Prefectures of Greece
During the first administrative division of independent Greece in 1833–1836 and again from 1845 until their abolition with the Kallikratis reform in 2010, the prefectures were the country's main administrative unit. They are now defunct, have been replaced by regional units, they are called departments in ISO 3166-2:GR and by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. The prefectures were the second-degree organization of local government, grouped into 13 regions or 10 geographical departments, in turn divided into provinces and comprising a number of communities and municipalities; the prefectures became self-governing entities in 1994, when the first prefectural-level elections took place. The prefects were appointed by the government. By 2010, their number had risen to 51, of which one, the Attica Prefecture, where more than a third of the country's population resided, was further subdivided into four prefecture-level administrations. In addition, there were three super-prefectures controlling two or more prefectures.
With the Kallikratis reform, which entered into force on 1 January 2011, the prefectures were abolished. Many in the mainland, were retained in the form of regional units within the empowered regions, which took over the prefectures' administrative role; the current "Prefectural Self-Governments" were formed in 1994 and replaced the previous prefectures, whose councils and prefects were appointed by the government. Prefectures are governed by a Prefectural Council made up of 21 to 37 members, led by the Prefect and presided by a Council President. Other organs of the prefectures are: The Prefectural Committee, consisted of the Prefect or an assistant appointed by him and 4 to 6 members, elected by the Prefectural Council; the Provincial Council and The Eparchos. Super-prefectures have their own organs. Prefectural councillors are elected via public election every four years. Three-fifths of all seats go to the combination winning a majority and two-fifths of the seats go to remaining parties based on a proportional system.
Prefect becomes the president of the victorious electoral combination. Electoral is a combination which attains more than 42% in the first round of the prefectural elections. If no combination passes this threshold, a second round takes place between the two combinations that took the most votes in the first round The State oversees the actions of local governments, including the prefectures, but the Constitution of Greece and the Code of Prefectural Self-Government still provide communities and municipalities with legal control over the administration of their designated areas; the Code of Prefectural Self-Government does not include a non-restrictive list of prefectural duties, but a general rule, according to which the newly formed Prefectural Self-Governments have all the duties of the previous prefectures, which are related to their local affairs. Nonetheless, the affairs of " state administration" belonging to the prefects before 1994 are now exerted by the Presidents of the Regions.
The current Prefectural Self-Governments have kept the "local affairs of prefectureal level" not belonging to the " state administration". With certain laws specific affairs of certain ministries were transferred to the Prefectural Self-Governments; the following prefectures have been part of the Greek state since independence: Notes: Many of the prefectures were combined in pairs: Attica and Boeotia formed the Attica and Boeotia Prefecture Phthiotis Prefecture and Phocis Prefecture formed the Phthiotis and Phocis Prefecture Corinthia Prefecture and Argolis Prefecture formed Argolis and Corinthia Prefecture Achaea Prefecture and Elis Prefecture formed the Achaea and Elis Prefecture Aetolia-Acarnania also included Evrytania. Unlike the rest mentioned above, the prefecture never broke up into two prefectures, thus being the only one left with a composite appellation. Messenia included the southern half of what is now Elis. Laconia included the southern-eastern half of what is now Messinia. Euboea included the Sporades, which now belong to Magnesia.
The territory of Phthiotis Prefecture did not include the Domokos Province, part of Thessaly. The area constituting the Domokos Province of the Fthiotis Prefecture only became a part of the Greek state in general, of Phthiotis in particular, after the annexation of Thessaly to Greece in 1881. Arcadia Prefecture and the Cyclades Prefecture are the only prefectures to have their borders unchanged since independence; the capital of Argolis Prefecture, Nafplion was the first capital of the modern Greek state, before the move of the capital to Athens by King Otto. There were several short-lived prefectures in areas of present Albania and Turkey, during the Greek occupation of those areas during World War I and the Greco-Turkish War respectively: Argyrokastron, in Northern Epirus Korytsa, in Northern Epirus Adrianople, in Eastern Thrace Kallipolis, in Eastern Thrace Rhaedestos, in Eastern Thrace Saranta Ekklisies, in Eastern Thrace ISO 3166-2:GR Map of Greece at Archive.today "Nomarchy". New International Encyclop
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Central Greece (region)
Central Greece is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. The region occupies the eastern half of the traditional region of Central Greece, including the island of Euboea. To the south it borders the regions of Attica and the Peloponnese, to the west the region of West Greece and to the north the regions of Thessaly and Epirus, its capital city is Lamia. The region was established in the 1987 administrative reform. With the 2010 Kallikratis plan, its powers and authority were extended. Along with Thessaly, it is supervised by the Decentralized Administration of Thessaly and Central Greece based at Larissa; the region is based at Lamia and is divided into five regional units, Euboea, Evrytania and Phthiotis, which are further subdivided into 25 municipalities. The region's current governor is Kostas Bakoyannis of the New Democracy party, assuming office from Klearchos Pergantas, elected in the November 2010 local administration elections for the PASOK party. Biggest towns in each regional unit, according to the census of 2001: Official website
Hydra is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece, located in the Aegean Sea between the Saronic Gulf and the Argolic Gulf. It is separated from the Peloponnese by a narrow strip of water. In ancient times, the island was known as a reference to the natural springs on the island; the municipality of Hydra consists of the islands Hydra, a few uninhabited islets, total area 64.443 km2. The province of Hydra was one of the provinces of the Piraeus Prefecture, its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality. It was abolished in 2006. There is one main town, known as "Hydra port", it consists of a crescent-shaped harbor, around, centered a strand of restaurants, shops and galleries that cater to tourists and locals. Steep stone streets outward from the harbor area. Most of the local residences, as well as the hostelries on the island, are located on these streets. Other small villages or hamlets on the island include Mandraki, Vlychos, Palamidas and Molos. Hydra depends on tourism, Athenians account for a sizable segment of its visitors.
High-speed hydrofoils and catamarans from Piraeus, some 37 nautical miles away, serve Hydra, stopping first at Poros before going on to Spetses. There is a passenger ferry service providing an alternative to Hydrofoils that runs from Hydra Harbor to Metochi on the Peloponnese coast. Many Athenians drive to Metochi, leave their car in the secure car park, take the 20-minute passenger ferry across to Hydra. Rubbish trucks are the only motor vehicles on the island, since by law and motorcycles are not allowed. Horses and donkeys, water taxis provide public transportation; the inhabited area, however, is so compact. Hydra benefits from numerous bays and natural harbors, has a strong maritime culture; the island is a popular yachting destination and is the home of the Kamini Yacht Club, an international yacht club based in the port of Kamini. In 2007, a National Geographic Traveler panel of 522 experts rated Hydra the highest of any Greek island as a unique destination preserving its "integrity of place".
The Tsamadou mansion, on the left side as one enters the harbour, is now a Maritime Academy. The Tsamados family donated the mansion for the purpose of hosting the Greek Maritime Academy on their island; the Tombazi mansion is now part of the Athens School of Fine Arts, owned by University of Athens. The mansions of Lazaros and George Kountouriotis, Kriezi, Voulgari and Miaouli all contain collections of 18th-century island furniture; the descendants of Lazarus Kountouriotis donated his mansion to the Historic-Ethnologic Institute of Greece. Today, it operates as an extension branch of the National Museum of History. There are numerous churches and six Orthodox monasteries on the island. Two noteworthy monasteries are Profitis Ilias, founded in the 10th century, Ayia Efpraxia. Both are on a hill overlooking the main harbor; the island's cathedral is the old Monastery of the Dormition of the Virgin and sits on the quayside in the town. The monastery contains the tomb of Lazaros Kountouriotis, the richest sea captain on Hydra, who gave his entire fortune to support the Greek War of Independence.
There is evidence of farmers and herders from the second half of the third millennium BCE on the small, flat areas that are not visible from the sea. Obsidian from Milos has been found. During the Helladic period, Hydra served as a maritime base for the kingdoms on the Greek peninsula. Fragments of vases and the head of an idol have been found on Mount Chorissa; the large-scale Dorian invasion of Greece around the 12th century BCE appears to have depopulated the island. Hydra was repopulated by farmers and herders sailing from the mainland port of Ermioni, in the 8th century BCE. Herodotus reports that toward the 6th century BCE, the island belonged to Ermioni, which sold it to Samos. Samos, in turn, ceded it to Troizina. For much of its existence, Hydra stayed on the margins of history; the population was small in ancient times and, except for the brief mentions in Herodotus and Pausanias, left little or no record in the history of those times. It is clear that Hydra was populated during the Byzantine Era, as vases and coins have been discovered in the area of Episkopi.
However, it appears that the island again lost its population during the Latin Empire of Constantinople as its inhabitants fled the pirate depredations. On other islands, inhabitants moved inland, something, impossible on Hydra. From 1204 to 1566, it belonged to Venice. From 1566 to 1821, it was part of the Ottoman Empire. In the 16th century, the island began to be settled by refugees from the warfare between the Ottomans and Venetians; the Arvanites' presence was evident until the mid-20th century, according to T. Jochalas, the majority of the island's population was composed of Arvanites; the island is known in Arvanitika as Nίδρα. Hydra was unimportant during much of the period of Ottoman rule, its naval and commercial development began in the 17th century, its first school for mariners was established in 1645. The first Hydriot vessel was launched in 1657. However, the conflict between the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire limited the island's maritime development until after 1718 and the Treaty of Passarowitz.
From the 17th century on, Hydra began to take on a greater importance because of its trading str
Phthiotis is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Central Greece; the capital is the city of Lamia. It is bordered by the Malian Gulf to the east, Boeotia in the south, Phocis in the south, Aetolia-Acarnania in the southwest, Evrytania in the west, Karditsa regional unit in the north, Larissa regional unit in the north, Magnesia in the northeast; the name dates back to ancient times. It is best known as the home of Achilles. Phthiotis covers the northern and southern shorelines of the Malian Gulf, an inlet of the Aegean Sea, it stretches inland towards the west along the valley of the river Spercheios. In the south it covers the upper part of the Cephissus valley. There are several mountain ranges in Phthiotis, including the Othrys in the northeast, the Tymfristos in the west, the Vardousia in the southwest, Oeta in the south and the Kallidromo in the southeast. "Phthiotis" means "the region of Phthia", the southernmost region of ancient Thessaly around Pharsalus and home of Achilles.
In Classical times, it referred to the region of Achaea Phthiotis, which bordered on Thessalian Phthiotis to the south and east. Achaea Phthiotis covered the northern part of the present regional unit Phthiotis and the southern part of present Magnesia; the southeastern part of present Phthiotis was covered by the ancient region Locris, the southwestern part was ancient Malis and Ainis. E65, S, Cen. NE Greek National Road 1/E75, SE, E, Cen. NE Greek National Road 3, SE, S, Cen. N Greek National Road 27, S, Cen. Greek National Road 38, W, Cen; the regional unit Phthiotis is subdivided into 7 municipalities. These are: Amfikleia-Elateia Domokos Lamia Lokroi Makrakomi Molos-Agios Konstantinos Stylida The prefecture Phthiotis and Phocis was created in 1845. In 1947 this prefecture was split into the northern part Phthiotis; as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Phthiotis was created out of the former prefecture Phthiotis. The prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit.
At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Province of Domokos - Domokos Province of Phthiotis - Lamia Province of Locris - AtalantiNote: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. Thanos Livaditis Dimitrios Holevas Lamia F. C. Ionikos Lamias BC List of traditional Greek place names List of settlements in Phthiotis Media related to Phthiotis at Wikimedia Commons
Igoumenitsa, is a coastal city in northwestern Greece. It is the capital of the regional unit of Thesprotia. Igoumenitsa is the chief port of Thesprotia and Epirus, one of the largest passenger ports of Greece, connecting northwestern Mainland Greece with the Ionian Islands and Italy; the city is built on easternmost end of the Gulf of Igoumenitsa in the Ionian Sea and primary aspects of the economy are maritime, services and tourism. The 670 km long Egnatia Highway, which serves northern Greece, terminates at Igoumenitsa, making it a popular starting point for tourists coming from Europe and ending point for trucks from Turkey. Igoumenitsa features many shops, schools and cargo storages, a Technological Educational Institute, a library, an archeological museum, several sport stadiums and tennis courses, a courthouse and a medical clinic; the Thesprotia Police Headquarters and the Municipal Sailing Club are located here. The city itself is built on the slopes of a forested mountain and expands perimetrically around the gulf.
The 2011 census recorded 25,814 inhabitants for the wider Municipality, of which 9,820 in the municipal unit of Igoumenitsa proper. Igoumenitsa is known for being surrounded for its blue waters; the nearby Drepanos Beach is one of the longest sand beaches in the region, with a length of over 7 kilometers. Igoumenitsa is known by various names in different time periods. During the medieval and Ottoman times, it was known as Grava which means "cave". In 1938, after it became the capital city of the prefecture of Thesprotia, its name was changed to the current Igoumenitsa; the name is a derivation from the Greek word Igoumeni. The name has been adopted as Gomenizza in Italian and as Gumenicë in Albanian; the present municipality Igoumenitsa was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 5 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Igoumenitsa Margariti Parapotamos Perdika Syvota The municipality has an area of 428.353 km2, the municipal unit 111.752 km2. In ancient times, near Igoumenitsa, was the town of Gitanae, was one of the most important towns of the Kingdom of Thesprotis during the 4th century BC, covering 28 hectares.
The circumference of its walls was 2,400 metres. The walls had four gates. Internal walls, in the shape of a sickle, divided the city in half, its most noteworthy tower, located at the top of the hill, was round, is thought to have been a religious sanctuary. Excavations have revealed a theatre which seats ruins of two temples. Gitanae was a meeting place of the Epirote League. A spur near Philiates between the Kalamas River, the acropolis had a fine semicircular tower. A small theater and gateways which are still visible; the Kalamas may have been navigable to this point. The city was destroyed by the Romans in 167 BC and on it was annexed into the Roman Empire, it was ruled by Ottoman Empire and was renamed as "Reşadiye" in 1909 honour of Mehmet V, Ottoman Sultan between 1909 and 1918. During Italo-Turkish War, Hamidiye torpedo boat was sunk by an Italian destroyer on December 30, 1912 in here. After the liberation of the region from Ottoman rule during the Balkan wars in 1913, the city name was Grava, a name that stayed in use until 1938, when the town became head of the prefecture of Thesprotia and was renamed to Igoumenitsa.
The town was destroyed in 1944 during the Axis occupation of Greece and a new settlement grew up around the new ferry terminal in the 1950s and 1960s. Following World War II, the Muslim Cham Albanian residents of Igoumenitsa were expelled to neighbouring Albania after large parts of them collaborated with the invading German forces; the Patras, Greece to Brindisi, Italy car–ferry ships of the Hellenic Mediterranean Lines stop at Igoumenitsa, before crossing the Adriatic Sea and vice versa, as well as the ships of Superfast Ferries, ANEK Lines and several other shipping companies, before going to Ancona, Bari or Venice in Italy, vice versa. Frequent passenger and car ferries to and from Corfu; the Egnatia Odos motorway, opened in 2009 and is part of the, has enhanced the connection with Thessaloniki and Turkey and shortened the required travelling time from and to the Turkish border by several hours. Between Thessaloniki and the Turkish border, the road runs more or less parallel to the ancient Roman Via Egnatia.
Igoumenitsa features two ports. The Old Port and the New Port, the second busiest passenger port of Greece, after Piraeus surpassing the Ports of Iraklion and Patras which are now the thirst and fourth largest in the country; the sea-lines going to and coming from Igoumenitsa are: According to the draft strategy prepared by the relevant Ministry of Shipping the port of Igoumenitsa becomes a "Connection Portal" not only of Greece with the rest of Europe, but of the whole of Europe with the Balkans, the Black Sea and the Middle East, through the development of combined transport directly and long-term, incorporating the railroad. In the beginning of 2012, the First Phase of the construction project of the New Port had been completed and progression to the Second Phase has begun in late 2013 and was completed by 2016, when the Third Phase of the constriction began. With the completion of the First phase, Igoumenitsa
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia, is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece, its capital is Livadeia, its largest city is Thebes. Boeotia was a region of ancient Greece, since before the 6th century BC. Boeotia lies to the north of the eastern part of the Gulf of Corinth, it has a short coastline on the Gulf of Euboea. It bordered on Megaris in the south, Attica in the southeast, Euboea in the northeast, Opuntian Locris in the north and Phocis in the west; the main mountain ranges of Boeotia are Mount Parnassus in the west, Mount Helicon in the southwest, Cithaeron in the south and Parnitha in the east. Its longest river, the Cephissus, flows in the central part, where most of the low-lying areas of Boeotia are found. Lake Copais was a large lake in the center of Boeotia, it was drained in the 19th century. Lake Yliki is a large lake near Thebes; the earliest inhabitants of Boeotia, associated with the city of Orchomenus, were called Minyans.
Pausanias mentions that Minyans established the maritime Ionian city of Teos, occupied the islands of Lemnos and Thera. The Argonauts were sometimes referred to as Minyans. According to legend the citizens of Thebes paid an annual tribute to their king Erginus; the Minyans may have been proto-Greek speakers, but although most scholars today agree that the Mycenean Greeks descended from the Minyans of the Middle Helladic period, they believe that the progenitors and founders of Minyan culture were an autochthonous group. The early wealth and power of Boeotia is shown by the reputation and visible Mycenean remains of several of its cities Orchomenus and Thebes; the origin of the name "Boeotians" may lie in the mountain Boeon in Epirus. Some toponyms and the common Aeolic dialect indicate that the Boeotians were related to the Thessalians. Traditionally, the Boeotians are said to have occupied Thessaly, the largest fertile plain in Greece, to have been dispossessed by the north-western Thessalians two generations after the Fall of Troy.
They moved south and settled in another rich plain, while others filtered across the Aegean and settled on Lesbos and in Aeolis in Asia Minor. Others are said to have stayed in Thessaly, withdrawing into the hill country and becoming the perioikoi. Though far from Anthela, which lay on the coast of Malis south of Thessaly in the locality of Thermopylae, Boeotia was an early member of the oldest religious Amphictyonic League because her people had lived in Thessaly. Many ancient Greek legends are set in this region; the older myths took their final form during the Mycenean age when the Mycenean Greeks established themselves in Boeotia and the city of Thebes became an important centre. Many of them are related to the myths of Argos, others indicate connections with Phoenicia, where the Mycenean Greeks and the Euboean Greeks established trading posts. Important legends related to Boeotia include: Eros, worshiped by a fertility cult in Thespiae The Muses of Mount Helicon Ogyges and the Ogygian deluge Cadmus, said to have founded Thebes and brought the alphabet to Greece Dionysus and Semele Narcissus Heracles, born in Thebes The Theban Cycle, including the myths of Oedipus and the Sphinx, the Seven against Thebes Antiope and her sons Amphion and Zethus Niobe Orion, born in Boeotia and said to have fathered 50 sons with a local river god's daughters.
Many of these legends were used in plays by the tragic Greek poets, Aeschylus and Euripides: Aeschylus's Seven Against Thebes Sophocles's Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone, known as the Theban plays Euripides's Bacchae, Phoenician Women and HeraclesThey were used in lost plays such as Aeschylus's Niobe and Euripides's Antiope. Boeotia was notable for the ancient oracular shrine of Trophonius at Lebadea. Graea, an ancient city in Boeotia, is sometimes thought to be the origin of the Latin word Graecus, from which English derives the words Greece and Greeks; the major poets Hesiod and Pindar were Boeotians. Boeotia had significant political importance, owing to its position on the north shore of the Gulf of Corinth, the strategic strength of its frontiers, the ease of communication within its extensive area. On the other hand, the lack of good harbours hindered its maritime development; the importance of the legendary Minyae has been confirmed by archaeological remains. The Boeotian population entered the land from the north before the Dorian invasion.
With the exception of the Minyae, the original peoples were soon absorbed by these immigrants, the Boeotians henceforth appear as a homogeneous nation. Aeolic Greek was spoken in Boeotia. In historical times, the leading city of Boeotia was Thebes, whose central position and military strength made it a suitable capital, it was the constant ambition of the Thebans to absorb the other townships into a single state, just as Athens had annexed the Attic communities. But the outlying cities resisted this policy, only allowed the formation of a loose federation, religious. While the Boeotians, unlike the Arcadians acted as a united whole against foreign enemies, the constant struggle between the cities was a serious check on the nation's development. Boeotia hardly figures in history before the late 6th century BC. Previous to this, its people are chiefly known as the makers of a type of geometric pottery, similar to