Lingala is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a large part of the Republic of the Congo. It is spoken to a lesser degree in the Central African Republic. There are over 70 million lingalophones. In the 19th century, before the creation of the Congo Free State, the Bangala were a group of similar Bantu peoples living and trading along the bend of the Congo River that reached from Irebu at the mouth of the Ubangi River to the Mongala River, they spoke similar languages, such as Losengo, but their trade language was Bangi, the most prestigious language between Stanley Pool and Irebu. As a result, people upstream of the Bangala mistook Bangi for the language of the Bangala and called it Lingala, European missionaries followed suit. In the last two decades of the 19th century, after the forces of Leopold II of Belgium conquered the region and started exploiting it commercially, Bangi came into wider use; the colonial administration, in need of a common language for the region, started to use the language for administrative purposes.
It had simplified, compared to local Bantu languages, in its sentence structure, word structure and sounds, speakers borrowed words and constructs liberally from other languages. This allowed the language to spread amongst the Congolese population. However, the fact that speakers had similar native languages prevented Lingala from becoming as radically restructured as Kituba, which developed among speakers of both Bantu and West African languages. Around 1900, CICM missionaries started a project to "purify" the language in order to make it "pure Bantu" again. Meeuwis writes: issionaries, such as the Protestant W. Stapleton and and more influentially, E. De Boeck himself, judged that the grammar and lexicon of this language were too poor for it to function properly as a medium of education and other types of vertical communication with the Africans in the northwestern and central-western parts of the colony, they set out to'correct' and'expand' the language by drawing on lexical and grammatical elements from surrounding vernacular languages.
The importance of Lingala as a vernacular has since grown with the size and importance of its main center of use and Brazzaville. European missionaries called the language Bangala, after Lingala; the latter was intended to mean' of the Bangala' or'of the River'. However, this was an error; the name Lingala first appears in writing in a publication by the CICM missionary Egide De Boeck. According to some linguists, Lingala is a Bantu-based creole of Central Africa with roots in the Bobangi language.. In its basic vocabulary, Lingala has many borrowings from different other languages such as in French, Spanish and English. In practice, the extent of borrowing varies with speakers of different regions, during different occasions. French momie, comes from'ma mie' in old French meaning'my dear" although it can sound like it means grandmother, is used in Lingala to mean girlfriend kelasi for class/schoolSpanish chiclé for chewing gumPortuguese manteka for butter mésa for table sapátu for shoesEnglish miliki for milk supou for soup mamiwata for mermaid mammy/seareine búku for book mótuka, from motor-car, for car The Lingala language can be divided into several dialects or variations.
The major variations are considered to be Standard Lingala, Spoken Lingala, Kinshasa Lingala and Brazzaville Lingala. Standard Lingala is used in educational and news broadcastings on radio or television, in religious services in the Roman Catholic Church and is the language taught as a subject at all educational levels. Standard Lingala is associated with the work of the Catholic Church and missionaries, it has a seven-vowel system /a/ /e/ /ɛ/ /i/ /o/ /ɔ/ /u/ with an obligatory tense-lax vowel harmony. It has a full range of morphological noun prefixes with mandatory grammatical agreement system with subject–verb, or noun–modifier for each of class. Standard Lingala is used in formal functions. Spoken Lingala is the variation used in the day-to-day lives of Lingalaphones, it has a full morphological noun prefix system, but the agreement system is more lax than the standard variation, i.e. noun-modifier agreement is reduced to two classes. Regarding phonology, there is a seven-vowel system but the vowel harmony is not mandatory.
This variation of Lingala is associated with the Protestant missionaries' work. Spoken Lingala is used in informal functions, the majority of Lingala songs use spoken Lingala over other variations. Modern spoken Lingala is influenced by French. Lingala words show vowel harmony to some extent; the close-mid vowels /e/ and /o/ do not mix with the open-mid vowels /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ in words. For example, the words ndɔbɔ'fishhook' and ndobo'mouse trap' are found, but not *ndɔbo or *ndobɔ; the Lingala spoken in Kinshasa shows a vowel shift from /ɔ/ to /o/, leading to the absence of the phoneme /ɔ/ in favor of /o/. The same occurs with /ɛ/ and /e/, leadin
African French is the generic name of the varieties of a French language spoken by an estimated 120 million people in Africa spread across 24 francophone countries. This includes those who speak French as a first or second language in these 31 francophone African countries, but it does not include French speakers living in non-francophone African countries. Africa is thus the continent with the most French speakers in the world. French arrived in Africa as a colonial language; these African French speakers are now a large part of the Francophonie. In Africa, French is spoken alongside indigenous languages, but in a number of urban areas it has become a first language, such as in the region of Abidjan, Ivory Coast, in the urban areas of Douala and Yaoundé in Cameroon, or in Libreville, Gabon. In some countries it is a first language among some classes of the population, such as in Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria where French is a first language among the upper classes, but only a second language among the general population.
In each of the francophone African countries, French is spoken with local specificities in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary. There are many different varieties of African French, but they can be broadly grouped into four categories: the French spoken by people in West and Central Africa – spoken altogether by about 75 million people as either a first or second language; the French variety spoken by Maghrebis and Berbers in Northwest Africa, which has about 36 million first and second language speakers. The French variety spoken in Djibouti in the Horn of Africa; the French variety spoken by Creoles in the Indian Ocean, which has around 1.6 million first and second language speakers. The French spoken in this region is not to be confused with the French-based creole languages, which are spoken in the area. All the African French varieties differ from standard French both in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary, but the formal African French used in education and legal documents is based on standard French vocabulary.
In the colonial period, a vernacular form of creole French known as Petit nègre was present in West Africa. The term has since, become a pejorative term for poorly spoken African French. V. Y. Mudimbe describes African French as possessing "approximate pronunciation, repressed syntax, bloated or tortured vocabulary, intonation and accent stuck in the original African language flow; the differences from European French are due to influence from the mother tongues and the complexity of French grammatical rules, which inhibit its learning by most non-native speakers. The difficulty linguists have in describing African French comes from variations, such as the "pure" language used by many African intellectuals and writers versus the mixtures between French and African languages. For this, the term "creolization" is used in a pejorative way, in the areas where French is on the same level with one or more local languages. According to G. Manessy, "The consequences of this concurrency may vary according to the social status of the speakers, to their occupations, to their degree of acculturation and thus to the level of their French knowledge."Code-switching, or the alternation of languages within a single conversation, takes place in both Senegal and Congo-Kinshasa, the latter having four "national" languages – Kikongo, Lingala and Swahili – which are in a permanent opposition to French.
Code-switching has been studied since colonial times by different institutions of linguistics. One of these, located in Dakar, Senegal spoke of the creolization of French in 1968, naming the result "franlof": a mix of French and Wolof which spreads by its use in urban areas and through schools, where teachers speak Wolof in the classroom despite official instructions; the omnipresence of local languages in francophone African countries – along with insufficiencies in education – has given birth to a new linguistic concept: le petit français. Le petit français is the result of a superposition of the structure of a local language with a narrowed lexical knowledge of French; the specific structures, though different, are juxtaposed, marking the beginning of the creolization process. In the urban areas of francophone Africa, another type of French has emerged: Français populaire africain or FPA, it is used in the entirety of sub-Saharan Africa, but in cities such as Abidjan, Ivory Coast. At its emergence, it was associated with the ghetto.
It has become a symbol of social acceptance. FPA can be seen as a progressive evolution of Ivorian French. After diffusing out of Ivory Coast, it became Africanized under the influence of young Africans and cinema and dance. FPA has lexicon. For example, "Il ou elle peut me tuer!" or "Il ou elle peut me dja!" can either mean "This person annoys me much" or "I'm dying for him/her" depending on the circumstances. "Il ou elle commence à me plaire" signifies a feeling of exasperation, friendship can be expressed with "c'est mon môgô sûr" or "
Bandundu is one of eleven former provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It bordered the provinces of Kinshasa and Bas-Congo to the west, Équateur to the north, Kasai-Occidental to the east; the provincial capital is called Bandundu. Bandundu was formed in 1966 by merging the three post-colonial political regions: Kwilu and Mai-Ndombe. Under the 2006 constitution, Bandundu was to be broken up again into the aforementioned political regions. Kwilu province was to be formed by combining Kwilu district and the city of Kikwit, Kwango province was to be formed from Kwango district, Mai-Ndombe province was to be formed by combining Plateaux District, Mai-Ndombe District and the city of Bandundu. Following much delay, by 2016 the change had taken effect; the landscape of Bandundu province consisted of plateaus covered in savanna, cut by rivers and streams that are bordered by thick forest. The province was bisected by the Kasai River, which flows into the Congo River on the province's western boundary.
Other major rivers are the Kwango, Kwenge and Lukenie. Lake Mai-Ndombe is the largest lake, with this lake and the surrounding swamp forest forming the southern portion of the Tumba-Ngiri-Maindombe Ramsar wetlands. Most villages are situated on the higher ground, with the villagers practicing shifting slash-and-burn agriculture in the valleys; the main crops are manioc, maize and beans. The villagers raise chickens, goats and cattle, supplement their diet with fish and bushmeat. A few Indian and Chinese business people selling electronics, such as cell phones and sound systems, have opened shop recently; the province was divided into the cities of Bandundu and Kikwit and the districts of Kwango, Mai-Ndombe and Plateaux. Cities and towns, with their 2010 populations, are: Mateko is a town located in the Bandundu Province; the total population of the town in 2,367. It is located in the North-West of Idiofa Territory in the Kwilu District; the name Mateko designates: Mateko as a Sector, Mateko as a local municipality and Mateko as a town.
It is about 45 km to one of the major harbours of Idiofa territory. Mateko is surrounded by beautiful small and big rivers such as Kamuntsha, Diambala river and Kimpele. Kamuntsha river is the nearest big river to Mateko, a tributary of the Kasai river and one of the important rivers of the region that facilitates trading between Mateko and Kinshasa. Kikongo is the main language of Mateko. University of Bandundu University of Kikwit Many citizens of Bandundu make their living with small provision shops selling basic food items, various beauty products and other beauty products such as weave hair. There has been an increase in foreign entrepreneurs opening electronics shops and other electronic items increasing the market awareness. Today's bus transportation from Kinshasa to Bandundu is twice a week, but the ferry crossing only operates from 7am to 5 pm. There are two television stations showing local news from Kinshasa, religion or the country's national sport. Hotels, like the Hotel Vendome, are evolving in the center of town, offering full services to include its own dedicated internet.
Although international visitors are minimal, there are occasional visitors connected to NGOs and local government work. Chez Jacque, an outdoor disco, provides a nightlife of Congolese music for the younger population. Local transportation in Bandundu is bicycles and motorbikes referred to as "Toleka" meaning "Let's go" in the Lingala language. Traffic flows are directed by the street police at each intersection to avoid clashes between the few cars, motor bikes, foot traffic, push carts; the local cultural center is used for graduations, public services, church. There are enormous money changing outlets for local and international money, such as Soficom and Western Union. Music is an enormous part of life in the Congo where the love of the rhumba can dominate the dance floor with the likes for King Kester Emeneya, etc. crooning to the old samba beat from a Cuban influence. Two main trade languages are spoken in the Bandundu Province: Lingala, spoken north of the Kasai River, Kituba spoken south of the river.
These languages have become so commonplace that many have grown up using them as their first language. There are many local dialects such as Lele, Kimbala and Wongo
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, is now published annually by SIL International, a U. S.-based, Christian non-profit organization. SIL's main purpose is to study and document languages to promote literacy and for religious purposes; as of 2018, Ethnologue contains web-based information on 7,097 languages in its 21st edition, including the number of speakers, dialects, linguistic affiliations, availability of the Bible in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale. Ethnologue has been published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas; the organization studies numerous minority languages to facilitate language development, to work with speakers of such language communities in translating portions of the Bible into their languages.
The determination of what characteristics define a single language depends upon sociolinguistic evaluation by various scholars. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based on mutual intelligibility. Shared language intelligibility features are complex, include etymological and grammatical evidence, agreed upon by experts. In addition to choosing a primary name for a language, Ethnologue provides listings of other name for the language and any dialects that are used by its speakers, government and neighbors. Included are any names that have been referenced regardless of whether a name is considered official, politically correct or offensive; these lists of names are not complete. In 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an'SIL code', to identify each language that it described; this set of codes exceeded the scope of other standards, e.g. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2; the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into a draft international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard, called ISO 639-3. This standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue. In only one case and the ISO standards treat languages differently. ISO 639-3 considers Akan to be a macrolanguage consisting of two distinct languages and Fante, whereas Ethnologue considers Twi and Fante to be dialects of a single language, since they are mutually intelligible; this anomaly resulted because the ISO 639-2 standard has separate codes for Twi and Fante, which have separate literary traditions, all 639-2 codes for individual languages are automatically part of 639–3 though 639-3 would not assign them separate codes. In 2014, with the 17th edition, Ethnologue introduced a numerical code for language status using a framework called EGIDS, an elaboration of Fishman's GIDS, it ranks a language from 0 for an international language to 10 for an extinct language, i.e. a language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity.
In December 2015, Ethnologue launched a metered paywall. As of 2017, Ethnologue's 20th edition described 237 language families including 86 language isolates and six typological categories, namely sign languages, pidgins, mixed languages, constructed languages, as yet unclassified languages. In 1986, William Bright editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it "is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world". In 2008 in the same journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said: "Ethnologue...has become the standard reference, its usefulness is hard to overestimate."In 2015, Harald Hammarström, an editor of Glottolog, criticized the publication for lacking citations and failing to articulate clear principles of language classification and identification. However, he concluded that, on balance, "Ethnologue is an impressively comprehensive catalogue of world languages, it is far superior to anything else produced prior to 2009." Starting with the 17th edition, Ethnologue has been published every year.
Linguasphere Observatory Register Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert. The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198744. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. Linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights?. Routledge. ISBN 9781135662356. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Paolillo, John C.. "Evaluating language statistics: the Ethnologue and beyond". UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Pp. 3–5. Retrieved October 8, 2015. Web version of Ethnologue