A woven coverlet or coverlid is a type of bed covering with a woven design in colored wool yarn on a background of natural linen or cotton. Coverlets were woven in every community in the United States from the colonial era until the late 19th century. Coverlets of 18th century America were twill-woven with a linen woolen weft; the wool was most dyed a dark blue from indigo, but madder red, walnut brown, a lighter "Williamsburg blue" were used. From the turn of the 19th century, simple twill-woven coverlets gave way to patterned hand-woven coverlets made in two different ways: Overshot weave coverlets were made with a plain woven undyed cotton warp and weft and repeating geometric patterns made with a supplementary dyed woolen weft. Made on a simple four-harness loom, overshot coverlets were made in the home and remained a common craft in rural Appalachia into the early 20th century. Double-cloth coverlets were double-woven, with two sets of interconnected warps and wefts, requiring the more elaborate looms of professional weavers.
Wool for these coverlets was spun at home and delivered to a local weaver who made up the coverlet. Summer-winter coverlets were reversible, the summer-winter term refers to the structure not the color; the summer-winter coverlet should not be confused with double weave and is more related to overshot. Like double weave, it is dark on one side and light on the other but there is only one layer of cloth, therefore it is much lighter in mass and thickness. Following the introduction of the jacquard loom in the early 1820s, machine-woven coverlets in large-scale floral designs became popular. Linsey-woolsey Weissman, Judith Reiter and Wendy Lavitt: Labors of Love: America's Textiles and Needlwork, 1650-1930, New York, Wings Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-10136-X Allstand Cottage Industries brochure at the Hunter Library Digital Collections, retrieved 20 June 2007 Kelly, Andrew: Kentucky by Design: The Decorative Arts and American Culture, University Press of Kentucky, 2015, ISBN 978-0-8131-5567-8 Coverlets Special Exhibit the Allison-Antrim Museum, Pennsylvania Illinois Jacquard Coverlets and Weavers Illinois Jacquard Coverlets and Weavers: End of a Legacy Craft Revival: Shaping Western North Carolina Past and Present - Coverlets The National Museum of the American Coverlet - Bedford, PA
Bengaline is a woven silk-and-cotton material which became fashionable for women and children to wear in the 1880s and 1890s. It was made with lesser amounts of silk than cotton. Lizzie Borden stated at her December 1892 inquest that she was wearing a dress made of bengaline silk on the morning she was accused of murdering her father and stepmother; the fabric went out of fashion when smooth-surfaced materials became popular. Piqué, coachman's whipcord, diagonal serge, surah are similar to bengaline silk. Surah was once known in France as silk serge. Bengaline silk sold for $2.50 per yard in 1889 but was sometimes discounted to sell for $1.25 per yard. A heavy lined, long cloak for infants, with deep bengaline silk embroidery, retailed for $7.98 at a Manhattan, New York clothing shop, in 1893. Diagonal striped dresses featuring the fabric were popular in the spring of 1912
Crêpe spelt crepe or crape, is a silk, wool, or synthetic fiber fabric with a distinctively crisp, crimped appearance. The term crape refers to a form of the fabric associated with mourning. Crêpe is historically called crespe or crisp. Aerophane:Crimped silk gauze with a crêpe texture. A historic 19th century lightweight crêpe, introduced in 1820, and, as crepe aerophane in 1861. Albert crêpe:A superior-quality black silk mourning crêpe used since 1862. Plain-weave crêpe. An English-made silk and cotton blend crêpe. Alicienne: A furnishing fabric with alternating plain weave and crêpe stripes. Alpaca crêpe: Rayon and acetate blend crêpe with a woollen texture, not made of alpaca yarn. Altesse: A British plain-weave silk fabric with crêpe filling. Arabian:A British-made plain-weave cloth with figured crêpe designs Piece-dyed silk crêpe embroidered with dots. Armure See Georgian crêpe. Balanced crêpe: Crêpe woven with alternating S and Z twist yarns in both directions. Balmoral crape: An 1895 English crape.
Balzerine: An 1889 narrow-striped silk grenadine overlaid with wider crêpe stripes. An earlier 1830s cotton/worsted fabric, spelled balzarine, is not crêpe. Bark crêpe: A broad term describing rough crêpes with a bark texture. Bauté satin: Warp-woven satin with a plain crêpe reverse. Borada crape: A cheaper, economical version of mourning crape advertised in c.1887. Bologna crêpe: Silk crêpe used for mourning known as valle cypre. Canton crêpe: A soft silk crêpe with a pebbly surface associated with Canton in China, with bias ribs. Made in Britain, but exported to China, hence its name. Caustic soda crêpe: Cotton treated with chemicals to create a crêpe-like texture in patterns. Chiffon crêpe: Chiffon-weight crêpe. Chijimi: Japanese crêpe. Chirimen: Japanese raw silk crêpe used for kimonos; when woven with a dot it is mon-chirimen. Courtauld crape: 1890s mourning crape made by Courtaulds. An 1894 variation, called Courtauld's new silk crêpe, was exceptionally soft. Courtaulds monopolised the export market for English crapes and crêpes, meaning that the textiles known as crape anglaise were always manufactured by Courtaulds up until 1940.
Crêpe Algerian: A trade name for a printed pongee with a rough crêpe texture. Crêpe anglaise: A French term for English mourning crapes in black and white; the only true'crape anglais' was considered that made by Courtaulds, last made in 1940. Crêpe Beatrice: Trade name for crêpe with a light warp stripe. Crêpe berber: Trade name for a piece-dyed crepe-textured pongee. Crêpe charmeuse: Lightweight silk satin with a grenadine warp and crêpe reverse. Crêpe chenette: A tradename for a strong crêpe with a pebble texture. Crêpe crêpe: Made with extra twists in the warp to create an extra-deep texture. Crêpe de chine: A fine, lightweight silk, cotton, or worsted, with a plain weave and crêpe-twist filling. Crêpe de chine travers: A ribbed crêpe de chine with heavier filling yarns introduced to the weave at regular intervals. Crêpe de dante: Crêpe with silk and wool filling. Crêpe de lahor: Cotton crêpe made in France. Crêpe de laine: A sheer wool fabric plain-woven with hard twist for a slight crêpe effect.
Crêpe de santé: An undyed woven, rough-textured wool-blend crêpe mixed with silk, linen or cotton called "health crepe" Crêpe de Suisse: 1860 dress fabric. Crêpe d'espagne: Open-weave fabric with a silk warp and wool filling. Crêpe diana: Trade name for a cotton and silk blend crêpe. Crêpe Elizabeth: English term for a mottled or pebbled georgette. Crêpe faille sublime: Silk grosgrain with a hard-twist filling. Crêpe flannel: Plain-woven worsted with a crêpe finish. Crêpe imperial Late 19th century woollen crape. Crêpe jacquard: Crepe with designs produced by jacquard weaving. Crêpe janigor: Trade name for a heavy rib textile with alternating rayon and dull acetate warp threads, cross-dyed for varied shades. Crêpe jersey: Vertically ribbed silk crêpe resembling the knit fabric. Crêpe lissé: A lightweight, lustrous stiffened open-weave silk or cotton crêpe, with fewer twists than a crêpe crêpe. Crêpela: French term for a crêpe effect. Crepeline: Very sheer plain-woven silk used in textile conservation.
Introduced in the 1870s as a cheap alternative to crepe de chine. Crêpella: Plain-woven worsted using hard-spun yarn. Crêpe maretz An 1862 fabric. Crêpe marocain: Heavy, cross-ribbed crêpe where the filling yarn is coarser than the warp, resembling a canton crêpe. Crêpe meteor: Soft silk crêpe, twill weave reversing to satin. Crêpe mohair: Silk and mohair blend crêpe. Crêpe morette: Trade name. Lightweight worsted crêpe with looser filling. Crêpe mosseux: A type of opaque voile which resists shrinkage. Crêpe myosotis A mourning crêpe made in the 1930s, in crimped silk with a soft finish. Courtaulds launched this textile in the early 1930s as an alternative to the unpopular traditional stiff mourning crapes. Crepenette: Crêpe-effect pongee. Crêpe ondese: Rough textured rayon-acetate blend crêpe. Crêpe poplin: A late 19th century silk-wool rib fabric with crêpe effect. Crêpe rachel: French print cotton-worsted blend crêpe. Crêpe radio: British raw silk crêpe with a ribbed effect, using alternate double rows of S-twist and Z-twist.
Crêpe royal: Sheer crêpe-de-chine introduced in 1889. Crêpe suzette: A variation on crepon georgette. Crepine: Silk with crêpe dots; the name describes a type of fringe. Crepoline: A class of transparent fabrics with a warp-wise crêpe effect. Crepon: A heavier crêpe with an exaggerated warp-directional texture produced by several weaving techniques. A soft silky version was introduced in 1866, the second, much heavier version in 1882. In the 1890s crepon described a woollen
Patagonia, Inc. Chouinard Equipment, is an American clothing company that markets and sells outdoor clothing; the company was founded by Yvon Chouinard in 1973, is based in Ventura, California. After going bankrupt in 1989, the company split into Black Diamond Equipment, selling climbing gear, the current Patagonia company that sells soft goods, its logo is the outline of Mount Fitz Roy in Patagonia, South America, which happens to border the two countries of the region: Chile and Argentina. Yvon Chouinard, an accomplished rock climber, began selling hand forged mountain climbing gear in 1957 through his company Chouinard Equipment, he worked alone selling his gear until 1965 when he partnered with Tom Frost in order to improve his products and address the growing supply and demand issue he faced. In 1970, Chouinard obtained rugby shirts from Scotland that he wore while climbing because the collar kept the climbing sling from hurting his neck. Collared shirts were designed and implemented into his merchandise line and became the primary product sold.
Great Pacific Iron Works, Patagonia’s first store, opened in 1973 in the former Hobson meat-packing plant at Santa Clara St, in Ventura, near Chouinard’s blacksmith shop. In 1981, Patagonia and Chouinard Equipment were incorporated within Great Pacific Iron Works. In 1984, Chouinard changed the name of Great Pacific Iron Works to Lost Arrow Corporation. Chouinard Equipment was forced to file for bankruptcy in 1989 when it lost a series of lawsuits claiming "failure to inform" of safety issues related to usage of climbing hardware including one filed by the survivors of a climber who died in a fall after slipping out of a Chouinard climbing harness; the resultant increases in their product liability insurance were cited by Chouinard as the reason they stopped making climbing gear. The liquidated assets of the climbing gear side were purchased for $900,000 by Chouinard's longtime partner, Peter Metcalf, reorganized as Black Diamond Equipment. Yvon Chouinard retained the profitable soft goods division of the company, rebranded as Patagonia.
Patagonia has expanded its product line to include apparel targeted towards other sports, such as surfing. In addition to clothing, they offer other products such as backpacks, sleeping bags, camping food. Starting in April 2017, certain Patagonia merchandise, in good condition can be returned for new merchandise credits; the used merchandise gets sold on their "Worn Wear" website. Patagonia considers itself an "activist company". Patagonia commits 1% of its total sales to environmental groups, through One Percent for the Planet, an organization of which Yvon Chouinard was a founding member. One Percent for the Planet encourages businesses to commit 1% of their annual net revenue to nonprofit charity organizations focused on conservation and sustainability. In February 2017, Patagonia led a boycott of the Outdoor Retailer trade show, which traditionally took place in Salt Lake City, because of the Utah state legislature's introduction of legislation that would transfer federal lands to the state.
Patagonia opposed Utah Governor Gary Herbert request that the Trump administration revoke the designated Bears Ears National Monument in southern Utah. After several companies joined the Patagonia-led boycott, event organizer Emerald Expositions said it would not accept a proposal from Utah to continue hosting the Outdoor Retailer trade show and would instead move the event to another state. On December 6, 2017, Patagonia sued the United States Government and President Donald Trump for his proclamations of reducing the Bears Ears National Monument by 85% and the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument by 50%. Patagonia is suing over the interpretation of the Property Clause of the U. S. Constitution in which the country vests Congress with the power to manage federal lands; the company's CEO, Rose Marcario, contends that when Congress passed the Antiquities Act of 1906, it did not give any president the power to reverse a prior president's monument designations. In 2012, UK animal activist group Four Paws said that Patagonia used live-plucked down feathers and downs of force-fed geese.
In a statement on their website, Patagonia denied use of live-plucking but said it had used down procured from the foie-gras industry. As of fall 2014, Patagonia said it was using 100% traceable down to ensure that birds were not force-fed or live-plucked and that down is not blended with down from unknown sources. In February 2005, Patagonia's sourcing of wool from Australia was criticized by PETA over the practice of mulesing. Patagonia has since moved its sourcing of wool from Australia to South America and the cooperative Ovis 21. However, in August 2015 PETA released new video footage showing how sheep were treated cruelly in Ovis 21 farms; this led Patagonia to stop sourcing wool from Ovis 21. In June 2016, Patagonia released a set of new wool principles that guide the treatment of animals as well as land-use practices, sustainability. Patagonia’s Circular Economy Strategy Patagonia’s Balancing Act: Chasing Mass-Market Appeal While Doing No Harm A company that profits as it pampers workers How Patagonia Keeps Employee Turnover'Freakishly Low' If Patagonia’s business model is a paragon of virtue, should more companies follow suit?
Patagonia joins forces with activists to protect public lands from Trump Official website
Calico is a plain-woven textile made from unbleached and not processed cotton. It may contain unseparated husk parts, for example; the fabric is far less fine than muslin, but less coarse and thick than canvas or denim, but it is still cheap owing to its unfinished and undyed appearance. The fabric was from the city of Calicut in southwestern India, it was made by the traditional weavers called cāliyans. The raw fabric was dyed and printed in bright hues, calico prints became popular in Europe. Calico originated in southwestern India during the 11th century; the cloth was known as "cāliyan" to the natives. It was mentioned in Indian literature by the 12th century when the writer Hēmacandra described calico fabric prints with a lotus design. By the 15th century calico from Gujǎrāt made its appearance in Egypt. Trade with Europe followed from the 17th century onwards. Calico was woven using Sūrat cotton for both the weft. In the 18th century, England was famous for its worsted cloth; that industry, centred in the east and south in towns such as Norwich, jealously protected their product.
Cotton processing was tiny: in 1701 only 1,985,868 pounds of cottonwool was imported into England, by 1730 this had fallen to 1,545,472 pounds. This was due to commercial legislation to protect the woollen industry. Cheap calico prints, imported by the East India Company from Hindustān, had become popular. In 1700 an Act of Parliament passed to prevent the importation of dyed or printed calicoes from India, China or Persia; this caused demand to switch to imported grey cloth instead—calico that had not been finished—dyed or printed. These were printed with popular patterns in southern England. Lancashire businessmen produced grey cloth with linen warp and cotton weft, known as fustian, which they sent to London for finishing. Cottonwool imports recovered though, by 1720 were back to their 1701 levels. Again the woollen manufacturers, in true protectionist fashion, claimed that the imports were taking jobs away from workers in Coventry. A new law passed, enacting fines against anyone caught wearing stained calico muslins.
Neckcloths and fustians were exempted. The Lancashire manufacturers exploited this exemption. There now was an artificial demand for woven cloth. In 1764, 3,870,392 pounds of cotton-wool were imported; this change in consumption patterns, as a result of the restriction on imported finished goods, was a key part of the process that reduced the Indian economy from sophisticated textile production to the mere supply of raw materials. These events occurred under colonial rule, which started after 1757, were described by Nehru and some more recent scholars as "de-industrialization." Early Indian chintz, that is, glazed calico with a large floral pattern. Were produced by painting techniques; the hues were applied by wooden blocks, the cloth manufacturers in Britain printing calico used wooden block printing. Calico printers at work are depicted in one of the stained glass windows made by Stephen Adam for the Maryhill Burgh Halls, Glasgow. Confusingly and silk printed this way were known as linen calicoes and silk calicoes.
Early European calicoes would be cheap plain-weave white cotton fabric with equal weft and warp plain weave cotton fabric in, or cream or unbleached cotton, with a design block-printed using a single alizarin dye fixed with two mordants, giving a red and black pattern. Polychromatic prints were possible, using two sets of an additional blue dye; the Indian taste was for dark printed backgrounds while the European market preferred a pattern on a cream base. As the century progressed the European preference moved from the large chintz patterns to smaller, tighter patterns. Thomas Bell patented a printing technique in 1783 that used copper rollers, Livesey and Company put the first machine that used it into operation near Preston, Lancashire in 1785; the production volume for printed cloth in Lancashire in 1750 was estimated at 50,000 pieces of 30 yards In 1850 it was 20,000,000 pieces. After 1888, block printing was only used for short-run specialized jobs. After 1880, profits from printing fell due to overcapacity and the firms started to form combines.
In the first, three Scottish firms formed the United Turkey Red Co. Ltd in 1897, the second, in 1899, was the much larger Calico Printers' Association 46 printing concerns and 13 merchants combined, representing 85% of the British printing capacity; some of this capacity was removed and in 1901 Calico had 48% of the printing trade. In 1916, they and the other printers formed and joined a trade association, which set minimum prices for each'price section' of the industry; the trade association remained in operation until 1954, when the arrangement was challenged by the government Monopolies Commission. Over the intervening period much trade had been lost overseas. In the UK, Australia and New Zealand: Calico – simple, cheap equal weft and warp plain weave fabric in white, cream or unbleached cotton. Muslin – a fine, light plain weave cotton fabric. Muslin gauze – muslin. Gauze – soft and fine cotton fabric with a open plain weave. Cheesecloth – gauze. In the US: Calico – cotton fabric with a small, all-over floral print Muslin – simple, cheap equal weft and warp plain weave fabric in white, cream or unbleached cotton and/or a fine, light plain weave cotton fabric.
Muslin gauze – the lightest, most open weave of muslin. Gauze – any light fabric, genera
Cordura is a collection of fabric technologies used in a wide array of products including luggage, trousers, military wear and performance apparel. Cordura fabrics are known for their durability and resistance to abrasions and scuffs. Developed and registered as a trademark by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company in 1929, it is now the property of INVISTA. Cordura fabrics are made of nylon, but may be blended with cotton or other natural fibers. DuPont introduced the fabric as a type of rayon; the product was further used by the military in tires. In 1966, when new formulations of nylon proved superior, the Cordura brand name was transferred to the nylon product instead. In 1977 researchers discovered a process for dyeing Cordura, which opened a wide variety of commercial applications. By 1979 soft-sided Cordura luggage had captured about 40 percent of the luggage market. Several classic brands that remain popular today continue to use Cordura fabric in their products. Eastpak was the first brand to use Cordura fabric in their packs, while JanSport used the canvas-like nylon in their original daypacks in the 1970s and continue to use it today.
In the 1980s Manhattan Portage began using 1000D Cordura Nylon in their bags. In the 1990s, European workwear clothing brands adopted the 1000D and 500D fabric for reinforcements. Clothing brands such as F. Engel, Fristads Kansas and Scruffs use the fabric. Cordura is used today in most mid- to higher- end textile motorcycle jackets and pants due to its high abrasion resistance, it is found in motorcycle gear made by companies such as Klim, MotoPort, Rev'It, AeroStich, Dainese. Cordura fabrics are available in a wide range of constructions and aesthetics, including versions designed for tear resistance and color retention. There are baselayer and canvas fabrics that contain blends of Invista 420 nylon 6,6 fiber and cotton, known as Cordura Baselayer, Cordura Denim, Cordura Duck respectively; the Cordura Naturalle fabric collection, based on full dull yarn technologies, is designed to more resemble the look and feel of cotton. Cordura Naturelle fabrics are available in knits and wovens and without stretch and specialty laminates and finishes.
Some Cordura fabrics have been designed for military and extended outdoor use. Cordura fabrics have a longstanding military heritage, many US military fabric specs are based on Cordura brand specifications. Invista continues to develop new fabrics under the Cordura brand. Official website
Broadcloth is a dense, plain woven cloth made of wool. The defining characteristic of Broadcloth is not its finished width, but the fact that it was woven much wider and heavily milled in order to shrink it to the required width; the effect of the milling process is to draw the yarns much closer together than could be achieved in the loom and allow the individual fibres of the wool to bind together in a felting process. This results in a dense, blind face cloth with a stiff drape, weather-resistant, hard wearing and capable of taking a cut edge without the need for being hemmed, it was made in several parts of England at the end of the medieval period. The raw material was short staple wool and spun into yarn and woven on a broad loom to produce cloth 1.75 yards wide. It was fulled in a fulling mill; when fulled, the fibres of the cloth would felt together. In the United States, broadcloth can be an alternative name for a specific type of cotton or cotton-blend poplin, first introduced to the States from Britain in the early 1920s, renamed broadcloth for the American market.
Broadcloth was first produced in Flanders throughout the medieval period. After 1400 Leiden in Holland became the most important place for broadcloth industry in Europe. There for the first time the production became industrialised; this means that the production process didn't take place in one single factory anymore but according to a precise task allocation, where in several stages intermediate goods were produced. The entire process was supervised, resulting in a high quality, making Leiden broadcloth popular. In 1417 the Hanseatic League decided. From 1500 competition from other parts of Europe England and Leiden lost its leading role. In Italy Florence was an important center of broadcloth industry. Around 1500, broadcloth was made in a number of districts of England, including Essex and Suffolk in southern East Anglia, the West Country Clothing District, at Worcester, Cranbrook in Kent and some other places; this was the best English cloth, large quantities were exported by the merchants of the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London, principally to Antwerp as white cloth.
It was finished and dyed in Flanders, marketed throughout northern Europe. The cloths might be long; the raw material for broadcloth from Worcester was wool from the Welsh border counties of Herefordshire and Shropshire, known as Lemster wool. That for the West Country came from the Cotswolds. In both cases, the high quality was the result of the comparatively poor pasture, which led the sheep to grow wool with the desired qualities. English exports of broadcloth reached their highest level in the mid 16th century, after which some regions began producing other kinds of cloth. Difficulties were encountered in export markets in the mid-1610s due to currency difficulties in eastern Europe, to the ill-conceived Cockayne Project. Broadcloth production thus declined in the 17th century. Worcester remained a centre for the production of white broadcloth. Other areas, such as Ludlow and parts of the Cotswolds started to produce similar cloth, known as'Worcesters'; the market suffered major setback in the 18th century, when the trade of the Levant Company with Turkey was obstructed by French competition.
From this time, the production of broadcloth lost its importance. Banat Wool broadcloth made in India. Bridgwater - A lighter weight broadcloth made in England and Wales. Castor - Overcoat-weight woolen broadcloth. Cealtar - thick grey broadcloth dunster - broadcloth made in Somerset Georgian cloth haberjet - A coarse wool broadcloth, made in England during the Medieval period, associated with monks. Habit cloth - British-made fine wool broadcloth used for women's riding habits. Lady's cloth - lighter weight broadcloth made in light shades. Poole cloth - A broadcloth with a clear finish, named after the tailoring establishment Henry Poole & Co. suclat - A European-made cotton broadcloth popular in the East Indian market. Superfine - merino broadcloth used for men's tailoring. Tami - Chinese-made broadcloth. Taunton - Originally made in Taunton, available in medium or coarse grade, with a weight of 11oz. Per yard, fixed by law. Tavestock western dozen - Alternative name for tavestock. Since the early 1920s, the American market has used the term broadcloth to describe a plain-woven mercerised fabric woven with a rib and a heavier filling yarn, used for shirt-making, made from cotton or a polyester-and-cotton blend.
This fabric was introduced in the early 1920s as an import from the United Kingdom, where it was called poplin, but it was arbitrarily renamed broadcloth as it was thought that the British name had connotations of heaviness. Another version of this fabric, woven in rayon or polyester-and-rayon, is called fuji. Wool broadcloth with its felted, velvet-like feel, has been a popular material for many years in furniture and luxury car interiors. Ponting, Kenneth G.. The Woollen Industry of South-West England. Bath: A. M. Kelley. ISBN 0-678-07