Reed Flute Cave
The Reed Flute Cave is a landmark and tourist attraction in Guilin, China. It is a limestone cave with multicolored lighting and has been one of Guilin’s most interesting attractions for over 1200 years. It is over 180 million years old, the cave got its name from the type of reed growing outside, which can be made into flutes. Reed Flute Cave is filled with a number of stalactites, stalagmites. Inside, there are more than 70 inscriptions written in ink and these aged inscriptions tell us that it has been an attraction in Guilin since ancient times. It was rediscovered in the 1940s by a group of fleeing the Japanese troops. Nowadays, multicolored lighting artificially illuminates the cave
Snowy Jade Cave
Snowy Jade Cave is a National Three Gorges Scenic Area and a National 4A Scenic Area located in Fengdu County, Chongqing Municipality, Peoples Republic of China, not far from the Yangtze River. The caves interior is Chinas only pure-white, jade-like example and it continues to expand due to erosion in the surrounding karst landscape. 1,644 metres long, of which 1,161 metres have been explored, both the 8 metres Stone Kings Flag and the 4 metres high Stone Kings Shield features are the largest of their type in the world. There are examples of corals. The surrounding area is home to rare animal species including macaque, wild boar. Fengdu Ghost City, a visitor attraction 12 km away Furong Cave Photograph of Stone Kings Flag
Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia, Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia, in the 1st century BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in between the late 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, the state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is 301 AD. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century, under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the fell in 1045. An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.
By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, during World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the worlds oldest national church, as the countrys primary religious establishment. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD, Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which was proclaimed in 1991, the native Armenian name for the country is Հայք.
The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Հայաստան, by addition of the Persian suffix -stan, the further origin of the name is uncertain. It is postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina, the ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a descendant of Hayk
Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien is a cave system in Beijing, China. Dates of when Peking Man inhabited this site vary greatly,700, 000-200,000 years ago,670, 000-470,000 years ago and no earlier than 530,000 years ago. The Peking Man Site was first discovered by Johan Gunnar Andersson in 1921 and was first excavated by Otto Zdansky in 1921 and 1923 unearthing two human teeth and these were identified by Davidson Black as belonging to a previously unknown species and extensive excavations followed. Fissures in the limestone containing middle Pleistocene deposits have yielded the remains of about 45 individuals as well as animal remains and stone flake and chopping tools. The oldest animal remains date from as early as 690,000 years ago, during the Upper Palaeolithic, the site was re-occupied and remains of Homo sapiens and its stone and bone tools have been recovered from the Upper Cave. The crater Choukoutien on asteroid 243 Ida was named after the location, the caves are located in Fangshan District, southwest of central Beijing.
Granger were led to the known as Dragon Bone Hill by local quarry men. Noticing some white quartz that was foreign to the area he immediately realised that this would be a place to search for the remains of primitive man. In 1926 Anderson announced the discovery of two human molars amongst this material and the following year Zdansky published his finding cautiously identifying the teeth as. Homo sp. Canis c. f. variabilis, commonly known as the Zhoukoudian wolf, were found at the Zhoukoudian cave system and archaeological site in 1934 and named by its discoverer, funding was granted and the Zhoukoudian Project commenced excavations in 1927 under the supervision of Chinese archaeologist Li Jie. That fall, a tooth was unearthed by Swedish paleontologist Anders Birger Bohlin for which Black proposed belonged a new species named Sinanthropus pekinensis. The following year Blacks excavations uncovered more fossils of his new species including teeth, a part of a juveniles jaw. These finds allowed Black to secure an extra $80,000 grant from the Foundation which he used to establish a research laboratory, Black stayed on at the Laboratory as honorary director while excavations continued at the site under Chinese paleontologist Yang Zhongjian, anthropologists Pei Wenzhong and Jia Lanpo.
Conditions at the site were primitive, with scientists having to ride out to the excavation on mules and staying at caravansaries along the way. When the first skullcap was unearthed at the site in 1929, it was done by Pei, working in a 40-meter crevasse in frigid weather with a hammer in one hand and a candle in the other. A second skullcap is discovered close to the first in 1930, despite the conditions at the site eminent researchers continued to visit. French palaeontologist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin had been a visitor to the site since 1926. French archaeologist Henri Breuil visited in 1931 and confirmed the presence of stone tools and that same year evidence of the use of fire at the cave was accepted
Taiji Cave is a karst cave located on Shilong Mountain in Guangde County, Xuancheng City, Anhui Province, Peoples Republic of China, where the provinces of Jiangsu and Anhui meet. Ming Dynasty writer and poet Feng Menglong described the cave as one of the Four Absolutes Under Heaven and it is considered a primary Place of Enlightenment by Taoists, similar to the Bodhimanda of Buddhism. The 200-million-year-old cave is divided into dry and wet layers representing the yin, in February 2004, the Chinese State Council included the cave on its fifth list of National Scenic Attractions. It is a 4A rated National Tourism Area, at 5.4 kilometres in length and covering a surface area of 140,000 square metres, Taiji Cave is the largest natural limestone cave in East China. The caves first chamber extends to 1,600 square metres and has a height of 5 to 10 metres, to date nineteen separate chambers have been opened to visitors. There are more than 160 features inside the cave, including the Ten Large Landscapes, by boat it is possible to explore the water-filled level of the cave where there are many unusual rock formations.
These interior features of the cave are largely based on their resemblance to other objects, some are individual rock formations, whilst others are groups. Outside the cave lies the Inkstone Lake, said to be the location where Song Dynasty politician and writer Fan Zhongyan washed his inkstone
The caves contain some of the finest examples of Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years. The first caves were dug out in 366 AD as places of Buddhist meditation, the Mogao Caves are the best known of the Chinese Buddhist grottoes and, along with Longmen Grottoes and Yungang Grottoes, are one of the three famous ancient Buddhist sculptural sites of China. An important cache of documents was discovered in 1900 in the so-called Library Cave, the caves themselves are now a popular tourist destination, with a number open for visiting. Dunhuang was established as a frontier garrison outpost by the Han Dynasty Emperor Wudi to protect against the Xiongnu in 111 BC. It became an important gateway to the West, a centre of commerce along the Silk Road, as well as a place of various people. The construction of the Mogao Caves near Dunhuang is generally taken to have begun sometime in the fourth century AD. The story is found in other sources, such as in inscriptions on a stele in cave 332. He was joined by a second monk Faliang, and the site gradually grew, members of the ruling family of Northern Wei and Northern Zhou constructed many caves here, and it flourished in the short-lived Sui Dynasty.
By the Tang Dynasty, the number of caves had reached over a thousand, from the 4th until the 14th century, caves were constructed by monks to serve as shrines with funds from donors. The major caves were sponsored by such as important clergy, local ruling elite, foreign dignitaries. Other caves may have been funded by merchants, military officers, during the Tang Dynasty, Dunhuang became the main hub of commerce of the Silk Road and a major religious centre. The site escaped the persecution of Buddhists ordered by Emperor Wuzong in 845 as it was under Tibetan control, as a frontier town, Dunhuang had been occupied at various times by other non-Han Chinese people. After the Tang Dynasty, the site went into a gradual decline, by Islam had conquered much of Central Asia, and the Silk Road declined in importance when trading via sea-routes began to dominate Chinese trade with the outside world. During the Ming Dynasty, the Silk Road was finally officially abandoned, the biggest discovery, came from a Chinese Taoist named Wang Yuanlu who appointed himself guardian of some of these temples around the turn of the century.
Some of the caves had by been blocked by sand, in one such cave, on 25 June 1900, Wang discovered a walled up area behind one side of a corridor leading to a main cave. Behind the wall was a small cave stuffed with a hoard of manuscripts. Words of Wangs discovery drew the attention of a joint British/Indian group led by Hungarian archaeologist Aurel Stein who was on an expedition in the area in 1907. Stein negotiated with Wang to allow him to remove a significant number of manuscripts as well as the finest paintings, a well-known scholar Luo Zhenyu edited some of the manuscripts Pelliot acquired into a volume which was published in 1909 as Manuscripts of the Dunhuang Caves
Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times.
But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating.
Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree
Northern China or North China is a geographical region of China. The heartland of North China is the North China Plain, or the Yellow River Plain, North China is usually restricted to the northern part of China proper (inner China and excludes Xinjiang and often Manchuria and the Northeast China. The vast region in China from the Yellow River Valley south to the Yangtze River was the centre of Chinese empires, in prehistory and early history, the plain is considered the origin of Chinese civilization in official Chinese history. The region cultivated wheat, and most speak Northern Chinese, which includes Beijing dialect, which is largely the basis of Standard Chinese, jin Chinese and Mongolian are widely spoken. The region remains the political and cultural center of the PRC, in prehistory, the region was home to the Yangshao and Longshan cultures. Peking man was found near modern-day Beijing, North China Plain Northeast China East China Northern and southern China
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
Huanglong Cave is a karst cave located near the Wulingyuan district of Zhangjiajie City, Peoples Republic of China and a national 4A rated scenic area. As of 2010, the cave has over a million visitors per year, since 1997, the Huanglong Cave scenic area has been managed by Beijing-based China Datong Co. Ltd. It was previously managed directly by the Hunan provincial government, in addition to the cave itself the Huanglong Cave scenic area includes Huanglong Cave Ecology Square, completed in 2009 by restoring the landscape of the area adjacent to the cave entrance. In 2010, the Zhangjiajie government ordered the construction of the Hallelujah Concert Hall as the centerpiece to the Ecology Square, the hall has a grass-planted roof and cost 160 million Chinese yuan. Covering a total area of 48 hectares, the system extends to 15 kilometres in length and is divided into dry. There are four levels, thirteen chambers, three waterfalls, two underground rivers, three pools, ninety-six passages, as well as an underground lake.
The largest chamber in the cave is 4,000 square metres, the guided tour through the cave lasts about two hours and includes a boat ride down one of the underground rivers. List of caves in China Huanglong Cave website Zhangjiajie City Government website - Huanlong Cave