Tiergarten (park)

The Tiergarten is Berlin’s most popular inner-city park, located in the district of the same name. The park is among the largest urban gardens of Germany. Only the Tempelhofer Park and Munich's Englischer Garten are larger; the beginnings of the Tiergarten can be traced back to 1527. It was founded as a hunting area for the Elector of Brandenburg, was situated to the west of the Cölln city wall, the sister town of Old Berlin, it sat in the same vicinity as the City Palace. In 1530 the expansion began; the total area extended beyond the current Tiergarten, the forests were perfect for hunting deer and other wild animals. The Elector of Brandenburg had wild animals placed within the Tiergarten, fenced off from the outside to prevent the creatures from escaping, was the main hunting ground for the electors of Brandenburg; this hobby, began to fade away as the city of Berlin began to expand and the hunting area shrank to accommodate the growth. Frederick Wilhelm I, Elector of Brandenburg, feeling the need to bring change to his private hunting grounds, built many structures that are still visible today.

As the King was expanding Unter den Linden, a roadway that connected the City Palace and the Tiergarten, he had a swathe of forest removed in order to connect his castle to the newly built Charlottenburg Palace. Der Große Stern, the central square of the Tiergarten, Kurfürstenplatz, the electoral plaza, were added, with seven and eight boulevards respectively; this is seen as the beginning of a transformation in the Tiergarten, a movement from the king’s personal hunting territory to a forest park designed for the people. Frederick Wilhelm I's son and successor, Frederick II did not appreciate the hunt as his predecessors did, In 1740, he opened the park's first public gardens. In 1742 he instructed the architect Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff to tear down the fences that surrounded the territory and to turn the park into a Lustgarten, one that would be open to the people of Berlin. In the baroque style popular at the time he added flowerbeds and espaliers in geometrical layouts, along with mazes, water basins and ornamental ponds.

Unique to the time period, areas of congregation called "salons" were established along the many different walkways in the park. These salons were blocked off from the walking path by hedges or trees and furnished with seating and vases, offering guests a change of pace and a place to discuss intellectual matters in private; such freedom was common under the rule of Frederick II. Refugees, Huguenots in hiding from the French, were allowed to erect tents and sell refreshments to the pedestrians walking through the park. A pheasant house was erected, which would become the core of the Zoological Garden, a zoo founded in 1844 that lies within the greater Tiergarten. During the revolutions of 1848, the park hosted the first assembly demanding the abolishment of the national censors. At the end of the 18th century, Knobelsdorff's late-baroque form had been all but replaced by ideas for a new, scenic garden ideal; the castle park Bellevue and Rousseau Island were laid out by court gardener Justus Ehrenreich Sello in the late 18th century.

It was in 1818 that the king commissioned the help of Peter Joseph Lenné, a young man, at the time the gardener's assistant at Sanssouci in Potsdam. His plans involved the creation of a rural Volkspark, or people's park, that would serve as a sort of Prussian national park that would help lift the spirits of those who visited. However, the King Frederick William III rejected Lenné's plan. Against the opposition of a hesitant bureaucracy, Lenné submitted a modified version of his concept; this plan was accepted and realized between 1833 and 1840. The park was modeled after English gardens, but Lenné made sure to pay attention to Knobelsdorff's structures and layouts. By draining forests areas he allowed for more footpaths and bridleways to be laid down. Several features became characteristic components of the Tiergarten. Wide-open grass lawns traversed by streams and clusters of trees, lakes with small islands, countless bridges like the Löwenbrücke, a multitude of pathways became distinguishing features of the new garden.

Up until 1881, the Tiergarten was owned by the monarchy, came under the direct control of the King and the Emperor. Soon after Emperor William I abolished his rights to the forest, he added the boundaries to the new district of Berlin, so that the people may use and uphold it. However, until the middle of the twentieth century, the Tiergarten remained in the style that Lenné had left it in; the biggest changes came in the form of nationalistic memorials that began construction in 1849 under the directorship of Eduard Niede and Hermann Geitner. These monuments were seen as patriotic contributions to the culture of the Tiergarten; the Siegesallee could be considered the most famous addition. Built under the orders of Emperor William II, it was lined with statues of former Prussian royal figures of varying historical importance; the Prachtboulevard was added in 1895 and became the area known as the Königsplatz, which would become Platz der Republik. The park is covered in statues commemorating those famous to the Prussians and the activities they enjoyed doing.

Animal statues are to be found throughout the

John Brown House (Providence, Rhode Island)

The John Brown House is the first mansion built in Providence, Rhode Island, located at 52 Power Street on College Hill where it borders the campus of Brown University. The house is named after the original owner, one of the early benefactors of the University, merchant and slave trader John Brown, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1968. John Quincy Adams considered it "the most magnificent and elegant private mansion that I have seen on this continent." The building was designed by John Brown's brother Joseph, an amateur architect who had designed the First Baptist Church in America. It was built between 1786 and 1788. Notable guests during this time include George Washington, reported to have visited for tea; the house was sold in 1901 to banker Marsden J. Perry. Perry renovated the extension to add in central heating systems. John Nicholas Brown purchased it in 1936. In 1942, the Brown family donated the house to the Rhode Island Historical Society for preservation, the society restored it to its original colonial decor.

The museum now contains many original furniture pieces provided by the Brown family estate. The house is a three-story brick structure with a hipped roof topped by a flat section. Both the main roof line and the flat section are ringed by a low balustrade. Four chimneys rise from the sides of the house, its main entrance is in a center projecting section topped by a small triangular pediment; the entry is sheltered by a portico supported by sandstone Doric columns, there is a Palladian window above the portico. The interior of the house follows a traditional Georgian plan, with a central hallway flanked by two rooms on either side; the hall is grand, with engaged columns supporting architectural busts and a two-stage stairwell with an ornate twisting banister. Richly detailed woodwork is evident in all of the public rooms. Eleven of the building's twelve mantelpieces are original. National Register of Historic Places listings in Providence, Rhode Island List of National Historic Landmarks in Rhode Island Media related to John Brown House at Wikimedia Commons Rhode Island Historical Society - John Brown House Historic American Buildings Survey No.

RI-75, "John Brown House, 52 Power Street, Providence County, RI", 16 photos, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page, supplemental material


Gomoh is a census town in Topchanchi CD Block Dhanbad Sadar subdivision of Dhanbad district in the Indian state of Jharkhand. It has a major railway junction situated on the Grand Chord Line under Dhanbad division of the East Central Railway. Gomoh is the meeting point for trains coming from Ranchi/Bokaro and Puri/Bhubaneswar. Gomoh is known for its historical importance. From here, on his great escape, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose caught Howrah-Kalka Mail on 18 January 1941. There is a statue of Netaji right between the platform no. 1 & 2 at Gomoh railway station which reminds people of his historic halt. Every year on 23 January, the railway employees and the people of this town organize a small cultural program to celebrate Netaji's birthday. People of this town organize a week-long fair in Railway Football Ground starting from 11 March every year in remembrance of the assassinated'Labour Leader' Sadanand Jha. There are two big playgrounds in Gomoh. Gomoh is located at 23.87°N 86.17°E / 23.87.

It has an average elevation of 245 metres. Note: The map alongside presents some of the notable locations in the area. All places marked in the map are linked in the larger full screen map. Gomoh is a dust free area with lots of small hills surrounding it; the region shown in the map lies to the north of Dhanbad city and is an extensive rural area with villages scattered around hills. One of the many spurs of Pareshnath Hill, situated in neighbouring Giridih district, passes through the Topchanchi and Tundi areas of the district; the Barakar River flows along the northern boundary. The region shown in the map covers several CD blocks – Topchanchi, Tundi, Purbi Tundi and a small part of Baghmara; the Kolkata-Agra National Highway 19 / Grand Trunk Road cuts across the southern part of the region. As per the 2011 Census of India, Gomoh had a total population of 31,495 of which 16,443 were males and 15,052 were females. Population below 6 years was 3,956; the total number of literates in Gomoh was 23,233.

As of 2001 India census, Gomoh had a population of 28,576. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Gomoh has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 78%, female literacy is 60%. In Gomoh, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. Gomoh consists of people from diverse professional backgrounds; the major role in development of Gomoh was of Netaji. For the peoples living in Gomoh there are many problems like lack of education, worst electricity supply and many more. Religious diversity is the hallmark of Gomoh. A number of Anglo-Indians can be found here since the British era as a result of which Christians are here from a long time; the Sikh community settled here before Independence as businessmen. A gurudwara at Loco Bazar is visited by many Sikhs from surrounding areas every day. Bengalis form a large part of the population and have contributed to the culture of this place. However, their population has been dwindling for the last few decades.

On Durga Puja one can get a glimpse of Kolkata in Gomoh at Durga Para, home to the oldest Durge Puja in the area. Muslims contribute to the population and culture of this region. There is a masjid and a madarsa at Purana Bazar and a Jama Masjid at Loco Bazar. Id-Gah and graveyard of Muslims is in Laludih area. A majority of the people are railway employees; these people got transferred from different parts of the country. After retirement, a good number of these employees choose to settle down in Gomoh giving rise to the population of the city. There is a strong business class in Gomoh. Businesses ranging from food grain wholesaling to clothes & apparel to building material to confectionery & bakery products etc. can be found. Though Marwaris are dominating the business scenario, one can find the representation of all the religious groups; some people are engaged in agriculture, growing certain cereals and vegetables. Main festivals celebrated include Durga Puja, Holi, Chatth Puja, Id, Gurunanak Birthday, etc.

Gomoh has an area of 8.96 km2. It is 37 km from the district headquarters Dhanbad, it has a railway station. Buses are available in the town, it has both open and closed drains. The two major sources of protected water supply are tap water from treated source. There are 60 road lighting points. Amongst the medical facilities it has 1 hospital with 30 beds and 12 medicine shops. Amongst the educational facilities, it has 17 primary schools, 13 middle schools, 9 secondary schools, 1 senior secondary school and 1 general degree college. Amongst the recreational and cultural facilities, it has 2 cinema theatres and 1 auditorium/ community hall, it has the branch offices of 3 nationalised banks, 1 cooperative bank and 1 agricultural credit society. As Gomoh is a small town, only a few educational institutes up to the Secondary level exist. Notable among them is the St. Mary's Day School, a prominent institute up to Standard X started by the late William Spencer Easton; this school alone has produced many notable people from the Gomoh area.

There are some more CBSE schools up to Standard X such as Blossom Public School and Guru