click links in text for more info

Thado Dhamma Yaza III of Prome

Thado Dhamma Yaza III was viceroy of Prome from 1589 to 1595, self-styled king of Prome from 1595 to 1597. Hnaung was a loyal vassal of his father King Nanda until 1594 when he clashed with his brother Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa. Hnaung revolted in 1595 during the Siamese siege of Pegu, his revolt started a string of other revolts by the major vassal states of the Toungoo Empire in the next two years. His attempts to take over territories beyond Prome's traditional vassals in the present-day Magwe Region were unsuccessful; the self-proclaimed king was assassinated by Yan Naing, one of his trusted advisers, on the eve of his planned invasion of Upper Burma in 1597. The future Thado Dhamma Yaza III was the youngest child of Crown Prince Nanda and his chief consort Hanthawaddy Mibaya, he was born c. 1571. His personal name was Mingyi Hnaung; the prince grew up at the Kanbawzathadi Palace the last years of his grandfather King Bayinnaung. On 10 October 1581, Nanda succeeded Bayinnaung, inherited the Toungoo Empire, the largest empire in Southeast Asia.

Hnaung became the third in line of succession behind his elder brothers Mingyi Swa, the heir-apparent, Minye Kyawswa. But Nanda did not have the support of his major vassals, who ruled what used to be sovereign kingdoms just a few decades earlier. By Hnaung's teenage years in the mid-1580s, the empire had faced serious rebellions in Ava and Siam. Hnaung's first major assignment was to be king of Lan Xang. In September/October 1588, Pegu's vassal king Maha Ouparat of Lan Xang died. Nanda appointed Hnaung the next king of Lan Xang although he had reservations about sending his teenage son to the remote rebellion-prone kingdom, but in November/December, Thado Dhamma Yaza II, Viceroy of Prome and Nanda changed his mind and appointed Hnaung at Prome, a strategic vassal state. On 26 February 1589, Hnaung became viceroy with the title of Thado Dhamma Yaza III, his official style was King of Prome. At Prome, one of his main responsibilities was to contribute manpower to his father's stretched military.

At least in the beginning, the young viceroy did not have much control over his own vassal rulers, a group that included Minye Uzana of Salin and Min Shwe Myat of Taingda, sons of the previous viceroy Thado Dhamma Yaza II. In 1590, he could contribute just a regiment to a 24-regiment invasion force of Siam, but he still helped out his father in some other way. He agreed to lead an expedition to suppress a rebellion in the Shan state of Mogaung. On 1 November 1590, he led a 10,000-man army made up of conscripts from Upper Burma, left for the front. Under his command was an eleven-year old Natshinnaung, his second cousin and the heir-presumptive of Toungoo; the campaign was a success. His forces retook the fortified town in early 1591. Hnaung arrived at Pegu triumphantly in April 1591 but the capital was in no mood to celebrate; the fourth invasion of Siam had gone wrong. The Burmese forces led by Crown Prince Mingyi Swa had been routed in northern Siam by the Siamese army led by King Naresuan. Hnaung was asked to join the debilitating war effort.

By the tide was turning in favor of the former vassal state. In the dry season of 1591–92, Siam invaded Burma for the first time. Naresuan and his army advanced as far as Martaban; the Tenasserim coast now fell under Siamese control. The Pegu court responded by planning yet another invasion of Siam. Mingyi Swa would again lead the invasion with Natshinnaung as deputies. On 14 November 1592, three armies with a combined force of 24,000 men, 2000 horses, 150 elephants, left Pegu; the invasion came to a sudden halt on 8 January 1593 when Mingyi Swa fell in action near Suphan Buri. Hnaung took over as the overall commander-in-chief, decided to retreat; the failed invasion further diminished Nanda's stature with his vassals. Worse yet, the High King's ability to project power was now hampered: Lower Burma, the only region over which the high king had direct control, was depopulated. Tired of constant war, able men had fled military service to become monks, indentured servants, private retainers or refugees in the nearby kingdoms.

Hnaung himself became disillusioned when the new Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa frantically set out to raise more men—again from Lower Burma by branding men to facilitate identification, executing deserters, forcing monks into the army. By late 1594, he clashed with his brother over the latter's aggressive tactics. Nanda was forced intervene releasing the conscripted men and seized property, but the damage was done. The viceroy of Prome appeared to have decided to break away as early as late 1594; when the Siamese army invaded the Upper Tenasserim coast in October/November 1594, Nanda asked his vassals to send troops. Hnaung now behaved like most other vassals but never did, he did nothing Siamese forces laid siege to Pegu in December. He gave the excuse that his army would coordinate with the armies from Toungoo and Lan Na, they would jointly break the siege. By Hnaung had decided to revolt, he plotted to gain control the Myelat region by seizing Toungoo. Over three months into the siege, in March 1595, combined Toungoo and Lan Na armies marched to Pegu from Toungoo.


Henry Higgs

Henry Higgs was a British civil servant and historian of economic thought. Higgs joined the War Office as a Lower Division Clerk in 1882. From there he moved to the Postmaster General's Office in 1884 when he began taking courses at University College London, he received an LLB degree at the latter in 1890. He went to Treasury in 1899. Following the end of the Second Boer War in June 1902, Higgs travelled to Natal to examine the working of the Civil Service of that colony on behalf of its government, he stayed in South Africa for six months from October 1902 until late Spring 1903. He was appointed Private Secretary of then-Prime Minister Henry Campbell Bannerman in 1905 serving for three years before returning to Treasury in 1908. Higgs was a founding member of the British Economic Association in 1890 and contributed to securing a Royal Charter for it in 1902, followed by a name change to the Royal Economic Society, he was Secretary for the organization from 1892 to 1905 and assistant editor of The Economic Journal from 1896 to 1905 during the tenure of F.

Y. Edgeworth as editor. Among other subjects, Higgs wrote on the economist Richard Cantillon and edited what became the standard version of Cantillon's Essai sur la nature du commerce en général, he wrote on the Physiocrats, the financial system of the United Kingdom, financial reform. He compiled a historical bibliography on economic thought. Higgs was an early supporter of and contributor to Dictionary of Political Economy, Inglis Palgrave, ed. to which he contributed 19 entries. He edited the only edition of the Dictionary not edited by Palgrave, adding Palgrave's name to the title and penning 40 more entries. Clara Collet, John Maynard Keynes: Obituary: Henry Higgs. In: The economic journal; the journal of the Royal Economic Society. Oxford 1940, pp. 546–561. ISSN 1468-0297

Great Britain and Northern Ireland at the 2018 European Athletics Championships

The United Kingdom competed under the team name of Great Britain and Northern Ireland at the 2018 European Athletics Championships in Berlin, from 6-12 August 2018. British Athletics named a team of 102 athletes on 24 July 2018, the largest British team sent to an athletics competition since the 1908 Olympic Games. Alyson Dixon withdrew due to injury. Dai Greene was voted to be the captain of the team, but he withdrew from competition due to injury on the first day of championships. KeyQ = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Track & road eventsField EventsCombined events – Decathlon Track & road eventsField EventsCombined events – Heptathlon Great Britain and Northern Ireland at the 2018 European Championships

The Resistance to Theory

"The Resistance to Theory" is an essay by Paul de Man, a renowned literary critic and theorist belonging to the Yale School of Deconstruction, which appeared in Yale French Studies 63 and was anthologized. The essay became part of the book by the same name; the essay remains a key statement in poststructuralist approaches to literary studies. In the essay’s introduction Paul de Man explains that “The Resistance to Theory” was written at the request of the Committee on the Research Activities of the Modern Language Association as a contribution to a collective volume entitled Introduction to Scholarship in Modern Languages and Literatures; the MLA, rejected it. As de Man admits, his claim that "the main theoretical interest of literary theory consists in the impossibility of its definition" explains in large part the reasons for its rejection. Although de Man does not date the essay in his description of the original commission, it would appear to have been written in 1980, but keeping in view with the proposal the essay discusses the rise of literary theory in America in the twentieth century and the challenges it faces.

He points out that, "literary theory can be said to come into being when the approach to literary texts is no longer based on non-linguistic, to say historical and aesthetic considerations." This introduction of linguistic and semiotic terminology into literary studies, according to de Man, gives the language, "considerable freedom from referential restraint" and makes it "epistemologically suspect and volatile." Drawing on the ideas of Saussure and Nietzsche, de Man points out that the rhetorical and tropological dimension of language makes it an unreliable medium for communication of truths. Literary language is predominantly figurative. Therefore, to take for granted that literature is a reliable source of information about anything but itself would be a great mistake; this gives rise to a particular crisis in literary studies because "literariness" is no longer seen as an aesthetic quality nor a mimetic mode. Aesthetic effect, according to de Man, takes place because we tend to mistake the materiality of the signifier with the materiality of the signified by considering language as an intuitive and transparent medium, as opposed to the material and conventional medium that it is.

Mimesis, like aesthetic quality, is an effect of the rhetorical and figurative aspects of language. The assumption of ideological and historical contexts or backgrounds to literary texts becomes problematic if language is no longer seen as a transparent and intuitive guide from the textual material to the historical situation; the theorists who uphold an aesthetic approach to literary studies and those who uphold an historical approach both find theory inconvenient and challenging. They are the polemical opponents of theory; as theory is as much a linguistic construct as literature, it falls prey to the same problematics of literary language. De Man states that the resistance to theory may be "a built-in constituent of its discourse." The real debate of literary theory is henceforth "not with its polemical opponents but rather with its own methodological assumptions and possibilities." This is because "the resistance to theory is a resistance to the use of language about language." The resistance to theory is therefore, according to de Man, a resistance to reading: "Nothing can overcome the resistance to theory since theory'is' itself this resistance."

De Man concludes however by stating. Paul de Man, "The Resistance To Theory", in David Lodge and Nigel Wood eds. Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader pp 349–365 Paul de Man, Resistance to Theory, ISBN 978-0-8166-1294-9 David Lodge and Nigel Wood eds. Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader AJ Drake's Notes on the Essay Resistance to Theory on Google Books

Wymysorys language

Wymysorys known as Vilamovian, Vilamovician or Wilamowicean, is a West Germanic language spoken in the small town of Wilamowice, Poland, on the border between Silesia and Lesser Poland, near Bielsko-Biała. It is considered an endangered language. There are fewer than 20 native users of Wymysorys all bilingual. In origin, Wymysorys appears to derive from 12th-century Middle High German, with a strong influence from Low German, Polish, Old English and Frisian; the inhabitants of Wilamowice are thought to be descendants of German and Scottish settlers who arrived in Poland during the 13th century. However, the inhabitants of Wilamowice always denied any connections with Germany and proclaimed their Flemish origins. Although related to German, Wymysorys is not mutually intelligible with Standard German. Wymysorys was the vernacular language of Wilamowice until 1939–1945. However, it seems. In 1880 as many as 92% of the town's inhabitants spoke Wymysorys, in 1890 - only 72%, in 1900 - 67%, in 1910 - 73% again.

Although Wymysorys was taught in local schools, since 1875 the basic language of instruction in most schools in Austro-Hungarian Galicia was Polish. During World War II and the German occupation of Poland Wymysorys was promoted by the Nazi administration, but after the war the tables turned: local communist authorities forbade the use of Wymysorys in any form; the widespread bilingualism of the people saved most local residents from being forcibly resettled to Germany, many of them stopped teaching their children their language or using it in daily life. Although the ban was lifted after 1956, Wymysorys has been replaced by Polish amongst the younger generation. Acting on a proposal by Tymoteusz Król, the Library of Congress added the Wymysorys language to the register of languages on July 18, 2007, it was registered in the International Organization for Standardization, where it received the wym ISO 639-3 code. In a 2009 UNESCO report Wymysorys has been reported as "nearly extinct. Wymysorys was the language of the poetry of Florian Biesik, during the 19th century.

Some new revitalization efforts have been started within the first decade of the 21st century, led by speaker Tymoteusz Król, whose efforts include private lessons with a group of pupils as well as compiling language records, standardizing written orthography and compiling the first dictionary of Wymysorys. Additionally, a new project called The Wymysiöeryśy Akademyj – Accademia Wilamowicziana or WA-AW was established under the "Artes Liberales" program at the University of Warsaw with the intention of creating a unified scholastic body for the study of the Wymysorys language. Wymysorys has been for centuries a spoken language, it was not until the times of Florian Biesik, the first author of major literary works in the language, that a need for a separate version of a Latin alphabet arose. Biesik wrote most of his works in plain Polish alphabet, which he considered better-suited for the phonetics of his language. In recent times Józef Gara, another author of works in the local language, devised a distinct Wymysorys alphabet, consisting of 34 letters derived from the Latin script and based on Polish as well: Wilamowicean orthography includes the digraph "AO", treated as a separate letter.

A sample of Wymysorys words with German and English translations. Note that ł is read in Wymysorys like English w, w like v: Lord's Prayer in Wymysorys Ynzer Foter, dü byst ym hymuł, Daj noma zuł zajn gywajt. Amen A lullaby in Wymysorys with English translation: Śłöf maj buwła fest! Skumma fremdy gest, Skumma muma ana fettyn, Z' brennia nysła ana epułn, Śłöf maj Jasiu fest! Sleep, my boy, soundly! Foreign guests are coming and uncles are coming, Bringing nuts and apples, Sleep, my Johnny, soundly! Alzenau dialect Silesian German Masurian dialect Wicherkiewicz, Tomasz; the Making of a Language: The Case of the Idiom of Wilamowice, Southern Poland. Kraków: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110170993. Alexander Andrason, Where Germanic and Slavic Meet – New Polish-based Tenses in the Vilamovicean Language. Germanoslavica, 2016, Vol. 27, is. 1, p. 1-17. Maria Katarzyna Lasatowicz, "Die deutsche Mundart von Wilamowice zwischen 1920 und 1987". Opole, 1992: Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna. Hermann Mojmir, "Wörterbuch der deutschen Mundart von Wilamowice", Kraków, 1930-1936: Polska Akademia Umiejętności.

Ludwik Młynek, "Narzecze wilamowickie", Tarnów. 1907: J. Pisz. Józef Latosiński, "Monografia miasteczka Wilamowic", Kraków, 1909. Adam Kleczkowski, "Dialekt Wilamowic w zachodniej Galicji. Fonetyka i fleksja". Kraków, 1920: Polska Akademia Umiejętności. Adam Kleczkowski, "Dialekt Wilamowic w zachodniej Galicji. Składnia", Poznań, 1921: Uniwersytet Poznański. Wymysiöeryś – jeszcze mowa nie zginęła at YouTube. Agencja Fotograficzna Fotorzepa. Rzeczpospolita The founding ceremony of the Accademia Wilamowicziana at YouTube. Omniglot page. Central Europe's Most Mysterious Language via