OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
Thunder and Lightning (comics)
Thunder and Lightning are a duo of superpowered brothers published by DC Comics that had encounters with the Teen Titans. They are not to be confused with the two superheroines Thunder and Lightning, sisters introduced at different times who are the daughters of Black Lightning. Thunder and Lightning first appeared in New Teen Titans #32 and was created by Marv Wolfman and George Pérez. Gan and Tavis Williams are twin brothers that were born of an unnamed Vietnamese woman and an American soldier named Lt. Walter Williams. Conjoined twins, they were separated with magic; as children, they found themselves beginning to manifest superpowers. However, they had little control over these powers, without an infusion of their father's blood, they would burn themselves out. So, they took the aliases Thunder and Lightning and set off to America to search for their father, they engaged in battle against the Teen Titans. However, after their aims were revealed, the Titans decided to help the pair. Months the Teen Titans and S.
T. A. R. Labs were working on Lightning's powers. At the same time, using her powers, discovered that their father was an alien who had crash landed in Cambodia six hundred years ago, was being held hostage by the H. I. V. E. as they tried to exploit knowledge from him. When they located him, H. I. V. E. Controlled the alien in a fight against Thunder and Lightning and the Teen Titans. In the end and Lightning were forced to kill their father to protect their new friends. However, a blood sample from their father allowed S. T. A. R. Labs to create the cure that would allow Lightning to control their powers. Thunder and Lightning resettled in San Francisco, where S. T. A. R Labs helped. While there, they helped stop the Atomic Skull, they worked as security guards for S. T. A. R. until Trigon took control of them. They were captured and held in stasis at S. T. A. R. Labs until they could be free from the demon seeds. At some point they were freed of the seeds, as the two of them returned to help the Titans battle the Justice League, via transport arranged from the ultra-powerful Cyborg.
Thunder and Lightning came in too late to fight any of the Justice League but they still assisted in neutralizing the threat posed by Cyborg. After that, they returned to Southern Vietnam to defend it from an unknown alien threat. During the "Infinite Crisis" storyline, they were subdued by the League of Assassins in Vietnam who were being paid to break open a prison as part of a worldwide scheme to attack Metropolis with dozens of supervillains. During the Salvation Run storyline and Lightning arrive to give food to Martian Manhunter. Martian Manhunter asks; when they offered to help Martian Manhunter, Bane attacks them. Despite being shocked by Lightning, Bane defeats the both of them. Luthor keeps the two alive using them as power sources for his teleporter; the two are killed when the teleporter device self-destructs. In September 2011, The New 52 rebooted DC's continuity. In this new timeline and Lightning are reintroduced as part of The Ravagers, a superhero team which includes Beast Boy, Terra and Fairchild.
Thunder is able to control thunder as he manifests as rumbling noises which he can control to varying degrees. Lightning is able to release bolts of harness lightning; the two have a psychic link. An unrelated Thunder and Lightning appeared as Superman villains in Superman #303; these were two entities in the body of a sentient android used by a super-villain called Whirlicane, who wanted to conduct a series of terror acts across the US. Not knowing about his android origin, Thunder/Lightning hoped for his release by Whirlicane when his tasks were fulfilled, but Superman exposed the truth. Going mad over the realization, Thunder/Lightning released a massive lightning burst, destroying himself and his base. Thunder and Lightning first appeared in the Teen Titans episode "Forces of Nature" with Thunder voiced by S. Scott Bullock and Lightning voiced by Quinton Flynn, they are supernatural brothers who just want to have fun, but they make life miserable for everyone else with their disregard for the safety of others.
Their powers are thunderous sound blasts and lightning bolts as well as the shared power of flight. When they combine their powers, they can cause rain, this is how they are able to teleport, manifesting in massive blasts of lightning, their appearances seem to be influenced by the eponymous characters from the 1998 game Pajama Sam 2: Thunder and Lightning Aren't so Frightening. Thunder is rather large, has a deep voice, wears blue samurai armor. Lightning is skinny, speaks in a high, fast voice, wears a yellow-orange suit of samurai armor without a helmet, wears his hair in a style reminiscent of a lightning bolt. Thunder seemed having doubts all along the ordeal. Lightning was rebellious and unrepentant, only deciding to help out once Thunder pointed out the error of their ways. Slade manipulated Thunder and Lightning into setting fire to some posts with magical emblems on them, which created a giant Fire Monster bent on destroying the city, it was stopped when Thunder and Lightning joined their powers to make it rain, therefore putting out the Fire Monster before it can reach
Captain Atom is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Captain Atom has existed in three basic incarnations. Captain Atom was created by writer Joe Gill and artist/co-writer Steve Ditko, first appeared in Space Adventures #33. Captain Atom was created for Charlton Comics, but was acquired by DC Comics and revised for DC's post-Crisis continuity. In 2011, DC Comics relaunched its superhero comics and rewrote the histories of some characters from scratch, including Captain Atom, giving him a new origin and altered powers. Captain Atom was the character inspiration for Doctor Manhattan, featured in the miniseries Watchmen. Throughout the years, the character has been featured in several moderate-to-short-lived eponymous series, has been a member of several different versions of DC's flagship superhero team, the Justice League. In all incarnations, the character served for the military. In the Charlton Comics continuity, he was a scientist named Allen Adam and gained his abilities by accident when he was "atomized" and his body reformed, now existing as an atomic-powered being.
In both DC Comics incarnations, he is an Air Force pilot named Nathaniel Adam, a test subject in a scientific experiment that disintegrated in the process, only to reappear as the super-powered Captain Atom. Over the years, DC has attempted to reinvent the character a several times. For a period, the character assumed the mantle of the supervillain Monarch, in 2005 DC attempted to retell the Captain Atom story with an new character, subsequently discarded. In the new continuity following DC's 2011 relaunch, Captain Atom has never been a member of the Justice League and the team views him with distrust. Captain Atom has appeared in several animated television and film adaptations of Justice League and other DC storylines since the mid-2000s, where he is depicted as a powerful member of the Justice League whose abilities place him on par with the franchise's flagship character Superman. In several animated depictions, he has served the role as a government stooge when the government has brought itself into conflict with the Justice League.
The Charlton Comics version of Captain Atom was Allen Adam. The character's origin had Adam working as a technician in a special experimental rocket when it accidentally launched with him trapped inside. Adam was atomized. However, he somehow gained superpowers that included the ability to reform his body safely on the ground, he was outfitted in a red and yellow costume, designed to shield people from the radiation of his nuclear powers. When he powered up, his hair changed to a silverish-white. In his own title, he replaced his original red and gold costume with a liquid-metal outfit, under his skin and which transformed when he powered up. Captain Atom's powers were similar to such other nuclear-powered superheroes as Gold Key's Doctor Solar and Dell Comics' Nukla. Captain Atom was first published in a series of short stories in the anthology series Space Adventures # 33-40 and #42. Charlton began reprinting his short adventures in the anthology Strange Suspense Stories beginning with #75, renaming the title Captain Atom with #78 and giving the hero full-length stories and supervillain antagonists such as Dr. Spectro..
Captain Atom teamed with the superhero Nightshade, with whom he shared a mutual attraction. The superhero Blue Beetle starred in the initial backup feature replaced by a Nightshade backup series. Captain Atom was canceled with issue #89. In 1975, the unfinished Ditko art for issue #90 was inked by John Byrne and published in the first two issues of the official Charlton fanzine, Charlton Bullseye, as the 10-page "Showdown In Sunuria" and the 11-page "Two Against Sunuria". Captain Atom next appeared in issue #7 of the new-talent showcase comic called Charlton Bullseye, in a story by writer Benjamin Smith and artist/co-writer Dan Reed, which for some reason returned him to his original red & yellow outfit; the character's last pre-DC appearance was in AC Comics' one-shot Americomics Special #1, in a story teaming the Charlton "Action Heroes" Blue Beetle, Captain Atom and The Question as the Sentinels of Justice. This last story had been done for Charlton before the company folded; the actual Charlton characters made their first reappearance in DC's Crisis on Infinite Earths, which introduced Earth-Four as the native reality of Captain Atom and the world where all the Charlton Comics adventures had taken place.
By story's end, Earth-Four had been incorporated into the Post-Crisis DC Universe, its history merging with that of the mainstream reality. The last appearance of this Charlton-era Captain Atom was in DC Comics Presents #90. A new, post-Crisis version of the character was introduced in March 1987 with the launch of a monthly comic written by Cary Bates, co-written by Greg Weisman and drawn by Pat Broderick; this modern captain's name is established as Nathaniel Christopher Adam, a United States Air Force officer and Vietnam War veteran. Adam was, under military justice, condemned to death; as an alternative to execution, Adam was "a
Queen Bee (comics)
Queen Bee is the name of six different DC Comics supervillains. The leader of the hiveworld Korll, Zazzala lives only for the interstellar expansion of her species. Zazzala first appeared in Justice League of America #23, she clashed with the original Justice League several times during the 1960s and 1970s, but disappeared for several decades. Zazzala reappeared in # 34, when Lex Luthor contacts her to join his Injustice Gang, she agrees, freeing The General from his asteroid prison in exchange for a percentage of Earth's population to become her drones. She participates in other battles against the League, her main effort is concentrated upon the city of New York. She forces many of the citizens to craft an'egg matrix' out of local supplies as a way to secure more mind-control, she attempts to brainwash Green Lantern and Steel to serve her using'hypno-pollen', but both heroes are able to fight it off. Using the Queen Bee's inability to see the color red, which many of the superheroes had in their costumes, Wonder Woman and Big Barda keep the Queen's forces occupied while Steel and Plastic Man get the drop on the Queen, Plastic Man covering Steel to render him invisible to the bees.
Utilizing a Boom Tube, technology controlled by Barda, they teleport the Queen and her army back to Korll. Zazzala and her drones join Lex Luthor's new Secret Society of Super Villains; the Queen becomes the leader of the H. I. V. E. A multi-national criminal enterprise, she appears in the six-part Villains United limited series. A small team of villains, known as the Secret Six, attack her base as part of a war against the Society, her forces are defeated, the base's prisoner, Firestorm, is freed and Zazzala herself is badly wounded. One Year Later, Zazzala appears in JLA volume 4, #20 healed from her injuries, attempting to steal a matter transportation device that will appear to allow her to transport her troops to earth, she is captured by the Flash. Marcia Monroe was a spoiled young woman, daughter of a wealthy man, who enjoyed risking her life in absurd and pointless situations, her playgirl attitude created trouble for the police, who tried to save her from harm during her own stunts. One day, she was rescued by Batman, who brought her down to the ground and spanked her in public, making news in the headlines of the most notorious newspapers.
Shortly after this encounter, Marcia started following Batman on his crime-busting activities and provided unrequested help when Batman least expected it. Marcia revealed. Batman and Marcia became an inseparable couple; some time Batman saved a girl from being attacked with an arrow and soon he realized it was Marcia. She had returned to Gotham to ask Batman to return a valuable stolen gem which she had acquired from her father. Batman agreed to help her, but Marcia double-crossed Batman and provided evidence to the police incriminating Batman for the stealing of the gem, it was revealed that Marcia had joined the crime syndicate known as CYCLOPS under the codename of Queen Bee. She was the leader of the task force, in charge of releasing Eclipso from his human host, Bruce Gordon. With Eclipso's help, Queen Bee started a criminal spree and a campaign to get the criminal organizations of Gotham City under the control of CYCLOPS. However, when Eclipso threatened to murder Batman, Marcia saved the man she loved.
She revealed that she had been forced to join CYCLOPS in order to save her father. Marcia helped Batman find a way to escape from Eclipso's trap and before parting ways, she gave Batman the real stolen gem and promised to stall Eclipso for a moment until he managed to escape. Batman was able to clear his name and stopped Eclipso with Bruce Gordon's help, but Marcia vanished from his life once again and never returned. An unrelated Queen Bee was introduced in Justice League International #16, she was an ordinary human femme fatale, who gained control of the terrorist nation of Bialya by forging an alliance with its former ruler Colonel Rumaan Harjavti assassinating him. She solidified her power by brainwashing the Global Guardians into serving her, she has clashed several times with Justice League Europe. Justice League Europe found out that the Queen Bee was behind their recent troubles, that she had a Dominator named Doctor working for her, they came to an agreement. They demanded she sever relations with the Doctor.
After they left, she killed the Doctor. The Queen had far-reaching influences, managing to put one of her own operatives in charge of the League via the United Nations; the Queen Bee was defeated by the JLE and the Guardians, who learned of her brainwashing plot. She was assassinated by Rumaan Harjavti's brother Sumaan, during the events of the JLA/JLE crossover Breakdowns. Queen Bee appeared in the 2000 Creature Commandos series. On the otherdimensional world of Terra Arcana, Zazzala's sister Tazzala joined Simon Magus's Terra Arcana Army with the ultimate goal of conquering Earth; the U. S. Army faction known as the Creature Commandos stopped. Tazzala herself was killed by Simon; the sister of the second Queen Bee, Beat
Owlwoman is a fictional character, a superheroine in the DC Universe. Wenonah Littlebird is a full-blooded Native American from Oklahoma, she became Owlwoman and was first seen helping Hawkman and his wife Hawkwoman dismantle a bomb in the darkness of an Oklahoma field. She takes part in the Crisis on Infinite Earths, she was offered a chance to become a member of the Global Guardians, a team of international heroes, she accepted. While on the team, she fell for her teammate Jack O'Lantern, the two became a couple. After her boyfriend left the Global Guardians, Owlwoman went to Bialya and was brainwashed into joining the Queen Bee's army; the two ex-Global Guardians helped the Queen Bee take over the world. Jack O'Lantern and Owlwoman were manipulated by the Queen Bee into forcing the other Global Guardians under her control. In a battle with the Justice League, Owlwoman betrayed her teammates and killed an imposter Jack O'Lantern, she found the real Jack O'Lantern alive in a dungeon, as well as Doctor Mist.
The three heroes reunited the Global Guardians. Fain Y'onia now targeted the group. Godiva and Impala lost their powers. Bushmaster was shot dead during a confrontation with Fain. In the final battle in the Arizona desert, Tuatara was knocked into a coma and Thunderlord was killed. Working out of the Dome and the surviving Guardians erected a statue memorial to their dead friends, it is revealed that the Martian Manhunter helped the team recruit members including Cascade of Indonesia, Centrix of Canada, Tundra of Russia and Chrysalis of France. The new recruits were met with approval by the others, together they continue the legacy of the Global Guardians. Owlwoman and Olympian are two of the dozens of heroes featured in Infinite Crisis #6 protecting the city of Metropolis from Alexander Luthor Jr.'s Secret Society of Super-Villains. Owlwoman has magical abilities that allow her to fly by riding air-currents and see in total darkness, she has heightened senses of smell and hearing, has excellent tracking and navigation skills.
After she was brainwashed by Queen Bee, Owlwoman gained retractable claws that could slice through steel. A future version of Owlwoman based on Nite-Owl from Watchmen appeared as a member of the Justice Legion Alpha in DC One Million. Owlwoman at DC Comics Wiki