The Guangzhou Metro is the rapid transit system of the city of Guangzhou in Guangdong Province of China. It is operated by the state-owned Guangzhou Metro Corporation and was the fourth metro system to be built in mainland China, after those of Beijing and Shanghai; the earliest efforts to build an underground rapid transit system in Guangzhou date back to 1960. In the two decades that followed, the project was brought into the agenda five times, but ended up abandoned each time due to financial and technical difficulties. Preparation of what would lead to today's Guangzhou Metro did not start until the 1980s, it was not until 1993 that construction of the first line, Line 1 began. Line 1 opened four years in 1997 with five stations in operation; as of December 2017 Guangzhou Metro has 13 lines in operation, namely Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 5, Line 6, Line 7, Line 8, Line 9, Line 13, Line 14, Line 21, Guangfo Line, Zhujiang New Town APM reaching both the urban core and surrounding suburbs.
Guangfo Line connects Guangzhou and Foshan and is the first metro line between two cities in the country. Daily service hours start at 6:00 am and end at midnight, daily ridership averages over 7 million. Having delivered 2.568 billion rides in 2016 is the fourth busiest metro system in the world, after the metro systems of Beijing and Seoul. Guangzhou Metro operates 257 stations, including 32 interchange stations, 476.26 km of lines. Extensive development of the metro network has been planned for the decade of 2011–2020. With construction started on Line 10, Line 11, Line 12, Line 18, Line 21, Line 22 and extensions of Line 3, Line 5, Line 8, Line 13, Line 14 and Guangfo Line and an extension of Line 7 into Shunde, Foshan. Total operational capacity is scheduled to exceed 600 km by 2020; the Guangzhou Metro is constructing connections to neighboring cities. Foshan is connected via the Guangfo Metro with connections via Line 7 and Foshan Metro Line 2 under construction. Dongguan city is proposing connections with the Dongguan Metro.
Neighboring Huizhou city proposed in 2016 that Guangzhou Metro Line 16 be extended into Longmen County, achieving the integration of Huizhou and Guangzhou. In January 2018, Huizhou's mayor Mai Jiaomeng revealed that Huizhou was studying two connections with the Guangzhou Metro with Line 16 heading to Yonghan Town, Longmen County and Line 21 extended to Mount Luofu in Boluo County. In 2018, Guangzhou and neighboring Zhongshan city are studying the feasibility of extending Line 18 into Zhongshan. Chen Yu, Governor of Guangdong in 1957–1967, was the first to have proposed an underground metro system for Guangzhou. In the summer of 1960, he ordered a secret geological survey of groundwater levels of Guangzhou. Six holes with an accumulated depth of 1980 m were drilled in the plateaus and alluvial plains in the city; the geological conditions of Guangzhou, despite their complexity, did not preclude the possibility of an underground metro system. Analysis of the survey data resulted in a confidential report titled Geological Survey for Guangzhou Underground Railway Project dated July 1961, the earliest one of such reports.
In 1965, Chen Yu along with Tao Zhu, the Governor of Guangdong and First Secretary of Guangdong Committee of the Communist Party of China, proposed in the wake of the Gulf of Tonkin incident that a tunnel be built in Guangzhou for wartime evacuations and post-war metro development. Approved by the central government, the project started in the spring of 1965. Due to its confidentiality in the context of intensification of the Vietnam War, the project adopted the obscure name of "Project Nine", where "Nine" was the number of strokes in "地下", the Chinese word for "underground"; as envisaged by Chen Yu, the metro system of Guangzhou would consist of two lines: a north-south line that would connect Nanfang Building to Sanyuanli via Renmin Lu and Jiefang Beilu, an east-west line that would run from Xichang to Dongshan along today's Dongfeng Lu. The two lines parallelled Line 2 and Line 1 of the modern days, respectively; the east-west line was never built. Over ten teams of miners were recruited for a project filled with perils.
Constrained by extreme scarcity of time and material resources, the ambition to build a tunnel for metro operation was scaled back—capability to run trolleybuses was deemed acceptable. At a cost of ¥13 million, an 8 km long tunnel was completed in 1966; the tunnel was ready for use as an air-raid shelter. In the two decades that followed, four attempts were made to revive and expand Project Nine, first in 1970, next in 1971 in 1974, last in 1979. None of these efforts materialized; the metro project of Guangzhou was launched for the sixth time in 1984 as the Preparation Office of Guangzhou Metro, established back in 1979 as part of the last attempt to resurrect Project Nine, was moved out of the civil air defence system and became a subordinate body of the Construction Commission of Guangzhou, bringing Guangzhou Metro into the scope of urban infrastructure development. Prior to the 1980s, war preparedness was the dominant tenet of underground infrastructure projects in mainland China; the construction of Guangzhou Metro marked the first deviation from the old doctrine as traffic itself became the prim
Line 3 (Guangzhou Metro)
Line 3 of the Guangzhou Metro is a 67.3-kilometer rapid transit line connecting Panyu Square to Tianhe Coach Terminal. The entire line, including all track and stations, is located in underground tunnels, its 60.4 km main branch, excluding the 6.9 km branch between Tianhe Coach Terminal and Tiyu Xilu, is the longest continuous subway tunnel in the world, the longest rail tunnel of any kind. Line 3 is split into two sections, Shiqiao line and Airport line, are branded with the colour orange. Line 3 was built in four main stages, opened over a five-year period: 26 December 2001 - Construction of Line 3 phase 1 commenced with an experimental section at Datang. 26 January 2003 - Construction work at Datang was completed and capped. 8 February 2003 - Tunnel boring machine beginning boring tunnels on first and third section of Line 3 phase 1. 18 May 2003 - Tunnel boring machine beginning boring tunnels on the second section of Line 2 at Tiyu Xilu. 30 May 2003 - Construction work at Shiqiao was capped one year ahead of schedule.
At the same time, Lijiao begin construction works. 3 August 2004 - Tunnel boring machine finish boring across the Pearl River. 9 August 2004 - Boring works was completed on Dashi to Hanxi Changlong. 22 October 2004 - First section of Line 3 phase 1 was completed Gangding was completed and capped. 26 November 2004 - Interior works at Kecun was completed. 28 February 2005 - Boring works was completed on Hanxi Changlong to Shiqiao. 22 May 2005 - Purchase of Seltrac S40 control system from Alcatel. 30 July 2005 - Purchase of 99 sets of escalator from Hitachi. 18 November 2005 - Train set from Zhuzhou CSR Group was delivered. 26 December 2005 - The first section of Line 3 phase 1 enter operation. 6 June 2006 - Boring works was completed on Line 3 phase 1. 25 September 2006 - Starting operation on the second section of Line 3 phase 1 was delayed. 20 November 2006 - Temporarily suspension of operation on Line 3 for 40 days. 30 December 2006 - The second and third section of Line 3 phase 1 was completed and entire Line 3 phase 1 resumed operation with new service routes: Tianhe Coach Terminal to Panyu Square and Tiyu Xilu to Guangzhou East.
14 May 2007 - Original Airport Express plan was merged into Line 3 as Line 3 phase 2 with it entire length underground instead of elevated line like the original plan. 24 June 2008 - One additional station were added into Line 3 phase 2. 8 December 2008 - Construction of Line 3 phase 2 commenced. 16 February 2009 - Tunnel boring machine beginning boring tunnels on Line 3 phase 2. 30 October 2010 - Line 3 phase 2 enter operation. 28 December 2017 - Gaozeng station added. 26 April 2018 - Extended from Airport South to Airport North. There are 4 types of train services offered on the metro line 3: Tiyu Xilu — Airport North Panyu Square — Tianhe Coach Terminal Panyu Square — Airport North Dashi ← Tonghe N - Northern extension M - Main line MN - Main + Northern services S - Short line services A eastern extension to Haibang is under construction with opening scheduled in 2022
2010 Asian Games
The 2010 Asian Games known as the XVI Asian Games, was a multi-sport event celebrated in Guangzhou, China from 12 to 27 November 2010, although several events had commenced from 7 November 2010. This was the second time China host the games, in which Guangzhou was the second Chinese city to host the Games, after Beijing in 1990. A total of 9,704 athletes from 45 National Olympic Committees competed in 476 events from 42 sports and disciplines, making it the largest event in the history of the Games. Due to reductions in the number of sports to be contested for the 2014 Asian Games, these Games marked the final time that six non-Olympic events would be held during the Asian Games; the Games were co-hosted by Dongguan and Shanwei, the three neighbouring cities. It was opened by Premier Wen Jiabao in Haixinsha Island. A total of 53 venues were used to host the events including 11 constructed for use at the Games; the design concept of the official logo of these Asian Games was based on the legend about the Guangzhou, featured a stylised calligraphic "Stone Statue of Five Goats in Yuexiu Hill", a symbol of the host city.
The opening and closing ceremonies were held along the Pearl River in Haixinsha Island, was the first time in history that the opening ceremony for a major sports event was not held inside a stadium. The final medal tally was led followed by South Korea and third place Japan. China set a new Games record with 199 gold medals. Three World and 103 Asian records were broken. In addition, the badminton men's singles gold medalist Lin Dan was voted as most valuable player; the President of Olympic Council of Asia Sheikh Ahmed Al-Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah hailed the Games as "outstanding" and "one of the best ever". The Olympic Council of Asia selected Guangzhou to host the 2010 Games at their 23rd general assembly session in Doha, site of the 2006 Asian Games, on July 1, 2004. Seoul and Amman dropped out before their bids were selected by the OCA, leaving only two candidate cities— Guangzhou and Kuala Lumpur. Seoul withdrew after considering the short span of time between 2002 and 2010, as South Korea hosted the 2002 Games in Busan.
Evaluation committee of the OCA, headed by the vice-president of the association Celso Dayrit inspected both the final bidders. Kuala Lumpur was forced to withdraw its bid after the declaration of the Malaysian Government on April 15, 2004 that it wouldn't support the Olympic Council of Malaysia with a Kuala Lumpur bid, due to the high cost of hosting the Games, leaving Guangzhou as the sole bidder; the official emblem of the Games was unveiled at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall on November 26, 2006. It is a stylized representation of Guangzhou's "Statue of the Five Goats" fused with a running track; the goat, in Chinese tradition, is a blessing and brings people luck while the host city Guangzhou is known as the "City of Goats". The orange and yellow emblem resembles a flame; the mascots of the Games were the five sporty rams. They were unveiled on April 28, 2008 at the Guangzhou Baiyun International Convention and Exhibition Center; the five rams, including four small with one large, were named– A Xiang, A He, A Ru, A Yi and Le Yangyang.
The Chinese character "yang," or "goat," is an auspicious symbol because, when read together, the Chinese names of the five rams are a message of blessing meaning "harmony, blessings and happiness". The medal designs themed the "Maritime Silk Road" were unveiled at Guangzhou No. 2 Children's Palace on 29 September 2010. It featured the Emblem of the Olympic Council of Asia and Guangzhou's kapok flower on the obverse and the Maritime Silk Road image and the games' logo on the reverse; the Maritime Silk Road image depicts a Chinese boat sailing on the sea, represents Guangzhou as the starting place of Maritime Silk Road, an important commercial centre and port in South China region. The official theme song was released on September 30, 2010, is called "Reunion", it was composed by Wu Liqun, with lyrics written by Xu Rongkai, while the English version was translated by Chen Ning Yang, a Chinese-American physicist, his wife, Weng Fan. The song was performed by Sun Nan and Bella Yao. Sun Nan performed it again with Mao Amin for a music video.
The official motto of the 2010 Asian Games is "Thrilling Games, Harmonious Asia". It was chosen to represent the goal of the Asian Games, based on Olympic ideals and values, aimed at creating a competitive atmosphere for participating athletes while promoting unity and friendship among Asian people regardless of differences in race, religious beliefs and language. On March 11, 2005, Lin Shusen party secretary of the Guangzhou Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China said the Games "will not cost more than ￥2 billion", in stark contrast to an earlier report, which had claimed that the cost could exceed ￥200 billion. In March 2009, the director of the marketing department of the Games, Fang Da’er, claimed that the Games were short of funds, due to lack of sponsorship and the global financial crisis. An informal estimate put the Games' expenditure at about US$420 million and revenue at US$450 million. On October 13, 2010, Wan Qingliang, mayor of Guangzhou at the time revealed in a press conference that the total cost of staging the Asian Games and Asian Para Games is about ￥122.6 billion, with ￥109 billion spent on the city's infrastructure, ￥6.3 billion on the venues and some ￥7.3 billion spent on Games' operation.
The full spending details would be released
Zhujiang New Town Automated People Mover System
Zhujiang New Town Automated People Mover System, or APM line, is an automated people mover system serving the Zhujiang New Town area in Guangzhou, the new CBD of the city. It is automatic operating system. In terms of construction cost per kilometre, it is the most expensive people mover system in the world, yet it is the shortest and least used line in the Guangzhou Metro network; the whole line began service before the Asian Games on 8 November 2010 with the exception of Haixinsha and Canton Tower. This was due to the two stations being located close to the closing ceremony venue; the entire track of the Zhujiang New Town APM, with a length of 3.49 km and all nine stations are laid underground, making it the first all underground urban people mover in the world. The shortest distance between two stations is 315 metres with an average of the entire line approximating 473 metres; the system was designed to provide service from 6:00 to 24:00 every day, may run extra hours on special occasions, such as weekends, holidays or when major events are being held.
But due to the low demand, trains operated from 8:00 to 20:00. The service hours have since been extended and from 4 October 2014 trains have been operating between 7:00 and 23:30; the APM uses 14 Bombardier Transportation's APM 100 cars built in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
1991 FIFA Women's World Cup
The 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup was the inaugural FIFA Women's World Cup, the world championship for women's national association football teams. It took place in Guangdong, China from 16 to 30 November 1991. FIFA, football's international governing body selected China as host nation as Guangdong had hosted a prototype world championship three years earlier, the 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament. Matches were played in the state capital, Guangzhou, as well as in Foshan and Zhongshan; the competition was sponsored by Incorporated. With FIFA still reluctant to bestow their "World Cup" brand, the tournament was known as the 1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&M's Cup, it was won by the United States, whose captain April Heinrichs formed a forward line dubbed the "triple–edged sword" with Carin Jennings and Michelle Akers-Stahl. Jennings was named player of the tournament; the United States beat Norway 2–1 in the final in front of a crowd of 65,000 people at Guangzhou's Tianhe Stadium.
Total attendance was 510,000, an average per match of 19,615. In the opening match at the same stadium, Norway had been defeated 4–0 by hosts China. Chinese defender Ma Li scored the first goal in Women's World Cup history, while goalkeeper Zhong Honglian of China, posted the first official "clean sheet" in the tournament; the 12 qualified teams were divided into three groups of four. The top two teams and the two best third-place finishers from the three groups advanced to the knockout round of eight teams. Twelve teams qualified for the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup final tournament; each of the six FIFA confederations had at least one representative. For a list of the squads that disputed the final tournament, see 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup squads. For the first time in FIFA competition, six female officials were included. All functioned as assistant referees, except for Cláudia Vasconcelos who took charge of the third place play–off.
Tianhe District is one of the eleven districts of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province. In Chinese, the name Tianhe means "a river in the sky/heavens", a Chinese name for the Milky Way, it is bordered by Yuexiu District on the west, Baiyun District on the north and Huangpu District on the east. Haizhu District is on its south. Tianhe became a district in the 1980s. Back it was east of Dongshan District and it was more suburban like if not rural like. Though a majority of colleges and universities in the city were located in the district, the rest of the district was composed of rice fields. Symbolic landmarks of Guangzhou located in Tianhe District are: Citic Plaza, Guangzhou International Finance Center, Guangzhou Opera House, the Guangdong Museum; the 6th and 9th of The National Games of the People's Republic of China, the 2010 Asian Games were held in Tianhe District, Guangzhou. Prehistoric population settled in. Eastern Han tombs were discovered in Tianhe. During the Song Dynasty, Tianhe area was called Dashuixu.
The area of modern Tianhe District was part of Panyu County for more than two thousand years. The area was put under Guangzhou's administration between 1937 and 1958. By the liberation of Guangzhou, there were two districts in Tianhe area, namely Shipai. In 1951 both districts were merged into the newly established Baiyun District, while five years Baiyun was further merged with Huangpu and Xinjiao Districts to form suburban district. In 1960 Jiaoqu was dissolved and the area consisting of modern Tianhe became Huangpu District, however it was reestablished two years later. In 1985 part of Jiaoqu was split, Tianhe District was established then. In 1987 Tonghe Town was put into Baiyun District. In 1992 Yangji Cun was put into Dongshan District. By 1994, Kemulang and Fenghuang Farms along with Shadongcun and Erduicun were placed under Tianhe's jurisdiction. In 2000, former Xintang, Mubei and Yushu Farms were placed under Tianhe and the farms became subdistricts; the first big project built in the district during the 1980s was the Tianhe Sports Center when the city was selected to host the Sixth National Games in 1986.
The complex includes a stadium of a gymnasium and an indoor swimming pool. Its construction had a lasting impact on the development of the district. Soon other projects followed and rice fields gave away to residential complexes called "xiaoqu"; the construction of xiaoqu began in the mid and late eighties and most of them had residential buildings of no more than 10 stories. Each floor was kept to no more than four units due to the lack of elevators since they would increase the construction cost. Due to the sheer number of residential buildings – some xiaoqu had more than 20 residential buildings – a lot of land was needed and thus converted; the building of Guangzhou East Railway Station in 1990 further contributed to the growth of the district. The old Guangzhou Railway Station is 10 km to the west and was the terminus for trains to and from Beijing and Hong Kong. To relieve the traffic, the East Railroad Station was built and is now the terminus for trains to and from Hong Kong and Shenzhen.
As the district developed, the size of xiaoqu became smaller since land became more valuable and expensive. Most of the new xiaoqu now only consist of four to six residential buildings but each can contain 30 floors or more since the growth of district attracted big developers where the cost of construction was no longer an issue. Taller residential buildings gave rise to taller office buildings. South of the Sports Center and north of the Zhujiang River is Zhujiang New Town, an area desolate a decade ago but, now one of the fastest-developing areas of Guangzhou. Many of Guangzhou's newest and most iconic buildings are found in this part of the district. Several venues used for the 2010 Asian Games are located in Tianhe District. Guangzhou Science City Kung Fu restaurants has its headquarters in the district Jinyi Cinemas has its headquarters in the district Chow Sang Sang's Mainland division, Chow Sang Sang Company Limited Google has its Guangzhou office in Teemtower of Teem Plaza. All Nippon Airways operates its Guangzhou Office in the district.
Since May 3, 2011 it has been located in Tower A of Victory Plaza. On May 2, 2011 and prior, it was located in the 2605 CITIC Plaza. Renren.com has its Guangzhou office in China Shine Plaza. 56.com was headquartered in Huajingyuan in Tianhe Software Park. The Consulate General of the United States, Guangzhou is in Tianhe District. Many of the city's colleges and universities are located in the district, they include: Guangzhou Sport University PLA Institute of Physical Education, Guangzhou Jinan University Guangdong University of Technology South China Agricultural University South China University of Technology South China Normal UniversityInternational schools in the district include: Japanese School of Guangzhou Huamei-Bond International College Guangzhou Nanfang International SchoolFormer international schools: American International School of Guangzhou in The Greenery École Française Internationale de Canton in Favorview Besides the Guangzhou East Railway Station, Tianhe is the terminus for several Guangzhou Metro lines, one line goes through it: Ti
Line 1 (Guangzhou Metro)
Line 1 of the Guangzhou Metro runs from Xilang to Guangzhou East Railway Station. Apart from Kengkou and Xilang, all stations in Line 1 are underground; the first section, from Xilang to Huangsha, opened on 28 June 1997, making Guangzhou the fourth city in mainland China to have a metro system. The full line started operation two years on 28 June 1999. Line 1 is coloured yellow. 1984 - The municipal government set up the Preparation Office of Guangzhou Metro. 14 March 1988 - Chinese and French co-planning team publish four tentative designs of Line 1 and Line 2. 28 December 1993 - Construction of Line 1 commenced. 28 June 1997 - Line 1 opened for trial operation. 28 December 1998 - The entire Line 1 was completed. 16 February and 2 March 1999 - The entire line enter sightseeing tour trial operation. 28 June 1999 - The entire line enter operation