Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and the Republic of Azerbaijan. Iranian Azerbaijan is administratively divided into West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan and Zanjan provinces; the region is populated by Azeris, with minority populations of Kurds, Tats, Talysh and Persians. Iranian Azerbaijan is the land and called Azerbaijan. Historic Azerbaijan was called Atropatene in antiquity and Aturpatakan in the pre-Islamic Middle Ages; some people refer to Iranian Azerbaijan as South Azerbaijan and the Republic of Azerbaijan as Northern Azerbaijan, although others believe that these terms are irredentist and politically motivated. This term is used by the people of the Republic of Azerbaijan and its usage in Iran is rare. Following military defeats at the hands of the Russian Empire, Qajar Persia ceded all of its territories in the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia to Russia via the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813 and the Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828.
The territories south of the Aras River, which comprised the region known as Azerbaijan, became the new north-west frontier of the Persian Empire and Iran. The territories north of the Aras River, which were not known by the name Azerbaijan at the time of their capture by Russia, were absorbed into the Russian Empire, renamed the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic during the country's short-lived independence from 1918 to 1920, incorporated into the Soviet Union as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, became the independent Republic of Azerbaijan when the Soviet Union dissolved; the name Azerbaijan itself is derived from Atropates, the Persian Satrap of Medea in the Achaemenid empire, who ruled a region found in modern Iranian Azerbaijan called Atropatene. Atropates name is believed to be derived from the Old Persian roots meaning "protected by fire." The name is mentioned in the Avestan Frawardin Yasht: âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide which translates to: "We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare-pata."
According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam: "In Middle Persian the name of the province was called Āturpātākān, older new-Persian Ādharbādhagān, Ādharbāyagān, at present Āzerbāydjān/Āzarbāydjān, Greek Atropatíni, Byzantine Greek Adravigánon, Armenian Atrpatakan, Syriac Adhorbāyghān." The name Atropat in Middle Persian is connected with Zoroastrianism. A famous Zoroastrian priest by the name Adarbad Mahraspandan is well known for his counsels. Azerbaijan, due to its numerous fire-temples has been quoted in a variety of historic sources as being the birthplace of the prophet Zoroaster although modern scholars have not yet reached an agreement on the location of his birth. With Qajar Iran being forced to cede to Imperial Russia its Caucasian territories north of the Aras River during the course of the 19th century, through the treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay, vast amounts of soil were irrevocably lost. Following the disintegration of the Russian Empire in 1917, as well as the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, in 1918, the leading Musavat government adopted the name "Azerbaijan" for the newly established Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, proclaimed on May 27, 1918, for political reasons though the name of "Azerbaijan" had always been used to refer to the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran.
Thus, until 1918, when the Musavat regime decided to name the newly independent state Azerbaijan, this designation had been used to identify the Iranian province of Azerbaijan. The oldest kingdom known in Iranian Azerbaijan is that of the Mannea who ruled a region south-east of Lake Urmia centred around modern Saqqez; the Manneans were a confederation of non-Iranian groups. According to Professor Zadok: it is unlikely. Like other peoples of the Iranian plateau, the Manneans were subjected to an increasing Iranian penetration; the Mannaeans were conquered and absorbed by an Iranian people called Matieni, the country was called Matiene, with Lake Urmia called Lake Matianus. Matiene was conquered by the Medes and became a satrapy of the Median empire and a sub-satrapy of the Median satrapy of the Persian Empire. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the Medes were an: Indo-European people, related to the Persians, who entered northeastern Iran as early as the 17th century BC and settled in the plateau land that came to be known as Media.
After Alexander the Great conquered Persia, he appointed as governor the Persian general Atropates, who established an independent dynasty. The region, which came to be known as Atropatene or Media Atropatene, was much disputed. In the 2nd century BC, it was liberated from Seleucid domination by Mithradates I of Arsacid dynasty, was made a province of the Sassanid Empire of Ardashir I. Under the Sassanids, Azerbaijan was ruled by a marzubān, towards the end of the period, belonged to the family of Farrokh Hormizd. Large parts of the region were conquered by the Kingdom of Armenia. Large parts of the region made up part of historical Armenia; the parts of historical Armenia within what is m
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Marwān ibn al-Ḥakam ibn Abiʾl-ʿAs ibn Umayya known as Marwan I was the fourth caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He ruled for less than a year in 684–685, founding the Marwanid ruling house, which took over power from the Sufyanid branch of the Umayyad dynasty and remained in power until 750. Marwan had known the Islamic prophet Muhammad and is thus considered a ṣaḥābī, he served as the secretary and right-hand man of his kinsman Caliph Uthman and participated in the defense of his house during a rebel siege. Uthman was killed by the rebels, prompting Marwan to kill Talha ibn Ubayd Allah, whom he held culpable, during the Battle of the Camel in 656, he subsequently gave allegiance to Caliph Ali and served as governor of Medina under his kinsman Caliph Mu'awiya I, founder of the Umayyad Caliphate. Following the deaths of Mu'awiya I's successors Yazid I and Mu'awiya II in 683 and 684 Marwan organized the defense of the Umayyad realm in the Hejaz against Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, a rival claimant to the caliphate.
Ibn al-Zubayr expelled Marwan and his clan from Medina, they became refugees in Syria. As he was prepared to give allegiance to Ibn al-Zubayr, the ex-Umayyad governor of Iraq, Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, urged him to instead volunteer his candidacy for the caliphate during a summit of loyalist tribes at Jabiya; the tribal nobility, led by Ibn Bahdal of the Banu Kalb elected Marwan and together they defeated the pro-Zubayrid Qaysi tribes at the Battle of Marj Rahit. In the months that followed, Marwan reasserted Umayyad rule over the pro-Zubayrid territories of Egypt and northern Syria, while keeping the Qays in check in Upper Mesopotamia, he dispatched an expedition led by Ubayd Allah to reconquer Iraq, but died as it was on the move in the spring of 685. Prior to his death, Marwan established his sons in positions of power:'Abd al-Malik was designated his successor,'Abd al-'Aziz was made governor of Egypt and Muhammad oversaw military command in Upper Mesopotamia. Though Marwan was stigmatized as an outlaw and a father of tyrants in anti-Umayyad tradition, historian Clifford E. Bosworth asserts that the caliph was a shrewd and decisive military leader and statesman who laid the foundations of continued Umayyad rule for a further sixty-five years.
Marwan was born in 623 or 626 CE to father al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As and mother Amina bint'Alqama al-Kinaniyya. His father belonged to the Banu Umayya, the strongest clan of the Quraysh, a polytheistic tribe which dominated Mecca in western Arabia; the Quraysh converted to Islam en masse in circa 630 following the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, himself a member of the Quraysh. Marwan is thus counted among the latter's ṣaḥāba. Marwan had at least sixteen children, among them at least twelve sons from five wives and an umm walad. From his wife A'isha, a daughter of his paternal first cousin Mu'awiya ibn al-Mughira, he had his eldest son'Abd al-Malik, Mu'awiya and daughter Umm Amr, his wife Layla bint Zabban ibn al-Asbagh of the Banu Kalb bore him'Abd al-'Aziz and daughter Umm Uthman, while another wife, Qutayya bint Bishr of the Banu Kilab, bore him Bishr and Abd al-Rahman, the latter of whom died young. One of Marwan's wives, Umm Aban, was a daughter of his paternal first cousin and maternal half-brother, Uthman ibn Affan, who became caliph in 644.
She was mother to six of his sons, Uthman, Ubayd Allah, Ayyub and Abd Allah, though the last of them died a child. Marwan was married to a woman of the Banu Makhzum, Zaynab bint Umar, who mothered his son Umar. Marwan's umm walad was named Zaynab and gave birth to his son Muhammad. Marwan was the paternal uncle of ten nephews. During the reign of Caliph Uthman, Marwan took part in a military campaign against the Byzantines in Ifriqiya, where he acquired significant war spoils; these formed the basis of Marwan's substantial wealth, part of which he invested in properties in Medina. At an undetermined point, he served as Uthman's governor in Fars before becoming the caliph's kātib and the overseer of Medina's treasury. According to historian Clifford E. Bosworth, in this capacity Marwan "doubtless helped" in the revision "of what became the canonical text of the Qur'an" in Uthman's reign. Historian Hugh N. Kennedy asserts that Marwan was the caliph's "right-hand man". According to the traditional Muslim reports, many of Uthman's erstwhile backers among the Quraysh withdrew their support for him as a result of Marwan's increasing influence, which they blamed for the caliph's controversial decisions.
Donner questions the veracity of these reports, citing the unlikelihood that Uthman would be influenced by a younger relative such as Marwan and the rarity of specific charges against the latter, describes them as a possible "attempt by Islamic tradition to salvage Uthman's reputation as one of the so-called "rightly-guided" caliphs by making Marwan... the fall guy for the unhappy events at the end of Uthman's twelve-year reign". As discontent over Uthman's policies developed into rebellion, Marwan recommended a violent response. However, Uthman publicly recanted his behavior and desisted from military action against the rebel siege of his home in Medina in June 656. Despite orders to the contrary, Marwan defended Uthman's house and was badly wounded in the neck when he challenged the rebels assembled at its entrance. According to tradition, he was saved by the intervention of his wet nurse, Fatima bint Aws, was transported to the safety of her home by his
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate. He ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683, his appointment was the first hereditary succession in Islamic history and his caliphate was marked by the death of Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali and the start of the crisis known as the Second Fitna. In 676, Muawiya made him his heir apparent. A few prominent Muslims from Hejaz, including Husayn, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr and Abdullah ibn Umar, refused to accept his nomination. Following his accession after Muawiya's death in 680, Yazid demanded allegiance from these three, but only ibn Umar recognized him, while the other two refused and escaped to sanctuary of Mecca; when Husayn was on his way to Kufa to lead a revolt against Yazid, he was killed with his small band of supporters by forces of Yazid in the Battle of Karbala. Killing of Husayn led to widespread resentment in Hejaz, where Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr centered his opposition to rule of Yazid, was supported by many people in Mecca and Medina.
After failed attempts to regain confidence of ibn al-Zubayr and people of Hejaz through diplomacy, Yazid sent an army to end the rebellion. The army defeated Medinese in the Battle of al-Harrah in August 683 and the city was given to three days of pillage. On siege was laid to Mecca, which lasted for several weeks, during which the Kaaba was damaged by fire; the siege ended with death of Yazid in November 683 and the empire fell to civil war. Yazid is considered an illegitimate ruler and a tyrant by many Muslims due to his hereditary succession, death of Husayn and attack on the city of Medina by his forces. Modern historians present a mild view him, consider him a capable ruler, albeit less successful than his father. Yazid was born in 646 CE to Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan and Maisun bint Bahdal, the daughter of powerful Kalbite leader Bahdal ibn Unayf, grew up with his maternal tribe, the Kalbites, he led several campaigns against the Byzantine Empire and in 670 participated in an attack on Constantinople.
He performed Hajj on several occasions. By the end of the first Islamic civil war, Muawiya became sole ruler of the empire as a result of a peace treaty with Hasan ibn Ali, who had controlled most of the empire following the murder of his father Ali a few months earlier; the terms of the treaty stipulated. However, in 676, a few years before his death, Muawiya nominated Yazid. Muawiya and the Shura decided for Yazid in Damascus, where the former had summoned influential people from all provinces to the capital and convinced them one way or the other. Muawiya ordered Marwan ibn Hakam the governor of Medina, to inform the people of Medina, of Muawiya's decision. Marwan faced resistance on this announcement from Husayn ibn Ali, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr, Abdullah ibn Umar and Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr. Muawiya himself went to Medina and began pressing against the four dissenters, who fled to Mecca. Muawiya threatened some of them with life, but got only refusal. Nonetheless he was successful in convincing the people of Mecca that these four men had pledged their allegiance, received allegiance for Yazid.
On his way back to Damascus, he secured allegiance from people of Medina as well. The opponents went into silence thereafter. German orientalist Julius Wellhausen doubts the story, while Bernard Lewis writes that the homage was arranged with mix of diplomacy and bribes and, to lesser extent, by force. Before dying, Muawiya left Yazid a will, he advised him to beware of Husayn and Ibn al-Zubayr, predicted that the people of Iraq will entice Husayn into rebellion and abandon him. Yazid was further advised to treat Husayn with caution and not to spill his blood, since he was grandson of Muhammad. Ibn al-Zubair, on the other hand, was to be treated harshly. Muawiya advised him to treat people of Hejaz well. Upon succession, Yazid asked the governors of all provinces to take an oath of allegiance to him; the necessary oath was secured from all parts of the country. He wrote to the governor of Medina Walid ibn Utbah ibn Abu Sufyan, informing him about the death of Muawiya, he attached a small note with the letter, asking him to secure allegiance from Husayn ibn Ali, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr and Abdullah ibn Umar.
The note read: Seize Husayn, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr to give the oath of allegiance. Act so fiercely. Peace be with you. Walid sought advice of Marwan ibn Hakam on the matter. Marwan suggested that ibn al-Zubayr and Husayn should be forced to pay allegiance as they were dangerous, while ibn Umar should be left alone as he posed no threat; when summoned by Walid, Husayn answered the summon. When Husayn met Walid and Marwan in a semi-private meeting at night, he was informed of Muawiya's death and Yazid's accession to the caliphate; when asked for his pledge of allegiance to Yazid, Husayn responded that giving his allegiance in private would be insufficient, such a thing should be given in public. Walid agreed to this, but Marwan interrupted demanding that Walid imprison Husayn and not let him leave until he gives the pledge of allegiance to Yazid. At this interruption, Marwan was scolded by Husayn who exited unharmed. Husayn had his own group of armed supporters waiting nearby just in case a forcible attempt was made to apprehend him.
Following Husayn's exit, Marwan admonished Walid, who in turn rebutted Marwan, justifying his refusal to harm Husayn by s
Theodosios III or Theodosius III was Byzantine Emperor from 715 to 25 March 717. Theodosius was a financial officer and tax collector in the southern portion of the theme of Opsikion. According to one theory, he was the son of the former Emperor Tiberius III. According to another theory, he was of low extraction; when the thematic troops rebelled against Emperor Anastasius II, Theodosius was chosen as emperor. He did not accept this choice and, according to the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor attempted to hide in the forests near Adramyttium, he was found and was acclaimed emperor in May 715. Theodosius and his troops laid siege to Constantinople. Six months in November, they gained entry to the city. Theodosius showed himself remarkably moderate in his treatment of his predecessor and his supporters. Through the intercession of Patriarch Germanus I of Constantinople, Anastasius II was convinced to abdicate and become a monk in Thessalonica. Little is known of Theodosius' short reign, he faced an Arab invasion deep into Anatolia and the advance of the Arab fleet.
In 716 he concluded a treaty with Tervel of Bulgaria favorable to the Bulgarians in an effort to secure support against the Arab invasion. This policy paid off in 719. In 717, the strategos of the Anatolic Theme, Leo the Isaurian, rebelled against Theodosius' rule in collusion with Artabasdos, the strategos of the Armeniac Theme. Theodosius' son was captured by Leo in Nicomedia, Theodosius chose to resign the throne on 25 March 717, he and his son subsequently entered the clergy. The resignation of Theodosius III ended a string of short-lived and ineffective rulers skipped over in history books. In his History of the Byzantine Empire, Vol. 1, A. A. Vasiliev says only "The state of anarchy which prevailed in the Byzantine Empire from 695 ended in 717 with the ascension of the famous ruler Leo III", disregarding any individual importance in the Emperors of that period. By 729 Theodosius is believed to have become bishop of Ephesus. Modern historians however suspect the bishop was his son. Either way, this bishop was last recorded alive on 24 July 754, taking part in the iconoclastic Council of Hieria.
By his unnamed wife, Theodosius III was the father of at least one son, Theodosius the bishop in question. List of Byzantine emperors Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell; the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991
Anastasius, known in English as Anastasios II or Anastasius II, was the Byzantine Emperor from 713 to 715. Anastasios was named Artemius and had served as a bureaucrat and Imperial secretary for his predecessors. After the Opsician army in Thrace had overthrown Emperor Philippikos Bardanes, they acclaimed Artemius as Emperor, he chose Anastasius as his regnal name. Soon after his accession, Anastasius II imposed discipline on the army and executed those officers, directly involved in the conspiracy against Philippikos. Anastasios upheld the decisions of the Sixth Ecumenical Council and deposed the Monothelete Patriarch John VI of Constantinople, replacing him with the orthodox Patriarch Germanus in 715; this put an end to the short-lived local schism with the Catholic Church. The advancing Umayyad Caliphate surrounded the Empire by land and sea, Anastasios attempted to restore peace by diplomatic means, his emissaries having failed in Damascus, he undertook the restoration of Constantinople's walls and the rebuilding of the Roman fleet.
However, the death of the Caliph al-Walid I in 715 gave Anastasius an opportunity to turn the tables on his rival. He dispatched an army under Leo the Isaurian, afterwards emperor, to invade Syria, he had his fleet concentrate on Rhodes with orders not only to resist the approach of the enemy but to destroy their naval stores; these troops of the Opsician theme, resenting the Emperor's strict measures, slew the admiral John, proclaimed as emperor Theodosius III, a tax-collector of low extraction. After a six-month siege, Constantinople was taken by Theodosius. In 719, Anastasios headed a revolt against Leo III, who had succeeded Theodosius, receiving considerable support, including auxiliaries provided by Tervel of Bulgaria; however the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor, who offers this information elsewhere, confuses Tervel with his eventual successor Kormesiy, so Anastasios was allied with the younger ruler. In any case, the rebel forces advanced on Constantinople; the enterprise failed, Anastasios fell into Leo's hands and was put to death by his orders.
List of Byzantine emperors Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell; the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991. Media related to Anastasius II at Wikimedia Commons
The Bulgars were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic–Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century. Emerging as nomadic equestrians in the Volga-Ural region, according to some researchers their roots can be traced to Central Asia. During their westward migration across the Eurasian steppe the Bulgars absorbed other ethnic groups and cultural influences, including Hunnic and Indo-European peoples. Modern genetic research on Central Asian Turkic people and ethnic groups related to the Bulgars points to an affiliation with Western Eurasian populations; the Bulgars spoke a Turkic language, i.e. Bulgar language of Oghuric branch, they preserved the military titles and customs of Eurasian steppes, as well as pagan shamanism and belief in the sky deity Tangra. The Bulgars became semi-sedentary during the 7th century in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, establishing the polity of Old Great Bulgaria c. 635, absorbed by the Khazar Empire in 668 AD. In c. 679, Khan Asparukh conquered Scythia Minor, opening access to Moesia, established the First Bulgarian Empire, where the Bulgars became a political and military elite.
They merged subsequently with established Byzantine populations, as well as with settled Slavic tribes, were Slavicized, thus forming the ancestors of modern Bulgarians. The remaining Pontic Bulgars migrated in the 7th century to the Volga River, where they founded the Volga Bulgaria; the Volga Tatars and Chuvash people claim to be originated from the Volga Bulgars. The etymology of the ethnonym Bulgar is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD. Since the work of Wilhelm Tomaschek, it is said to be derived from the Common Turkic bulğha, bulga- or bulya, which with the consonant suffix -r implies a noun meaning "mixed". Other scholars have added that bulğha might imply "stir", "disturb", "confuse". and Talat Tekin interpreted bulgar as the verb form "mixing". Both Gyula Németh and Peter Benjamin Golden advocated the "mixed race" theory, but like Paul Pelliot, considered that "to incite", "rebel", or "to produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers", was a more etymology for migrating nomads.
According to Osman Karatay, if the "mixed" etymology relied on the westward migration of the Oğurs and merging with the Huns, north of the Black Sea, it was a faulty theory, since the Oghurs were documented in Europe as early as 463, while the Bulgars were not mentioned until 482 – an overly short time period for any such ethnogenesis to occur. However, the "mixing" in question may have occurred before the Bulgars migrated from further east, scholars such as Sanping Chen have noted analogous groups in Inner Asia, with phonologically similar names, who were described in similar terms: during the 4th Century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Peter A. Boodberg noted that the Buluoji in the Chinese sources were recorded as remnants of the Xiongnu confederation, had strong Caucasian elements. Another theory linking the Bulgars to a Turkic people of Inner Asia has been put forward by Boris Simeonov, who identified them with the Pugu, a Tiele and/or Toquz Oguz tribe.
The Pugu were mentioned in Chinese sources from 103 BC up to the 8th century AD, were situated among the eastern Tiele tribes, as one of the highest-ranking tribes after the Uyghurs. According to the Chronicle by Michael the Syrian, which comprises several historical events of different age into one story, three mythical Scythian brothers set out on a journey from the mountain Imaon in Asia and reached the river Tanais, the country of the Alans called Barsalia, which would be inhabited by the Bulgars and the Pugurs; the names Onoğur and Bulgar were linked by Byzantine sources for reasons that are unclear. Karatay interpreted gur/gor as "country", noted the Tekin derivation of gur from the Altaic suffix -gir, related to the word yir, meaning "earth, place". Modern scholars consider the terms oğuz or oğur, as generic terms for Turkic tribal confederations, to be derived from Turkic *og/uq, meaning "kinship or being akin to"; the terms were not the same, as oq/ogsiz meant "arrow", while oğul meant "offspring, son", oğuš/uğuš was "tribe, clan", the verb oğša-/oqša meant "to be like, resemble".
There appears to be an etymological association between the Bulgars and the preceding Kutrigur and Utigur – as'Oğur tribes, with the ethnonym Bulgar as a "spreading" adjective. Golden considered the origin of the Kutrigurs and Utigurs to be obscure and their relationship to the Onogurs and Bulgars – who lived in similar areas at the same time – as unclear, he noted, however, an implication that the Kutrigurs and Utigurs were related to the Šarağur, that according to Procopius these were Hunnish tribal unions, of Cimmerian descent. Karatay considered the Kutrigurs and Utigurs to be two related, ancestral people, prominent tribes in the Bulgar union, but different from the Bulgars. Among many other theories regarding the etymology of Bulgar, the following have had limited support. An Eastern Germanic root meaning "combative" (i.e. cognate with the Latin pugn