Dirty Harry is a 1971 American action crime thriller film produced and directed by Don Siegel, the first in the Dirty Harry series. Clint Eastwood plays the title role, in his first outing as San Francisco Police Department Inspector "Dirty" Harry Callahan; the film drew upon the real life case of the Zodiac Killer as the Callahan character seeks out a similar vicious psychopath. Dirty Harry was a critical and commercial success and set the style for a whole genre of police films, it was followed by four sequels: Magnum Force in 1973, The Enforcer in 1976, Sudden Impact in 1983 and The Dead Pool in 1988. In 2012, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress for being "culturally and aesthetically significant". A killer shoots a girl in a hotel rooftop swimming pool. Police arrive at the crime scene, where SFPD Inspector Harry Callahan finds a blackmail note signed "Scorpio" ordering the city to pay $100,000 or he will continue to kill; the mayor asks police officers.
During lunch, Inspector Callahan foils a bank robbery. He kills two of the wounds a third. Confronting the wounded robber, Callahan delivers the film's iconic line: I know what you're thinking:'Did he fire six shots or only five?' Well, to tell you the truth, in all this excitement, I've kinda lost track myself. But being this is a.44 Magnum, the most powerful handgun in the world, would blow your head clean off, you've got to ask yourself one question:'Do I feel lucky?' Well, do you, punk? The robber surrenders to Callahan, but replies that he needs to know if the gun is still loaded. Callahan pulls the trigger with the weapon pointed directly at the robber, laughs as it is revealed to be empty. Callahan is assigned Chico Gonzalez, whom he believes to be an inexperienced rookie. Scorpio is staking out potential victims near a public park, but is spotted by a police helicopter and runs away. Callahan and his new partner believe they see him that night on the streets, but in the course of tracing him to his home, Callahan looks into a window and watches a sexual encounter before being caught by neighbors who try to beat him up as a peeping Tom, until Chico intervenes.
Based on Scorpio's communications, the city decides. They set up a stake-out. Scorpio arrives and there is a shootout in which a policeman disguised as a priest is killed. Scorpio delivers a second ransom demand to the police, stating he has now kidnapped a teenage girl who he says will die if his demands are not met. Callahan is assigned to deliver a case full of money, he waits near a pier as directed by Scorpio who calls Callahan on a nearby pay phone, giving him instructions to go to another location in the city with another payphone, where he will call again. Callahan encounters Scorpio at the Mount Davidson cross. Scorpio beats Callahan into submission before telling him that he intends to let the girl die, his partner has been following them and there is a shootout in which Chico is wounded. After being stabbed in the leg with a hidden knife by Callahan, Scorpio escapes without the money and reports to a hospital; the police learn of Scorpio's hospital visit, a doctor recalls having met Scorpio and that he lives in a room at Kezar Stadium.
Callahan finds Scorpio there and after a chase he shoots and tortures Scorpio by standing on his wounded leg, demanding to know where the girl is being held. Scorpio confesses, but by it is too late and the girl is found dead; the district attorney tells Callahan that Scorpio's rights have been violated, they cannot hold him. Callahan continues to shadow Scorpio on his own time. Scorpio pays a man $200 to beat him then reports to a hospital claiming he is a victim of police brutality. Scorpio acquires a handgun, hijacks a school bus and contacts the police with yet another ransom demand for money and a flight out of the Santa Rosa airport. Callahan jumps onto the roof of the bus from an overpass. After Callahan forces Scorpio off the bus, the latter flees to a nearby quarry and holds a boy at gunpoint. Having shot Scorpio through the shoulder, Callahan reprises his line about losing count of his shots. Unlike the earlier encounter, Callahan does have one remaining bullet, with which he kills Scorpio when the latter goes for his gun.
Callahan throws it into the water before walking away. Clint Eastwood as SFPD Homicide Inspector Harry Callahan Andy Robinson as Charles "Scorpio" Davis Harry Guardino as SFPD Homicide Lt. Al Bressler Reni Santoni as SFPD Homicide Inspector Chico Gonzalez John Vernon as The Mayor of San Francisco John Larch as Chief of Police John Mitchum as SFPD Homicide Inspector Frank "Fatso" DiGiorgio Woodrow Parfrey as Jaffe Josef Sommer as District Attorney William T. Rothko Mae Mercer as Mrs. Russell Albert Popwell as Bank robber Lyn Edgington as Norma Gonzalez Ruth Kobart as Marcella Platt Lois Foraker as Hot Mary William Paterson as Judge Bannerman Debralee Scott as Ann Mary Deacon The script, titled Dead Right, by the husband-and-wife team of Harry Julian Fink and Rita M. Fink, was about a hard-edged New York City police inspector, Harry Callahan, determined to stop Travis, a serial killer if he has to skirt the law and accepted standards of policing, blurring the distinction between criminal and cop, to address the question as to how far a free, democratic society can go to protect itself.
The original draft ended with a police sniper, instead of Callahan. Another earlier version
Richard Allen Posner is an American jurist and economist, a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in Chicago from 1981 until 2017, is a senior lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School. He is a leading figure in the field of law and economics, was identified by The Journal of Legal Studies as the most cited legal scholar of the 20th century. Posner is known for writing on topics outside of his primary field, law. In his various writings and books, he has addressed animal rights, drug prohibition, same-sex marriage, Keynesian economics, academic moral philosophy, among other subjects. Posner is the author of nearly 40 books on jurisprudence and several other topics, including Economic Analysis of Law, The Economics of Justice, The Problems of Jurisprudence and Reason, Law and Democracy, The Crisis of Capitalist Democracy. Posner has been identified as being politically conservative. In A Failure of Capitalism, he has written that the 2008 financial crisis has caused him to question the rational-choice, laissez faire economic model that lies at the heart of his Law and Economics theory.
Richard Posner was born on January 1939, in New York City. His father's family were of Romanian Jewish descent, his mother's family were Ashkenazi Jews from Vienna, Austria. After finishing high school, Posner attended Yale University, graduating in 1959 with an A. B. degree summa cum laude in English literature. He attended the Harvard Law School, graduating in 1962 with an LL. B. magna cum laude as the valedictorian of his president of the Harvard Law Review. After clerking for Justice William J. Brennan of the United States Supreme Court during the 1962–63 term, he served as Attorney-Advisor to Federal Trade Commissioner Philip Elman, he went on to work in the Office of the Solicitor General in the United States Department of Justice, under Solicitor General Thurgood Marshall. In 1968, Posner accepted a position teaching at Stanford Law School. In 1969, Posner moved to the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School, where he remains a senior lecturer, he was a founding editor of The Journal of Legal Studies in 1972.
On October 27, 1981, Posner was nominated by President Ronald Reagan to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit vacated by Judge Philip Willis Tone. Posner was confirmed by the United States Senate on November 24, 1981, received his commission on December 1, 1981, he served as Chief Judge of that court from 1993 to 2000 but remained a part-time professor at the University of Chicago. Judge Posner retired from the federal bench on September 2, 2017. Posner is an economist in legal methodology, he has written many articles and books on a wide range of topics including law and economics and literature, the federal judiciary, moral theory, intellectual property, antitrust law, public intellectuals, legal history. He is well known for writing on a wide variety of current events including the 2000 presidential election recount controversy, Bill Clinton's affair with Monica Lewinsky and his resulting impeachment procedure, the 2003 invasion of Iraq, his analysis of the Lewinsky scandal cut across most party and ideological divisions.
Posner's greatest influence is through his writings on law and economics. In December 2004, Posner started a joint blog with Nobel Prize-winning economist Gary Becker, titled "The Becker-Posner Blog". Both men contributed to the blog until shortly before Becker's death in May 2014, after which Posner announced that the blog was being discontinued, he has a blog at The Atlantic, where he discusses the financial crisis. Posner was mentioned in 2005 as a potential nominee to replace Sandra Day O'Connor because of his prominence as a scholar and an appellate judge. Robert S. Boynton wrote in The Washington Post that he believed Posner would never sit on the Supreme Court because despite his "obvious brilliance," he would be criticized for his "outrageous conclusions," such as his contention "that the rule of law is an accidental and dispensable element of legal ideology," his argument that buying and selling children on the free market would lead to better outcomes than the present situation, government-regulated adoption, his support for the legalization of marijuana and LSD.
Posner on Posner Series Judge Posner was the focus of a "series" of posts done by University of Washington Law Professor Ronald K. L. Collins; the twelve posts—collectively titled "Posner on Posner"—began on November 24, 2014, ended on January 5, 2015, appeared on the Concurring Opinions blog. In Posner's youth and in the 1960s as law clerk to William J. Brennan he was counted as a liberal. However, in reaction to some of the perceived excesses of the late 1960s, Posner developed a conservative bent, he encountered Chicago School economists Aaron Director and George Stigler while a professor at Stanford. Posner summarized his views on law and economics in his 1973 book The Economic Analysis of Law. Today, although viewed as to the right in academia, Posner's pragmatism, his qualified moral relativism and moral skepticism, his affection for the thought of Friedrich Nietzsche set him apart from most American conservatives; as a judge, with the exception of his rulings wi
Weapon of mass destruction
A weapon of mass destruction is a nuclear, chemical, biological, or any other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures, natural structures, or the biosphere. The scope and usage of the term has evolved and been disputed signifying more politically than technically. Coined in reference to aerial bombing with chemical explosives during World War II, it has come to refer to large-scale weaponry of other technologies, such as chemical, radiological, or nuclear; the first use of the term "weapon of mass destruction" on record is by Cosmo Gordon Lang, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1937 in reference to the aerial bombardment of Guernica, Spain: Who can think at this present time without a sickening of the heart of the appalling slaughter, the suffering, the manifold misery brought by war to Spain and to China? Who can think without horror of what another widespread war would mean, waged as it would be with all the new weapons of mass destruction?
At the time, nuclear weapons had not been developed. Japan conducted research on biological weapons, chemical weapons had seen wide battlefield use in World War I, they were outlawed by the Geneva Protocol of 1925. Italy used mustard agent against civilians and soldiers in Ethiopia in 1935–36. Following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that ended World War II and during the Cold War, the term came to refer more to non-conventional weapons; the application of the term to nuclear and radiological weapons is traced by William Safire to the Russian phrase "Оружие массового поражения" – oruzhiye massovogo porazheniya. William Safire credits James Goodby with tracing what he considers the earliest known English-language use soon after the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a communique from a 15 November 1945, meeting of Harry Truman, Clement Attlee and Mackenzie King referred to "weapons adaptable to mass destruction."Safire says Bernard Baruch used that exact phrase in 1946.
The phrase found its way into the first resolution the United Nations General assembly adopted in January 1946 in London, which used the wording "the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all other weapons adaptable to mass destruction." The resolution created the Atomic Energy Commission. An exact use of this term was given in a lecture "Atomic Energy as an Atomic Problem" by J. Robert Oppenheimer, he delivered the lecture to the Foreign Service and the State Department, on 17 September 1947. It is a far reaching control which would eliminate the rivalry between nations in this field, which would prevent the surreptitious arming of one nation against another, which would provide some cushion of time before atomic attack, therefore before any attack with weapons of mass destruction, which would go a long way toward removing atomic energy at least as a source of conflict between the powers; the term was used in the introduction to the hugely influential U. S. government document known as NSC 68 written in 1950.
During a speech at Rice University on 12 September 1962, President John F. Kennedy spoke of not filling space "with weapons of mass destruction, but with instruments of knowledge and understanding." The following month, during a televised presentation about the Cuban Missile Crisis on 22 October 1962, Kennedy made reference to "offensive weapons of sudden mass destruction."An early use of the exact phrase in an international treaty is in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, but the treaty provides no definition of the phrase, the treaty categorically prohibits the stationing of "weapons" and the testing of "any type of weapon" in outer space, in addition to its specific prohibition against placing in orbit, or installing on celestial bodies, "any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction." During the Cold War, the term "weapons of mass destruction" was a reference to nuclear weapons. At the time, in the West the euphemism "strategic weapons" was used to refer to the American nuclear arsenal, presented as a necessary deterrent against nuclear or conventional attack from the Soviet Union under Mutual Assured Destruction.
Subsequent to Operation Opera, the destruction of a pre-operational nuclear reactor inside Iraq by the Israeli Air Force in 1981, the Israeli prime minister, Menachem Begin, countered criticism by saying that "on no account shall we permit an enemy to develop weapons of mass destruction against the people of Israel." This policy of pre-emptive action against real or perceived weapons of mass destruction became known as the Begin Doctrine. The term "weapons of mass destruction" continued to see periodic use in the context of nuclear arms control. Reagan's successor, George H. W. Bush, used the term in a 1989 speech to the United Nations in reference to chemical arms; the end of the Cold War reduced U. S. reliance on nuclear weapons as a deterrent. With the 1990 invasion of Kuwait and 1991 Gulf War, Iraq's nuclear and chemical weapons programs became a particular concern of the first Bush Administration. Following the war, Bill Clinton and other western politicians and media continued to use t
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concerns matters of value, thus comprises the branch of philosophy called axiology. Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil and wrong, virtue and vice and crime; as a field of intellectual inquiry, moral philosophy is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, value theory. Three major areas of study within ethics recognized today are: Meta-ethics, concerning the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions, how their truth values can be determined Normative ethics, concerning the practical means of determining a moral course of action Applied ethics, concerning what a person is obligated to do in a specific situation or a particular domain of action The English word "ethics" is derived from the Ancient Greek word ēthikós, meaning "relating to one's character", which itself comes from the root word êthos meaning "character, moral nature".
This was borrowed into Latin as ethica and into French as éthique, from which it was borrowed into English. Rushworth Kidder states that "standard definitions of ethics have included such phrases as'the science of the ideal human character' or'the science of moral duty'". Richard William Paul and Linda Elder define ethics as "a set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what behavior helps or harms sentient creatures"; the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy states that the word "ethics" is "commonly used interchangeably with'morality'... and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group or individual." Paul and Elder state that most people confuse ethics with behaving in accordance with social conventions, religious beliefs and the law and don't treat ethics as a stand-alone concept. The word ethics in English refers to several things, it can refer to philosophical ethics or moral philosophy—a project that attempts to use reason to answer various kinds of ethical questions.
As the English philosopher Bernard Williams writes, attempting to explain moral philosophy: "What makes an inquiry a philosophical one is reflective generality and a style of argument that claims to be rationally persuasive." Williams describes the content of this area of inquiry as addressing the broad question, "how one should live". Ethics can refer to a common human ability to think about ethical problems, not particular to philosophy; as bioethicist Larry Churchill has written: "Ethics, understood as the capacity to think critically about moral values and direct our actions in terms of such values, is a generic human capacity." Ethics can be used to describe a particular person's own idiosyncratic principles or habits. For example: "Joe has strange ethics." Meta-ethics is the branch of philosophical ethics that asks how we understand, know about, what we mean when we talk about what is right and what is wrong. An ethical question pertaining to a particular practical situation—such as, "Should I eat this particular piece of chocolate cake?"—cannot be a meta-ethical question.
A meta-ethical question is abstract and relates to a wide range of more specific practical questions. For example, "Is it possible to have secure knowledge of what is right and wrong?" is a meta-ethical question. Meta-ethics has always accompanied philosophical ethics. For example, Aristotle implies that less precise knowledge is possible in ethics than in other spheres of inquiry, he regards ethical knowledge as depending upon habit and acculturation in a way that makes it distinctive from other kinds of knowledge. Meta-ethics is important in G. E. Moore's Principia Ethica from 1903. In it he first wrote about. Moore was seen to reject naturalism in his Open Question Argument; this made. Earlier, the Scottish philosopher David Hume had put forward a similar view on the difference between facts and values. Studies of how we know in ethics divide into non-cognitivism. Non-cognitivism is the view that when we judge something as morally right or wrong, this is neither true nor false. We may, for example, be only expressing our emotional feelings about these things.
Cognitivism can be seen as the claim that when we talk about right and wrong, we are talking about matters of fact. The ontology of ethics is about value-bearing things or properties, i.e. the kind of things or stuff referred to by ethical propositions. Non-descriptivists and non-cognitivists believe that ethics does not need a specific ontology since ethical propositions do not refer; this is known as an anti-realist position. Realists, on the other hand, must explain what kind of entities, properties or states are relevant for ethics, how they have value, why they guide and motivate our actions. Normative ethics is the study of ethical action, it is the branch of ethics that investigates the set of questions that arise when considering how one ought to act, morally speaking. Normative ethics is distinct from meta-ethics because normative ethics examines standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions, while meta-ethics studies the meaning of moral language and the metaphysics of moral facts.
Normative ethics is distinct from descriptive ethics, as the latter is an empirical investigation of people's moral beliefs. To put it another way, descriptive ethics would be concerned with determining what proportion of people believe th
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions. Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from small amounts of matter; the first test of a fission bomb released an amount of energy equal to 20,000 tons of TNT. The first thermonuclear bomb test released energy equal to 10 million tons of TNT. A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT. A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast and radiation. Since they are weapons of mass destruction, the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy. Nuclear weapons have been used twice in war, both times by the United States against Japan near the end of World War II. On August 6, 1945, the U. S. Army Air Forces detonated a uranium gun-type fission bomb nicknamed "Little Boy" over the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
S. Army Air Forces detonated a plutonium implosion-type fission bomb nicknamed "Fat Man" over the Japanese city of Nagasaki; these bombings caused injuries that resulted in the deaths of 200,000 civilians and military personnel. The ethics of these bombings and their role in Japan's surrender are subjects of debate. Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have been detonated over two thousand times for testing and demonstration. Only a few nations are suspected of seeking them; the only countries known to have detonated nuclear weapons—and acknowledge possessing them—are the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, China, India and North Korea. Israel is believed to possess nuclear weapons, though, in a policy of deliberate ambiguity, it does not acknowledge having them. Germany, Turkey and the Netherlands are nuclear weapons sharing states. South Africa is the only country to have independently developed and renounced and dismantled its nuclear weapons.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons aims to reduce the spread of nuclear weapons, but its effectiveness has been questioned, political tensions remained high in the 1970s and 1980s. Modernisation of weapons continues to this day. There are two basic types of nuclear weapons: those that derive the majority of their energy from nuclear fission reactions alone, those that use fission reactions to begin nuclear fusion reactions that produce a large amount of the total energy output. All existing nuclear weapons derive some of their explosive energy from nuclear fission reactions. Weapons whose explosive output is from fission reactions are referred to as atomic bombs or atom bombs; this has long been noted as something of a misnomer, as their energy comes from the nucleus of the atom, just as it does with fusion weapons. In fission weapons, a mass of fissile material is forced into supercriticality—allowing an exponential growth of nuclear chain reactions—either by shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another or by compression of a sub-critical sphere or cylinder of fissile material using chemically-fueled explosive lenses.
The latter approach, the "implosion" method, is more sophisticated than the former. A major challenge in all nuclear weapon designs is to ensure that a significant fraction of the fuel is consumed before the weapon destroys itself; the amount of energy released by fission bombs can range from the equivalent of just under a ton to upwards of 500,000 tons of TNT. All fission reactions generate the remains of the split atomic nuclei. Many fission products are either radioactive or moderately radioactive, as such, they are a serious form of radioactive contamination. Fission products are the principal radioactive component of nuclear fallout. Another source of radioactivity is the burst of free neutrons produced by the weapon; when they collide with other nuclei in surrounding material, the neutrons transmute those nuclei into other isotopes, altering their stability and making them radioactive. The most used fissile materials for nuclear weapons applications have been uranium-235 and plutonium-239.
Less used has been uranium-233. Neptunium-237 and some isotopes of americium may be usable for nuclear explosives as well, but it is not clear that this has been implemented, their plausible use in nuclear weapons is a matter of dispute; the other basic type of nuclear weapon produces a large proportion of its energy in nuclear fusion reactions. Such fusion weapons are referred to as thermonuclear weapons or more colloquially as hydrogen bombs, as they rely on fusion reactions between isotopes of hydrogen. All such weapons derive a significant portion of their energy from fission reactions used to "trigger" fusion reactions, fusion reactions can themselves trigger additional fission reactions. Only six countries—United States, United Kingdom, China and India—have conducted thermonuclear weapon tests. North Korea claims to have tested a fusion weapon as of January 2016. Thermonuclear weapons a
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center and neighborhood in the Midtown Manhattan section of New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue. It stretches from West 42nd to West 47th Streets. Brightly adorned with billboards and advertisements, Times Square is sometimes referred to as "The Crossroads of the World", "The Center of the Universe", "the heart of The Great White Way", "the heart of the world". One of the world's busiest pedestrian areas, it is the hub of the Broadway Theater District and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. Times Square is one of the world's most visited tourist attractions, drawing an estimated 50 million visitors annually. 330,000 people pass through Times Square daily, many of them tourists, while over 460,000 pedestrians walk through Times Square on its busiest days. Known as Longacre Square, Times Square was renamed in 1904 after The New York Times moved its headquarters to the newly erected Times Building – now One Times Square – the site of the annual New Year's Eve ball drop which began on December 31, 1907, continues today, attracting over a million visitors to Times Square every year.
Times Square functions as a town square, but is not geometrically a square. Broadway runs diagonally, crossing through the horizontal and vertical street grid of Manhattan laid down by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, that intersection creates the "bowtie" shape of Times Square; the southern triangle of Times Square has no specific name, but the northern triangle is called Father Duffy Square. It was dedicated in 1937 to Chaplain Francis P. Duffy of New York City's U. S. 69th Infantry Regiment and is the site of a memorial to him, along with a statue of George M. Cohan, as well as the TKTS reduced-price ticket booth run by the Theatre Development Fund. Since 2008, the booth has been backed by a red, triangular set of bleacher-like stairs, used by people to sit, talk and take photographs; when Manhattan Island was first settled by the Dutch, three small streams united near what is now 10th Avenue and 40th Street. These three streams formed the "Great Kill". From there the Great Kill wound through the low-lying Reed Valley, known for fish and waterfowl and emptied into a deep bay in the Hudson River at the present 42nd Street.
The name was retained in a tiny hamlet, Great Kill, that became a center for carriage-making, as the upland to the south and east became known as Longacre. Before and after the American Revolution, the area belonged to John Morin Scott, a general of the New York militia, in which he served under George Washington. Scott's manor house was at what is 43rd Street, surrounded by countryside used for farming and breeding horses. In the first half of the 19th century, it became one of the prized possessions of John Jacob Astor, who made a second fortune selling off lots to hotels and other real estate concerns as the city spread uptown. By 1872, the area had become the center of New York's horse carriage industry; the locality had not been given a name, city authorities called it Longacre Square after Long Acre in London, where the horse and carriage trade was centered in that city. William Henry Vanderbilt ran the American Horse Exchange there. In 1910 it became the Winter Garden Theatre; as more profitable commerce and industrialization of Lower Manhattan pushed homes and prostitution northward from the Tenderloin District, Long Acre Square became nicknamed the Thieves Lair for its rollicking reputation as a low entertainment district.
The first theater on the square, the Olympia, was built by cigar manufacturer and impresario Oscar Hammerstein I. According to Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, "By the early 1890s this once sparsely settled stretch of Broadway was ablaze with electric light and thronged by crowds of middle- and upper-class theatre and cafe patrons." In 1904, New York Times publisher Adolph S. Ochs moved the newspaper's operations to a new skyscraper on 42nd Street at Longacre Square, on the site of the former Pabst Hotel, which had existed on the site for less than a decade since it opened in November 1899. Ochs persuaded Mayor George B. McClellan Jr. to construct a subway station there, the area was renamed "Times Square" on April 8, 1904. Just three weeks the first electrified advertisement appeared on the side of a bank at the corner of 46th Street and Broadway; the north end became Duffy Square, the former Horse Exchange became the Winter Garden Theatre, constructed in 1911. The New York Times moved to more spacious offices one block west of the square in 1913 and sold the building in 1961.
The old Times Building was named the Allied Chemical Building in 1963. Now known as One Times Square, it is famed for the Times Square Ball drop on its roof every New Year's Eve. In 1913, the Lincoln Highway Association, headed by entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher, chose the intersection of 42nd Street and Broadway to be the Eastern Terminus of the Lincoln Highway; this was the first road across the United States, which spanned 3,389 miles coast-to-coast through 13 states to its western terminus in Lincoln Park in San Francisco, California. Times Square grew after World War I, it became a cultural hub full of theatres, music halls, upscale hotels. Times Square became New York's agora, a place to gather to await great tidings and to celebrate them, whether a World Series or a presidential election. Advertising grew in the 1920s, growing