Overtime (ice hockey)
Overtime is a method of determining a winner in an ice hockey game when the score is tied after regulation. The main methods of determining a winner in a tied game are the overtime period, the shootout, or a combination of both. If league rules dictate a finite time in which overtime may be played, with no penalty shoot-out to follow, the game's winning team may or may not be determined. Overtime periods are extra periods beyond the third regulation period during a game, where normal hockey rules apply. Although in the past, full-length overtime periods were played, overtimes today are golden goal, meaning that the game ends when a player scores a goal. From November 21, 1942, when overtime was eliminated due to war time restrictions and continuing until the 1983–84 season, all NHL regular-season games tied after 60 minutes of play ended as ties. On June 23, 1983, the NHL introduced a regular-season overtime period of five minutes. If the five-minute overtime period ended with no scoring, the game ended as a tie.
In the first games to go to overtime, on October 5, 1983, the Minnesota North Stars and Los Angeles Kings skated to a 3–3 tie, the Detroit Red Wings and Winnipeg Jets tied 6–6. The first regular-season game decided by overtime was on October 8, 1983, as the New York Islanders beat the Washington Capitals 8–7. In 1987–88 and since 1995, the American Hockey League has awarded teams one point in the standings for an overtime loss. In 1998, the AHL introduced a rule where teams will play the five-minute overtime period with four skaters and a goaltender, rather than at full strength, except in two-man advantage situations. In a two-man advantage situation, the team with the advantage will play with five skaters against three skaters; the rule was popular and adopted by the ECHL the next season. Alex Ovechkin has the record for most NHL overtime goals with 20. In the Stanley Cup playoffs and in all one-game playoffs, overtime periods are played like regulation periods except for the golden goal rule – in an overtime period, the game ends when one team scores a goal.
Three of the game's legendary players, Mark Messier, Mario Lemieux, Gordie Howe never scored a playoff overtime goal. In many leagues and in international competitions, a failure to reach a decision in a single overtime may lead to a shootout; some leagues may eschew overtime periods altogether and end games in shootout should teams be tied at the end of regulation. In the ECHL, the AHL, the Southern Professional Hockey League, regular season overtime periods are played three on three for one five-minute period, with penalties resulting in the opponents skating one additional player on ice for each penalty. Prior to the 2014–15 season, the AHL set the overtime period at seven minutes, but reverted to the now-standard five-minute period the following year; the idea of using 3-on-3 skaters for the entirety of a five-minute overtime period for a regular season game was adopted by the NHL on June 24, 2015, for use in the 2015–16 NHL season. In IIHF play, rules for overtime depend on the stage of the competition.
For a round robin or preliminary round game that goes to overtime, the teams will play a maximum of 5 minutes of 3-on-3 hockey in the "golden goal" format. If no one scores in the five minute overtime, a three-round shootout will decide the winner. In the case of a playoff game or a bronze medal game, the teams will play a maximum of 10 minutes of 4-on-4 hockey in the "golden goal" format. If there is no score in the overtime, a five-round shootout will decide the winner. If the gold medal game of a top category IIHF championship goes to overtime, the teams will play a maximum of 20 minutes of 5-on-5 hockey in the "golden goal" format. If there is no winner after the overtime, a five-round shootout will decide the winner. In all cases, the teams must change ends, defend the same side that they did in the second period. In international competition, are used; each coach selects three skaters from their team to take penalty shots one at a time against the opposing goaltender, with teams alternating shots.
Each team gets one shot per round. The winner is the team with more goals after three rounds or the team that amasses an unreachable advantage before then. If the shootout is tied after three rounds, tie-breaker rounds are played one at a time until there is a winner; the IIHF first adopted the game-winning-shot procedure in 1992 when a new playoff procedure in the Winter Olympics and World Championships required a winner for each game. At that time, the shootout was five rounds and only used for knock-out games. In 2006, it was reduced to three rounds and used for all games, eliminating the possibility of tied games at IIHF events. Tie-breaker rounds are still used as needed, the same or new players can take the tie-break shots, done in reverse order; as of May 2016, all IIHF preliminary round games that are not decided by overtime, are decided by a three-round shootout. However, all playoff, bronze medal games and gold medal games of IIHF top level championships (especiall
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ
Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete or consecutively, with one winner; some sports allow a "tie" or "draw". A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Sport is recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports.
However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, draughts, Go and xiangqi, limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports. Sport is governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be crossing a line first, it can be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression. Records of performance are kept, for popular sports, this information may be announced or reported in sport news. Sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, reaching wider audiences through broadcasting.
Sport betting is in some cases regulated, in some cases is central to the sport. According to A. T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013; the world's most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is its most popular spectator sport. The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". Other meanings include. Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation; the singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept, with "sports" used to describe multiple activities. American English uses "sports" for both terms; the precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, the association for all the largest international sports federations, is therefore the de facto representative of international sport.
SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should: have an element of competition be in no way harmful to any living creature not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier not rely on any "luck" element designed into the sport. They recognise that sport can be physical mind, predominantly motorised co-ordination, or animal-supported; the inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports. Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports. There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games called esports due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not recognised by mainstream sports organisations. According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, "'Sport' means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels."
There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with all professional sport involving competition, governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee or SportAccord. Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Eu
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
AFL Grand Final
The AFL Grand Final is an annual Australian rules football match, traditionally held on the final Saturday in September at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in Melbourne, Australia, to determine the Australian Football League premiers for that year. The game has become significant to Australian culture, spawning a number of traditions and surrounding activities which have grown in popularity since the interstate expansion of the Victorian Football League in the 1980s and the subsequent creation of the national AFL competition in the 1990s; the 2006 Sweeney Sports Report concluded that the AFL Grand Final has become Australia's most important sporting event, with the largest attendance, metropolitan television audience and overall interest of any annual Australian sporting event. The winning club of the grand final receives the premiership flag. All players in the winning team receive a gold premiership medallion; every club has played in the grand final, with the exception of the two recent expansion clubs, Gold Coast and Greater Western Sydney, two former clubs, the short-lived University and Brisbane Bears.
The concept of a "grand" final evolved from experimentation by the Victorian Football League in the initial years of competition following its inception in 1897. During the 19th century, Australian football competition adopted the approach that the team on top of the ladder at the end of the home-and-away series was declared the premiers. However, the fledgling VFL decided that a finals series played between the top four teams at the end of the season would generate more interest and gate money. For 1897, the VFL scheduled a round robin tournament whereby the top four played each other once and the team that won the most matches was declared the winner. However, this method had flaws, so the VFL continued to experiment, playing "section" matches after the regular season and a finals series where first on the ladder played the third team and second met fourth; the winners of these "semi" finals met in a final to decide the premiership. The first such final was contested in 1898 between the Essendon Football Club and Fitzroy Football Club at the St Kilda Cricket Ground, which Fitzroy won scoring 5.8 to Essendon's 3.5.
The second finals format was discarded by the VFL after the unsatisfactory conclusion to the 1900 VFL season, where Melbourne won the premiership after having finished sixth out of the eight teams after the home-and-away season with a record of 6-8. The new finals system caused problems in 1901 when Geelong finished on top of the ladder but was eliminated when defeated in the semi final. A "right of challenge" was introduced, giving the team that finished on top at the end of the regular season the right to challenge if they lost the semi final or the final; this challenge match came to be called the "grand final". The first four grand finals were scattered around various Melbourne venues: one at Albert Park, two at St Kilda's Junction Oval and one at the East Melbourne Cricket Ground; the selection of the venue could depend on the portion of the gate demanded by the ground's landlords. The public remained ambivalent to the concept of finals football until the VFL pulled off a coup in 1902; the MCG was unavailable to football in the early spring months as it was being prepared for the coming cricket season.
The VFL convinced the Melbourne Cricket Club to rent the ground for the finals series and the first grand final at what is today considered the home of the game attracted more than 35,000 people to watch Collingwood down Essendon. The success of the finals at the MCG was proven with big attendances every year, soon all the major competitions around Australia were employing what was known as the "amended Argus system" of finals; the "original Argus system" had been instituted by the VFL in 1901, the amended system was instituted by the VFL in 1902. By 1908, a new record attendance of 50,261 was set, on a day when the crowd was so huge that it broke through the fence and filed onto the ground, sitting around the boundary line to watch the action; this figure was beaten in the 1912 Grand Final. The big finals crowds prompted the MCC to cut down the eleven fifty-year-old elm trees inside the ground and turn the stadium into a concrete bowl, complete with extra stands and standing room; the record fell again in the last grand final before World War I, when the excitement of St Kilda's first premiership attempt drew 59,479 spectators.
The war had a considerable effect on the impact of the grand final and attendances plummeted. One critic called for the Carlton team to receive the Iron Cross after they defeated Collingwood in the thrilling 1915 Grand Final dubbed a "glorious contest" by famous coach Jack Worrall, but many diggers supported the continuance of the game, both the 1918 and 1919 grand finals were notable for the large number of Australian servicemen in attendance, many of whom wore uniform. During the 1920s, the VFL grappled with the problems associated with the "amended Argus system" that a true grand final was not played if the minor premier won both the semi final and the final. Although new attendance records were set in 1920 and 1922, these were for the semi finals, which drew bigger crowds than the grand final. There was no grand final in 1924; the league reverted to the "amended Argus system" for 1925, when t
Field target is an outdoor air gun discipline originated by the National Air Rifle and Pistol Association in the United Kingdom in 1980. In UK rules, competitors aim to shoot the small “kill” zone that forms part of a larger metal faceplate; these face plates are shaped to resemble small game animals, although there is a move towards simple geometric shapes. On most competition targets, the hit zone forms the end of a short lever that tips the faceplate backwards when hit; these targets have to be reset by tugging on a length of cord attached to the faceplate above the hinge. Targets are shot from open “gates” in a firing line, are divided into “lanes” of two targets each. Many competitions impose a time restriction of 2 minutes to shoot both targets after a competitor first looks through his or her sights. Targets may be placed 55 yards from the firing line. Targets are placed at about the same height as the shooter, but it is not uncommon for them to appear high up banks or in trees, or down steep slopes.
The hit or “kill” zone of a target is always circular, nominally 40mm in diameter, although “reducer” targets as small as 25 mm diameter may be employed for seated shots up to 35 yards.15mm kill zones at close range are becoming popular. The targets are painted with the kill a contrasting color to aid visibility, although the paint is removed by hits during competitions, making it harder to distinguish; the majority of shots may be taken in any stance, but the seated position is the most popular due to its stability and the need to see over logs or long grass that would preclude prone shooting. Most competitors carry a small beanbag or cushion to sit on while shooting and they are used as a protective rest for guns while competitors wait their turn to shoot. In competition, 20% of the lanes will be designated as compulsory standing or kneeling, there must be as a split as possible between the two. Most competitions have 40 targets arranged in 20 lanes, so it is usual to have 2 standing lanes and 2 kneeling lanes.
Grand Prix events have 25 lanes, so there will be 2 lanes of one position and 3 of the other. Standing or kneeling targets must be no more than 45 yards from the firing line. Points are scored with 1 for a hit, 0 for a miss; the highest score of a competition forms the benchmark for all the other scores – they are calculated as a percentage of this score rather than the total number of targets. This means that competitors attending a shoot on a windy day will not affect their average score over a season, as the highest score of the day will be lower. Members of the British Field Target Association are graded according to their performance every six months. Your average percentage score over this period determines which of the four grades you are given – C, B, A and AA. Prizes at shoots are awarded by grade, so less experienced shooters still have a chance of winning a trophy if they perform well. Pistols are far less common than rifles in FT, they are shot in special events designed to accommodate the differences in shooting style.
In the UK, 0.177 inch caliber rifles are the most popular, as the higher velocity of the pellets means they fly with a flatter trajectory over the distances involved. One downside is that.177” pellets are light and can be affected more by light crosswinds than the heavier pellets of a.22” rifle, in cases where.177 pellets and.22 pellets are traveling at the same initial muzzle velocity. Pre-Charged Pneumatic rifles are more popular than spring guns as the much lower recoil provides more confidence in aim for most people. There are some FT shooters who compete at a high level with a spring gun, a well-engineered gun, shot with some skill will be no less accurate than a PCP. There are some “dedicated” FT designs available, with the main features being a deep stock or adjustable platform to rest on the knee while shooting seated, a high or adjustable cheek-piece to suit the large telescopic sights, an adjustable butt or butt hook. Many experienced shooters have chosen to use made-to-measure custom stocks for their rifles, there are a small number of stockers in the UK who compete in FT and have a good understanding of the specific requirements of the sport.
Telescopic sights are favored for obvious reasons – it is impossible to see the kill zone of the furthest targets with the naked eye. Another advantage of high-magnification scopes is their ability to act as a simple range-finding tool. At high magnifications, most scopes have a shallow depth of field, one can focus on a series of targets at known distances and mark the scope for future reference. In competition you focus on the target and deduce the distance from the marks you made on the scope’s focus control; some scopes use a side-wheel parallax adjustment to control focus, this allows the use of large diameter wheels to increase the distance between range markings and improve ranging resolution. Pellets from a.177 inch rifle running near the UK legal limit of 16.27 joules will drop around 11 cm over 55 yards – more than enough to miss the kill of a target – so it becomes necessary to compensate for range by adjusting the elevation of the barrel. Two common methods used are: moving the crosshairs above the center of the target by a lesser or grea
Nippon Professional Baseball
Nippon Professional Baseball or NPB is the highest level of baseball in Japan. Locally, it is called Puro Yakyū, meaning Professional Baseball. Outside Japan, it is just referred to as "Japanese baseball"; the roots of the league can be traced back to the formation of the "Greater Japan Tokyo Baseball Club" in Tokyo, founded 1934 and the original circuit for the sport in the Empire two years - Japanese Baseball League, even continued to play through the dark years of total warfare with Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931, intervening in the Chinese Civil War in 1937 with the wider Sino-Japanese War, into the greater World War II. The new NPB for Japan was formed when that sports organization reorganized in 1950 with creating its two leagues with six teams each of the Central League and the Pacific League with an annual season ending Japan Series championship play-off series of games starting that year for the JPB on the lines of the American World Series tournament. Nippon Professional Baseball consists of two leagues, the Central League and the Pacific League with six teams / franchises each.
There are two secondary-level professional minor leagues, the Eastern League and the Western League, that play shorter schedules for developing players. The season starts in late March or early April, ends in October, with two or three all-star games in July. In recent decades prior to 2007, the two leagues each scheduled between 130 and 140 regular season games, with the 146 games played by the Central League in 2005 and 2006 being the only exception. Both leagues have since adopted 73 each at home & on road. In general, Japanese teams play six games a week, with every Monday off. Following the conclusion of each regular season the best teams from each league go on to play in the "Nippon Series" or Japan Series championship play-off tournament on the lines of the American World Series since 1903. In 2004, the Pacific League played five fewer games than the Central League teams during the regular season and used a new playoff format to determine its champion; the teams in third and second place played in a best-of-three series with the winner of that series going on to play the first place team in a best-of-five format at its home ground.
In 2006, the Central League adopted the Pacific League's tournament as well, the tournament became known as the Climax Series with the two winners, one from each league, competing in the Japan Series. The NPB rules are those of the American Major League Baseball, but technical elements are different: The Nippon league uses a smaller baseball, strike zone, playing field; the Japanese baseball is wound more than an American baseball. The strike zone is narrower "inside" than away from the batter. Five Nippon league teams have fields whose small dimensions would violate the American Official Baseball Rules; the note set out at the end of Rule 1.04 specifies minimum dimensions for American ballparks built or renovated after 1958: 325 feet down each foul line and 400 feet to center field. American Major League Baseball players and sabermetricians describe play in the NPB as "AAAA". Play in the Pacific League is similar to that in American League baseball, with the use of designated hitters, unlike the Central League, which has no DH rule and is closer to National League baseball.
Unlike North American baseball, Japanese baseball games may end in a tie. If the score is tied after nine innings of play, up to three additional innings will be played. If there is no winner after 12 innings, the game is declared a tie. Similar to the current structure of the World Series, a team must win four games to clinch the Japan Series title. If the series must be extended, all games beyond game 7 are played with no innings limit, with game 8 being played in the same venue as game 7, game 9 and beyond played in the opposing team's venue following a moving day. Following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami and the ensuing Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, special rules were implemented for the 2011 NPB season: For power conservation reasons, besides the usual 12-inning limit, no extra innings were allowed to commence during the regular season once 3 hours, 30 minutes had elapsed from the game start time; this time included delays due to weather. Due to the delayed start of the season and because of post-season commitments to the champion, the Japan Series' extension rules were modified in 2011 if the series was tied after seven games, only one extra game would be played.
Most Japanese teams have a six-man starting rotation. Although each team roster has 28 players, similar to other professional sports, there is a 25 player limit for each game. Managers scratch three players before each game including the most recent starting pitchers, similar to professional basketball. Financial problems plague many teams in the league, it is believed that with the exception of the Yomiuri Giants and the Hanshin Tigers, all teams are operating with considerable subsid