Carex arenaria, or sand sedge, is a species of perennial sedge of the genus Carex, found growing in dunes and other sandy habitats, as the species epithet suggests. It grows by long stolons under the soil surface. Flora Europaea: Carex arenaria L. Nordic virtual flora
Ammophila is a genus of flowering plants consisting of two or three similar species of grasses. The common names for these grasses include marram grass, bent grass, beachgrass; these grasses are found exclusively on the first line of coastal sand dunes. Their extensive systems of creeping underground stems or rhizomes allow them to thrive under conditions of shifting sands and high winds, to help stabilize and prevent coastal erosion. Ammophila species are native to the coasts of the North Atlantic Ocean where they are the dominant species on sand dunes, their native range includes few inland regions, with the Great Lakes of North America being the main exception. The genus name Ammophila originates from the Greek words ἄμμος, meaning "sand", φίλος, meaning "friend"; the Ammophila grasses are known as examples of xerophytes, plants that can withstand dry conditions. Despite their occurrence on seacoasts, Ammophila grasses are not tolerant of saline soils. Ammophila thus stabilizes the sand. For this reason, the plants have been introduced far from their native range.
Alfred Wiedemann writes that Ammophila arenaria "has been introduced into every British colonial settlement within its latitudinal tolerance range, including southeast and southwest Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the Falkland Islands, Norfolk Island and has been reported from Argentina and Chile." Ammophila species were introduced in the late 19th century on the Pacific coast of North America as well, massive, intentional plantings were continued at least through 1960. In all of the locations where they have been introduced, Ammophila plants are now listed as invasive, costly efforts are underway to eradicate them. Only two species seem incontrovertible: A. breviligulata. Two other species have been proposed, are discussed below. A. arenaria - European marram grass or European beachgrass. Native to coasts of Europe and northwest Africa. Inflorescence to 25 cm long. A. baltica - Purple marram. A. baltica has now been identified as a hybrid between A. Calamagrostis epigejos; the hybrid occurs in parts of northern Europe from the Baltic Sea west to eastern England, is known as × Ammocalamagrostis baltica or × Calammophila baltica.
A. breviligulata - American marram grass or American beachgrass. Native to coasts of eastern North America, including the shores of the Great Lakes. Inflorescence to 30 cm long. A. champlainensis or A. breviligulata ssp. champlainensis - Champlain beachgrass. Native to shores of Lake Ontario and Lake Champlain. Inflorescence to 22 cm long. In Europe, Ammophila arenaria has a coastal distribution, is the dominant species on sand dunes where it is responsible for stabilising and building the foredune by capturing blown sand and binding it together with the warp and weft of its tough, fibrous rhizome system. Marram grass is associated with two coastal plant community types in the British National Vegetation Classification. In community SD6 Ammophila is the dominant species. In the semi-fixed dunes, where the quantity of blown sand is declining Ammophila becomes less competitive, other species, notably Festuca rubra become prominent; the ability of marram grass to grow on and bind sand makes it a useful plant in the stabilization of coastal dunes and artificial defences on sandy coasts.
The usefulness was recognized in the late 18th century. On the North Sea coast of Jutland, marram grass was traditionally much used for fuel, cattle fodder etc; the use led to sand loss of arable land. Hence, legislation promoting dune stabilization came into force in 1779 and 1792, successively leading to a system of state-supported dune planters overlooked by dune bailifs. Marram grass was – and still is – propagated by root and shoot cuttings dug up locally and planted into the naked sand in periods of calm and moist weather. Women from the village of Newborough, Wales once used marram grass in the manufacture of mats, haystack covers and brushes for whitewashing. Marram grass has been used for thatch in many areas of the British isles close to the sea; the harvesting of marram grass for thatch was so widespread during the 17th century that it had the effect of destabilizing dunes, resulting in the burial of many villages and farms. In 1695 the practice was banned by an Act of the Scottish Parliament: Considering that many lands and pasturages lying on sea coasts have been ruined and overspread in many places in this kingdom by sand driven from adjacent sand hills....
His Majesty does prohibit and discharge the pulling of bent, broom or juniper off the sand hills for hereafter. Like other xerophytes, marram grass is well adapted to its surroundings in order to thrive in an otherwise harsh environment; the natural loss of water through transpiration is not desirable in a dry landscape, marram grass has developed particular adaptations to help it deal with this. Sandy conditions drain water and windy conditions will further increase rates of transpiration. Marram grass has a rolled leaf that creates a localized environment of water vapour concentration within the leaf, helps to prevent water loss; the stomata sit in small pits within the curls of the structure, which make them less to open and to lose water. The folded leaves have hairs on the inside to slow or stop air mov
The wood sandpiper is a small wader. This Eurasian species is the smallest of the shanks, which are mid-sized long-legged waders of the family Scolopacidae; the genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific glareola is from Latin glarea, " gravel", it resembles a longer-legged and more delicate green or solitary sandpiper with a short fine bill, brown back and longer yellowish legs. It differs from the first of those species in a smaller and less contrasting white rump patch, while the solitary sandpiper has no white rump patch at all. However, it is not closely related to these two species. Rather, its closest relative is the common redshank, these two share a sister relationship with the marsh sandpiper; these three species are a group of smallish shanks with red or yellowish legs, a breeding plumage, subdued light brown above with some darker mottling and with a pattern of somewhat diffuse small brownish spots on the breast and neck.
The wood sandpiper breeds in subarctic wetlands from the Scottish Highlands across Asia. They migrate to Africa, Southern Asia India, Australia. Vagrant birds have been seen as far into the Pacific as the Hawaiian Islands. In Micronesia it is a regular visitor to the Mariana Islands and Palau; this species is encountered in the western Pacific region between mid-May. A slight westward expansion saw the establishment of a small but permanent breeding population in Scotland since the 1950s; this bird is found on freshwater during migration and wintering. They forage by probing in shallow water or on wet mud, eat insects and similar small prey. T. glareola nests on the ground or uses an abandoned old tree nest of another bird, such as the fieldfare. Four pale green eggs are laid between May. Adult wood sandpipers moult all their primary feathers between August and December, whilst immature birds moult varying number of outer primaries between December and April, much closer to their departure from Africa.
Immatures are much more flexible than adults in the timing and rate of their moult and refueling. Adults and immatures which accumulate fuel loads of c.50% of their lean body mass can cross distances of 2397–4490 km in one non-stop flight. The wood sandpiper is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies. Widespread, it is considered a Species of Least Concern by the IUCN. Wood sandpiper species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds Oriental Bird Images: Wood Sandpiper Selected photos Ageing and sexing by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze "Tringa glareola". Avibase. "Wood sandpiper media". Internet Bird Collection. Wood sandpiper photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Tringa glareola at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of Wood sandpiper on Xeno-canto. Tringa glareola in the Flickr: Field Guide Birds of the World Wood sandpiper media from ARKive
The European roe deer known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or roe deer or roe, is a species of deer. The male of the species is sometimes referred to as a roebuck; the roe deer is small and grey-brown, well-adapted to cold environments. The species is widespread in Europe, from the Mediterranean to Scandinavia, from Scotland to the Caucasus, east to northern Iran and Iraq, it is distinct from the somewhat larger Siberian roe deer. Within Europe, the European roe deer occurs in most areas, with the exception of northernmost Scandinavia and some of the islands, notably Iceland and the Mediterranean Sea islands. Scottish roe deer were introduced to the Lissadell Estate in Co. Sligo in Ireland around 1870 by Sir Henry Gore-Booth, Bt; the Lissadell deer were noted for their occasional abnormal antlers and survived in that general area for about 50 years before they died out. According to the National Biodiversity Data Centre, in 2014 there was a confirmed sighting of roe deer in County Armagh. There have been other, sightings in County Wicklow.
In England and Wales, roe have experienced a substantial expansion in their range in the latter half of the 20th century and continuing into the 21st century. This increase in population appears to be affecting woodland ecosystems. At the start of the 20th century, they were extinct in Southern England, but since have hugely expanded their range for no apparent reason and in some cases with human help. In 1884, roe were introduced from Württemberg in Germany into the Thetford Chase area, these spread to populate most of Norfolk and substantial parts of Cambridgeshire. In southern England, they started their expansion in Sussex and from there soon spread into Surrey, Wiltshire and Dorset, for the first half of the 20th century, most roe in southern England were to be found in these counties. By the end of the 20th century, they had repopulated much of Southern England and had expanded into Somerset, Cornwall, Gloucestershire, Warwickshire and South Yorkshire, had spread into mid-Wales from the Ludlow area where an isolated population had appeared.
At the same time, the surviving population in Scotland and the Lake District had pushed further south beyond Yorkshire and Lancashire and into Derbyshire and Humberside. Roe can now be found in most of rural England except for south east Kent and the greater part of Staffordshire and Cheshire, although the expansion is continuing to the extent that before the end of the 21st century, anywhere in the UK mainland suitable for roe may have a population. Not being a species that needs large areas of woodland to survive, urban roe are now a feature of several cities, notably Glasgow and Bristol, where in particular they favour cemeteries. In Wales, they are less common, but have been seen as far south west as Cardigan and as far north west as Bangor, they are reasonably well established in Powys and Monmouthshire. German colonial administrators introduced roe deer to the island of Pohnpei in Micronesia, they are hunted by locals in steep and vegetated terrain. The meat is sold in markets and restaurants in Kolonia, the capital city of Pohnpei and the Federated States of Micronesia.
The roe deer is distinct from the somewhat larger Siberian roe deer found from the Ural Mountains to as far east as China and Siberia. The two species meet at the Caucasus Mountains, with the European species occupying the southern flank of the mountain ranges and adjacent Asia Minor, the Siberian species occupying the northern flank of the mountain ranges, it is known. The roe deer is a small deer, with a body length of 95–135 cm, a shoulder height of 65–75 cm, a weight of 15–35 kg. Bucks in good conditions develop antlers up to 20–25 cm long with two or three even four, points; when the male's antlers begin to regrow, they are covered in a thin layer of velvet-like fur which disappears on after the hair's blood supply is lost. Males may speed up the process by rubbing their antlers on trees, so that their antlers are hard and stiff for the duels during the mating season. Unlike most cervids, roe deer begin regrowing antlers immediately after they are shed; the roe deer is crepuscular quick and graceful, lives in woods, although it may venture into grasslands and sparse forests.
They feed on grass, leaves and young shoots. They like young, tender grass with a high moisture content, i.e. grass that has received rain the day before. Roe deer will not venture into a field that has had or has livestock in it because the livestock make the grass unclean. A pioneer species associated with biotic communities at an early stage of succession, during the Neolithic period in Europe, the roe deer was abundant, taking advantage of areas of forest or woodland cleared by Neolithic farmers; the roe deer attains a maximum lifespan of 10 years. When alarmed, it will flash out its white rump patch. Rump patches differ between the sexes, with the white rump patches heart-shaped on females and kidney-shaped on males. Males may bark or make a low grunting noise. Females make a high-pitched "pheep" whine to attract males during the rut in August; the female goes looking for a mate and lures the
Natura 2000 is a network of nature protection areas in the territory of the European Union. It is made up of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas designated under the Habitats Directive and Birds Directive; the network includes both marine sites. In May 1992, the governments of the European Communities adopted legislation designed to protect the most threatened habitats and species across Europe; the Habitats Directive complements the Birds Directive adopted earlier in 1979 and together they make up the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. The Birds Directive requires the establishment of Special Protection Areas for birds; the Habitats Directive requires Sites of Community Importance which upon the agreement of the European Commission become Special Areas of Conservation to be designated for species other than birds, for habitat types. Together, SPAs and SACs form the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. Furthermore, the Natura 2000 network is the EU contribution to the "Emerald network" of Areas of Special Conservation Interest set up under the Bern Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats.
Natura 2000 is a key contribution to the Program of Work of Protected Areas of the Convention on Biological Diversity. As prerequisite for becoming EU Member, accession states have to submit proposals for Natura 2000 sites meeting the same criteria as EU Member States; some new member states have large areas which qualify to be protected under the directives and implementation has not always been simple. The Natura 2000 sites are selected by Member States and the European Commission following scientific criteria according to the two directives mentioned above; the SPAs are designated directly by each EU Member State, while the SACs follow a more elaborated process: each EU Member State must compile a list of the best wildlife areas containing the habitats and species listed in the Habitats Directive. The Habitats Directive divides the EU territory into nine biogeographic regions each with its own ecological coherence. Natura 2000 sites are selected according to the conditions in each biogeographical region, thus selected sites represent species and habitat types under similar natural conditions across a suite of countries.
Each Natura 2000 site has a unique identification form called Standard Data Form. This form is used as a legal reference when assessing the management of the species and habitats through the concept of favourable conservation status; the Natura 2000 Viewer is a tool to explore the network and gives access to every SDF. Natura 2000 protects 27,312 sites with terrestrial area 787,606 km2 and marine area 360,350 km2 in 2017, is considered complete in the EU terrestrial environment; the process of designation has not always been smooth as the infringement procedures against Member States show. While designation of sites may be near complete, the management and enforcement of protection on sites is less advanced and many sites lack management plans. Natura 2000 faced criticism from developers and politicians who fear that the conservation of habitats and species places a brake on development.251,564 km squared had been designated as Natura 2000 in the marine environment in 2013. The network in marine areas is not considered complete and acknowledged by the Commission as a “key challenge for EU biodiversity policy in the coming years”.
Natura 2000 sites can vary in character. They are not protected in terms of how they are allowed to be used by people. Many sites are farmed and some are in urban areas. Other areas are much wilder; the European Commission developed guidelines on the relation between Natura 2000 and wild areas which are thought to make up around 13% of the network. This was in response to a report by Members of the European Parliament in 2009 which called for further protection of Europe's wilderness; the Natura 2000 network is not well known among European Union citizens. As part of the EU Biodiversity Strategy, the European Commission committed to raise awareness about the network and biodiversity in general with the public. In general, Natura 2000 Sites are seen like an interdiction for developing for most of the citizens. Since appeared in some area, the citizens saw only limitations and interdictions without any local advantages for the specific area; the confusion is greater since in the designation process as a Natura 2000 Site, the local communities were not involved.
The documentations for different areas were done by different NGO not belonging to specific areas without out knowing the areas, with limited studies and ignoring the local communities interests. Due to this lack of awareness, most citizens do not know the consequence of belonging to a Natura 2000 Site. In order to raise awareness about the Natura 2000 network, 21 May has been designated “Natura 2000 Day”; this precedes “International Day for Biological Diversity” on 22 May. The initiative came from SEO/BirdLife who sought and received funding from the EU LIFE+ programme in order to improve the knowledge of this network. In 2013, the first Natura 2000 day took place with the aim to raise awareness of citizens about the importance of Natura 2000 network in their lives. Since every May 21 and the weeks before, awareness actions take place all over Europe. For example, in 2014, school children and pol
Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium. In Britain, cranberry may refer to the native species Vaccinium oxycoccos, while in North America, cranberry may refer to Vaccinium macrocarpon. Vaccinium oxycoccos is cultivated in central and northern Europe, while Vaccinium macrocarpon is cultivated throughout the northern United States and Chile. In some methods of classification, Oxycoccus is regarded as a genus in its own right, they can be found in acidic bogs throughout the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Cranberries are low, creeping vines up to 2 meters long and 5 to 20 centimeters in height; the flowers are dark pink, with distinct reflexed petals, leaving the style and stamens exposed and pointing forward. They are pollinated by bees; the fruit is a berry, larger than the leaves of the plant. It is edible, but with an acidic taste that overwhelms its sweetness. In 2016, 98% of world production of cranberries resulted from the United States and Chile.
Most cranberries are processed into products such as juice, sauce and sweetened dried cranberries, with the remainder sold fresh to consumers. Cranberry sauce is a traditional accompaniment to turkey at Christmas dinner in the United Kingdom, at Christmas and Thanksgiving dinners in the United States and Canada. There are three to four species of cranberry, classified into two sections: Subgenus Oxycoccus, sect. OxycoccusVaccinium oxycoccos or Oxycoccus palustris is widespread throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere, including northern Europe, northern Asia, northern North America, it has small 5–10 mm leaves. The flowers are dark pink, with a purple central spike, produced on finely hairy stems; the fruit is a small pale pink berry, with a refreshing sharp acidic flavor. Vaccinium microcarpum or Oxycoccus microcarpus occurs in northern North America, northern Europe and northern Asia, differs from V. oxycoccos in the leaves being more triangular, the flower stems hairless. Some botanists include it within V. oxycoccos.
Vaccinium macrocarpon or Oxycoccus macrocarpus native to northern North America across Canada, eastern United States, south to North Carolina at high altitudes). It differs from V. oxycoccos in the leaves being larger, 10–20 mm long, in its apple-like taste. Subgenus Oxycoccus, sect. OxycoccoidesVaccinium erythrocarpum or Oxycoccus erythrocarpus native to southeastern North America at high altitudes in the southern Appalachian Mountains, in eastern Asia. Cranberries are related to bilberries and huckleberries, all in Vaccinium subgenus Vaccinium; these differ in having bell-shaped flowers, the petals not being reflexed, woodier stems, forming taller shrubs. Some plants of the unrelated genus Viburnum are sometimes called "highbush cranberries". Cranberries are susceptible to false blossom, a harmful but controllable phytoplasma disease common in the eastern production areas of Massachusetts and New Jersey; the name, derives from the German, first named as cranberry in English by the missionary John Eliot in 1647.
Around 1694, German and Dutch colonists in New England used the word, cranberry, to represent the expanding flower, stem and petals resembling the neck and bill of a crane. The traditional English name for the plant more common in Europe, Vaccinium oxycoccos, originated from plants with small red berries found growing in fen lands of England. In North America, the Narragansett people of the Algonquian nation in the regions of New England appeared to be using cranberries in pemmican for food and for dye. Calling the red berries, the Narragansett people may have introduced cranberries to colonists in Massachusetts. In 1550, James White Norwood made reference to Native Americans using cranberries. In James Rosier's book The Land of Virginia there is an account of Europeans coming ashore and being met with Native Americans bearing bark cups full of cranberries. In Plymouth, there is a 1633 account of the husband of Mary Ring auctioning her cranberry-dyed petticoat for 16 shillings. In 1643, Roger Williams's book A Key Into the Language of America described cranberries, referring to them as "bearberries" because bears ate them.
In 1648, preacher John Elliott was quoted in Thomas Shepard's book Clear Sunshine of the Gospel with an account of the difficulties the Pilgrims were having in using the Indians to harvest cranberries as they preferred to hunt and fish. In 1663, the Pilgrim cookbook appears with a recipe for cranberry sauce. In 1667, New Englanders sent to King Charles ten barrels of cranberries, three barrels of codfish and some Indian corn as a means of appeasement for his anger over their local coining of the Pine Tree shilling. In 1669, Captain Richard Cobb had a banquet in his house, serving wild turkey with sauce made from wild cranberries. In the 1672 book New England Rarities Discovered author John Josselyn described cranberries, writing: Sauce for the Pilgrims, cranberry or bearberry, is a small trayling plant that grows in salt marshes that are overgrown with moss; the berries are of a pale yellow color, afterwards red, as big as a cherry, some round, others oval, all of them hollow with sower as
Hanstholm is a small town and a former island, now elevated area in Thisted municipality of Region Nordjylland, located in the northern part of Denmark. Co-ordinates: 57°07′12″N 08°37′12″E. Population of the area is about 3,500, the town has a population of 2,157; the former island Hanstholm has many placenames, including Hansted, Nørby, Gårddal, Ræhr, Bjerre, Krog and Vigsø. In the beginning of the second millennium, churches were built in Vigsø, Ræhr and Hansted, forming three parishes. At the end of the 20th century, Denmark's largest harbour was built in Hansted, a 10-fold larger harbour town was needed. A new town was planned, covering the places Hansted, Gårddal and Nørby, the new town was named Hanstholm; this has led to some confusion, because the people from the towns Ræhr and Vigsø live on Hanstholm, they live in Hanstholm postal district, they live in Hanstholm municipality, but they don't live in Hanstholm town. However, since all the parts of this new harbour town belong to Hansted parish, because Hansted has been the harbour town for so many centuries, many people refer to this town as Hansted instead of Hanstholm.
Besides Hanstholm and Hansted, one more name is related to this, Hanherred: Hansted means "The place of Han". This suffix is used with town names in Denmark. Hanstholm means "The island of Hansted". Hanherred means "The herred of Han". To the north is Vigsø Bay a part of Skagerrak. To the west is the North Sea; the ferry MV Norröna of Smyril Line operated a weekly summer service to the Faroe Islands and Iceland from Hanstholm until 2010. This service now departs from Hirtshals; the northern part of Denmark is rising because of plate tectonics, has lifted the island of Hanstholm out of the water so that it is no longer an island, but an elevated area. You can still see two old farms: Bådsgård, which means boat farm, is located on the previous island Hanstholm. Today you can drive between Sårup and Hansted; as Hansted's population grew from a couple of hundred to several thousand people during the 20th century, some urban planning was applied. It seems to have been modelled in the same way as other growing Danish towns in the 1960s, which means that you can drive through the city without noticing the size of it.
Most shopping is concentrated in a shopping mall, there are separate pedestrian and bicycle paths covering most of the city. Several excavations have shown that the Hanstholm area was inhabited by farmers as early as 1000 B. C. In the year 120 B. C. teutons inhabited the area, but left in a large exodus, together with the Cimbri, towards the south, where they encountered the Romans. In the years 800 to 1050, Hanstholm and the area around it were islands, nearby was the gathering point for the Vikings for their invasions of England and France. According to legend, the first Christian church in the Thy area was built in 1040 in Vestervig, where Christian priests coming from England entered Denmark. A big monastery was built here and this was the beginning of the end of the Viking era; the churches in Ræhr, Hansted and Vigsø were built in the 12th century in Roman style, on Hansted church, one of the stones shows the picture of a trading vessel. This trading vessel has been used as model for the arms of the former Hanstholm municipality.
From 1600 to 1850, people from the area of Hanstholm traded with Norway, a part of Denmark at that time, with special boats across the Skagerrak. They exported food grain, imported logs. There were no trees in the whole area, so wood was in high demand; the primary harbours for this trade were Vigsø and Klitmøller, the latter because they had water mills to produce flour. For this trade, special ships were designed, named'sandskuder', meaning'sand boats', they were able to sail directly onto the beach and were designed for the transport of grain and logs. A lot of sand began to drift from the west coast towards the east in the 14th century. In 1555, the sand drift had damaged a large area of Vigsø parish, the local pastor suggested the abandonment of both the parish and the church. However, people stayed in the area, the parish remained active; the other parishes were hit hard as well, in 1690 there were dunes on the pastor's fields, more than 12 metres high. Numerous attempts to stop the sand drift succeeded in the 19th century by the planting of trees and lyme grass.
However, many low coastal areas between the former islands had been covered with dunes. South of Hanstholm, a unique dune landscape of 4,000 hectares has become a wildlife reservation, named Hansted Reservat; the lighthouse was built in 1842, but the construction was too weak, so it had to be torn down and rebuilt in 1843. It was the first lens-based lighthouse in Denmark; when it was electrified in 1889, it became the strongest lighthouse in Denmark, still is today though the light intensity has been lowered. In a period of its life, it was the strongest lighthouse in the world; the lighthouse was automated in 1970, in 1979 the buildings associated with the lighthouse were converted to a museum about the nature and history of the surrounding area. From the top of the lighthouse, 65 metres above the ocean, you can see the entire area. During the Second World War, the citizens of Hansted were removed and Europe's biggest fortress was built by the Germans in this area. Cannons were installed, that could shoot half the distance to Norway, in order to block allied en