The Dajue Temple is a Buddhist temple located in the Haidian District of western Beijing, China. It was founded in the 11th century, the current temple dates to a reconstruction in the 15th century during the Ming Dynasty, it contains a gate, a pagoda and various side halls. According to a stele at the temple, Dajue Temple was first built in 1068 during the Liao Dynasty and called Qingshui Temple, after a stream that ran through the temple grounds, it was renamed Lingquan Temple, after being rebuilt in 1428 during the Ming Dynasty, was given its present name, "Dajue Temple." The temple went through renovations in 1720 and 1747. The temple is arranged on an east-west axis, contains five main buildings. Beginning at the east is the main gate followed by the Mahavira hall, the Amitabha Hall, the Sarira pagoda and the Longwang Hall, a building used to store sutras; the Mahavira hall contains three large statues dating from the Ming Dynasty. The central one is of Sakyamuni, the left one is the Buddha of Medicine and right is Amitabha.
Behind these three statues, facing the back exit of the hall, is a statue of Samatabhadra. On each side of the hall are statues of twenty devas. On the wall behind these devas is a mural. There is a large dragon carved into the ceiling. Statues of the Four Heavenly Kings of Dajue Temple The Amitabha hall contains a large statue of Guanyin, flanked by two Bodhisattva statues. Behind the statues, facing the back entrance, there is a Qing-era flying statue; the Sarira pagoda contains the relics of the monk Jialing, abbot of the temple for a few years in the 1720s. It was built shortly after his death in 1728; the bottom part of the pagoda is an octagon, while the middle part is circular. The pagoda tapers out into a slender spire. Pillsbury, Adam. Beijing Excursion Guide. Beijing: China Population Publishing, 2007. Li Jianbo. Dajue Si. Beijing: Beijing Yanshan Publishers, 2001. Liao Pin and Wu Wen; the Temples of Beijing. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 2006
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
The Badachu, is a complex of monasteries located on the outskirts of urban Beijing, which means "Eight Great Sites" that refers to the eight Buddhist temples and nunneries scattered across the Cuiwei and Lushi hills in Shijingshan District, at the foot of Beijing's Western Hills. Chang'an Temple, means the temple of Eternal Peace. Lingguang Temple, means the temple of Divine Light. Sanshan Nunnery, means the nunnery of Three-hills. Dabei Temple, means the temple of Great Mercy. Longquan Nunnery, means the nunnery of Dragon Spring. Xiangjie Temple, means the temple of the Fragrant World. Baozhu Cave, means the cave of Precious Pearl. Zhengguo Temple, means the temple of Thoroughly Transform. Visitors can walk from one temple to another, viewing the area's scenery and rare ancient trees; some of these trees have been standing for over six centuries, but their roots and branches are still strong and in good shape. In September and October, when the leaves are turning red, crowds of tourists come to climb the mountains.
There is a cable-car to the top of the hill. The Eight Great Temples in the Western Hills
A facade is one exterior side of a building the front. It is a foreign loan word from the French façade, which means "frontage" or "face". In architecture, the facade of a building is the most important aspect from a design standpoint, as it sets the tone for the rest of the building. From the engineering perspective of a building, the facade is of great importance due to its impact on energy efficiency. For historical facades, many local zoning regulations or other laws restrict or forbid their alteration; the word comes from the French foreign loan word façade, which in turn comes from the Italian facciata, from faccia meaning face from post-classical Latin facia. The earliest usage recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is 1656, it was quite common in the Georgian period for existing houses in English towns to be given a fashionable new facade. For example, in the city of Bath, The Bunch of Grapes in Westgate Street appears to be a Georgian building, but the appearance is only skin deep and some of the interior rooms still have Jacobean plasterwork ceilings.
This new construction has happened in other places: in Santiago de Compostela the 3-metres-deep Casa do Cabido was built to match the architectural order of the square, the main Churrigueresque facade of the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, facing the Praza do Obradoiro, is encasing and concealing the older Portico of Glory. In modern highrise building, the exterior walls are suspended from the concrete floor slabs. Examples include precast concrete walls; the facade can at times be required to have a fire-resistance rating, for instance, if two buildings are close together, to lower the likelihood of fire spreading from one building to another. In general, the facade systems that are suspended or attached to the precast concrete slabs will be made from aluminium or stainless steel. In recent years more lavish materials such as titanium have sometimes been used, but due to their cost and susceptibility to panel edge staining these have not been popular. Whether rated or not, fire protection is always a design consideration.
The melting point of aluminium, 660 °C, is reached within minutes of the start of a fire. Firestops for such building joints can be qualified, too. Putting fire sprinkler systems on each floor has a profoundly positive effect on the fire safety of buildings with curtain walls; some building codes limit the percentage of window area in exterior walls. When the exterior wall is not rated, the perimeter slab edge becomes a junction where rated slabs are abutting an unrated wall. For rated walls, one may choose rated windows and fire doors, to maintain that wall's rating. On a film set and within most themed attractions, many of the buildings are only facades, which are far cheaper than actual buildings, not subject to building codes. In film sets, they are held up with supports from behind, sometimes have boxes for actors to step in and out of from the front if necessary for a scene. Within theme parks, they are decoration for the interior ride or attraction, based on a simple building design. Façades: Principles of Construction.
By Ulrich Knaack, Tillmann Klein, Marcel Bilow and Thomas Auer. Boston/Basel/Berlin: Birkhaüser-Verlag, 2007. ISBN 978-3-7643-7961-2 ISBN 978-3-7643-7962-9 Giving buildings an illusion of grandeur Facades of Casas Chorizo in Buenos Aires, Argentina Poole, Thomas. "Façade". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company; the article outlines the development of the facade in ecclesiastical architecture from the early Christian period to the Renaissance
Chinese architecture demonstrates an architectural style that developed over millennia in China, before spreading out to influence architecture all throughout East Asia. Since the solidification of the style in the early imperial period, the structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. Starting with the Tang dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the architectural styles of Japan and Mongolia, a varying amount of influence on the architectural styles of Southeast and South Asia including Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam and The Philippines. Chinese architecture is typified by various features. Chinese architecture traditionally classifies structures according to type, ranging from pagodas to palaces. In part because of an emphasis on the use of wood, a perishable material, due to a de-emphasis on major monumental structures built of less-organic but more durable materials, much of the historical knowledge of Chinese architecture derives from surviving miniature models in ceramic and published planning diagrams and specifications.
Some of the architecture of China shows the influence of other types or styles from outside of China, such as the influences on mosque structures originating in the Middle East. Although displaying certain unifying aspects, rather than being homogeneous, Chinese architecture has many types of variation based on status or affiliation, such as dependence on whether the structures were constructed for emperors, commoners, or used for religious purposes. Other variations in Chinese architecture are shown in the varying styles associated with different geographic regions and in ethnic architectural design; the architecture of China is as old as Chinese civilization. From every source of information—literary, exemplary—there is strong evidence testifying to the fact that the Chinese have always enjoyed an indigenous system of construction that has retained its principal characteristics from prehistoric times to the present day. Over the vast area from Chinese Turkistan to Japan, from Manchuria to the northern half of French Indochina, the same system of construction is prevalent.
That this system of construction could perpetuate itself for more than four thousand years over such a vast territory and still remain a living architecture, retaining its principal characteristics in spite of repeated foreign invasions—military and spiritual—is a phenomenon comparable only to the continuity of the civilization of which it is an integral part. Throughout the 20th century, Chinese architects have attempted to combine traditional Chinese designs into modern architecture, with great success. Moreover, the pressure for urban development throughout contemporary China required higher speed of construction and higher floor area ratio, which means that in the great cities the demand for traditional Chinese buildings, which are less than 3 levels, has declined in favor of modern architecture. However, the traditional skills of Chinese architecture, including major and minor carpentry and stonemasonry, are still applied to the construction of vernacular architecture in the vast rural area in China.
Chinese architechture included great wall of China Chinese civilizational cultures developed in the plains along the numerous rivers that emptied into the Bohai and Hongzhow bays. The most prominent of these rivers, the Yellow and the Yangtze, hosted a complex fabric of villages; the climate was warmer and more humid than today, allowing for millet to be grown in the north and rice in the south. There was, however, no single "origin" of the Chinese civilization. Instead, there was a gradual multinuclear development between the years 4000 and 2000 BC - fom village communities to what anthropologists call cultures to small but well-organized states. 2 of the more important cultures were the Hongshan culture to the north of Bohai Bay in Inner Mongolia and Hebai Province and the contemporaneous Yangshao culture in Henan Province. Between the 2, developing was the Longshan culture in the central and lower Yellow River valley; these combined areas gave rise to thousands of small states and proto-states by 3000 BC.
Some continued to share a common ritual center that linked the communities to a single symbolic order, but others developed along more independent lines. All was not peaceful, the emergence of walled cities during this time is a clear indication that the political landscape was much in flux; the Hongshan culture of Inner Mongolia was scattered over a large area but had a single, common ritual center that consisted of at least 14 burial mounds and altars over several hill ridges. It dates from around 3500 BC but could have been founded earlier. Although there is no evidence of village settlements nearby, its size is much larger than one clan or village could support. In other words, though rituals would have been performed here for the elites, the large area implies that audiences for the ritual would have encompassed all the villages of the Hongshan culture; as a sacred landscape, the center might have attracted supplicants from further afield. A important feature in Chinese architecture is its emphasis on articulation and bilateral symmetry, which signifies balance.
Bilateral symmetry and the articulation of buildings are
The Tanzhe Temple is a Buddhist temple situated in the Western Hills, a mountainous area in western Beijing. At one time, it was one of the most important temples in the nation; the temple is located near China National Highway 108 in the Mentougou District of Beijing. Built in the Jin Dynasty, it has an age of around 1,700 years. Tanzhe Temple is one of the oldest temples in Beijing; the area of the entire temple is 100 mu, its arrangement of halls is akin to that found in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Tanzhe Temple temple was first established in the 1st year of Yongjia period in Western Jin dynasty with the name of Jiafu Temple and was renamed Xiuyun Temple by Kangxi Emperor in the Qing dynasty, but since there was a dragon pool behind the temple and mulberry trees in the mountain, so people always call it "Tanzhe Temple". For the reason that it was first built earlier than Beijing city, so there is a saying that "there comes first the Tanzhe Temple the Beijing city". Tanzhe Temple entered the most glorious period in the Qing dynasty, four emperors, namely Kangxi Emperor, Yongzheng Emperor, Qianlong Emperor and Jiaqing Emperor all came to Tanzhe Temple to worship Buddha, which elevated its position and attracted more people to the temple.
Most of the existing buildings in the temple are from the Ming and Qing dynasties, there are pagodas from various historical periods such as the Jin, Yuan and Qing dynasties. The over 900 rooms and 638 halls still maintain in the style of the Ming Qing dynasty; the two "Emperor trees" by the Hall of Three Sages were planted during the Liao Dynasty about 1,000 years ago. The spacious and imposing buildings are arranged in three main northsouth axes. Along the central axis are the Archway, the shanmen, Deveraja Hall, Mahavira Hall and Vairochana Pavilion; the temple's central hall is its Mahavira Hall. 24 m in length, 33 m wide. Buddhist monks perform religious ceremony here; the temple is divided between the Hall of the Ordination Altar and the Hall of Guanyin. The latter has received fame because of its association with Princess Miaoyan, daughter of Kublai Khan; the princess is said to have entered nunnery here in the 13th century. The indentations can be prayed within the hall, she was buried within the temple compound.
To the right of the main courtyard lies a separate yard containing stone monuments built in different styles over a period of several centuries and housing the remains of eminent monks. The Mahavira Hall has double-eave hip roofs covered with yellow glazed titles, which symbolize a high level in Chinese architecture. Under the eaves is a plaque with the words "Fuhai Zhulun" written by Qianlong Emperor in the Qing dynasty. On each end of the main ridge is a giant glazed Chiwen with colorful glaze and vivid style, it was made in the Yuan dynasty. Chiwen is a legendary animal with a dragon fish tail. In the ancient time, people placed Chiwen at both ends of houses' main ridges to prevent water leakage, avoid fire and protect their family, it was said that when Kangxi Emperor once came to Tanzhe Temple, he saw the Chiwen was going to leave, he ordered to build a long gilded chain and plug a sword to lock and prevent it from escaping. The Yigan Pavilion known as Liubei Pavilion, its ground, made of white marble, is inscribed with twists and turns of the sinks winding and constituting a pattern of a dragon and a tiger.
Springs spout out from the mouth of stone dragon waterway in the northeast corner of the pavilion and flow in the winding sinks. Visitors can sit in the pavilion and emulate ancient people's custom of "Qushui Liushang" and enjoy the wine and poems composing. Tanzhe Temple has a large scale of tomb pagodas built near it. Now near 70 pagodas built in different dynasties are preserved, they are of various types, such as stone column pagodas, monolayer square pagodas, dense-eave brick pagodas and overturned-bowl shaped pagodas with Tibetan style
Beijing romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast. Beijing is an important world capital and global power city, one of the world's leading centers for politics and business, education, culture and technology, architecture and diplomacy. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's political and educational center, it is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions. It is a major hub for the national highway, expressway and high-speed rail networks.
The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010, and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world. Combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back three millennia; as the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries, was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A. D. Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural center of an area as immense as China." With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital.
The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, parks, tombs and gates. It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal— all tourist locations. Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. Many of Beijing's 91 universities rank among the best in China, such as the Peking University and Tsinghua University. Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is known as China's Silicon Valley and a center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship. Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names; the name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital", was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing. The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin.
An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries. Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng, prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation. Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with IATA Code PEK, Peking University, still use the former romanization; the single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ"; the earliest traces of human habitation in the Beijing municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago.
Paleolithic Homo sapiens lived there more about 27,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in downtown Beijing; the first walled city in Beijing was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen area in the south of Xicheng District; this settlement was conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital. After the First Emperor unified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region. During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling to the Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao; the AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was the capital of the Xianbei Former Yan Kingdom. After China was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal.
Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own shor