list with Greek names.
Tester believes that though they were known in the Vedic period of India, all lists "seem to betray" transmission through Greek sources. Though pointing out that the Babylonians had well established lunar groupings by the 6th century BC, he notes that the 28-station "scheme was derived via Egyptian magic by the linking of the lists of lucky and unlucky days of the lunar month with the hemerologies and with the zodiac." The 28 Lunar Mansions, or more lodgings are the Chinese and East Asian form of the lunar stations. They can be considered as the equivalent to the Western zodiac, although the 28 stations reflect the movement of the Moon through a sidereal month rather than the Sun in a tropical year. In their final form, they embodied the astral forms of the Four Symbols: two real and two legendary animals important in traditional Chinese culture, such as feng shui; the nakshatras are the Indian form of lunar stations. They number 27 but sometimes 28 and their names are related to the most prominent constellations in each sector.
They start from a point on the ecliptic opposite the star Spica and develop eastwards. In classical Hindu mythology, the creation of the nakshatras is attributed to Daksha, they were wives of the moon god. The nakshatras of traditional bhartiya astronomy are based on a list of 28 asterisms found in the Atharvaveda and in the Shatapatha Brahmana; the first astronomical text that lists them is the Vedanga Jyotisha. The stations are important parts of Indian astrology. In the traditional Arabic astrological system, the moon was seen to move through 28 distinct manāzil during the normal solar year, each manzil lasting, for about 13 days. One or more manazil were grouped into a nawaa which were tied to a given weather pattern. In other words, the yearly pattern was divided in the following manner: A year was divided into anwaa, each of, made up of one more manazil, which were associated with a dominant star or constellation; these stars and constellations were sometimes, but not always, connected in some way to constellations in the Zodiac.
Moreover, as the anwaa repeat on a regular, solar cycle, they can be correlated to fixed points on the Gregorian calendar. The following table is their position on the Gregorian calendar; the dates above are approximate. The following letters has no alphabetical value in numerology of the Abjad system known as "Ilm ul-ʾAdad". Notes of the table above in accordance to strict traditional Arab Islamic astronomy and theology: 1) the Arabic alphabet resonates the alphabetical value in numerology of the Abjad system known as "Ilm ul-ʾAdad". 2) the ʽAmal is the Angel that rules the corresponding Arabic alphabet, manazilu-l-qamar and constellations. Speaking, the four Archangels in Islam ace Jibrāʼīl, Mīkāʼīl, ʼIsrāfīl and Malaku-l-Maut. 3) the alphabetical orders follows the sequence of the original abjadī order, used for lettering, derives from the order of the Phoenician alphabet, is therefore similar to the order of other Phoenician-derived alphabets, such as the Hebrew alphabet. In this order, letters are used as numbers, Abjad numerals, possess the same alphanumeric code/cipher as Hebrew gematria and Greek isopsephy.
4) those angel name with an "asterisk" needs source citation upon Arabic transliteration but the given is the closest pronunciation based upon uttering the consonants. A few of the numerical values are different in the alternative Abjad order. For four Persian letters these values are used: The Fixed Stars and Constellations in Astrology: The Lunar Mansions W. B. Yeats and "A Vision": The Arab Mansions of the Moon