Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
North Wales is a region of Wales. Retail and educational infrastructure are centred on Wrexham, Colwyn Bay and Bangor, it is bordered to the rest of Wales with the counties of Ceredigion and Powys, to the east by the English counties of Shropshire and Cheshire. North Wales was traditionally divided into three regions: Upper Gwynedd, defined as the area north of the River Dyfi and west of the River Conwy); the division with the rest of Wales depends on the particular use being made. For example, the boundary of North Wales Police differs from the boundary of the North Wales area of the Natural Resources Wales and the North Wales Regional Transport Consortium; the historic boundary follows the pre-1996 county boundaries of Merionethshire and Denbighshire which in turn follows the geographic features of the river Dovey to Aran Fawddwy crossing the high moorlands following the watershed until reaching Cadair Berwyn and following the river Rhaeadr and river Tanat to the Shropshire border. Montgomeryshire, one of the historic counties of Wales, is sometimes referred to as being in North Wales.
The region is steeped in history and was for a millennium known as the Kingdom of Gwynedd. The mountainous stronghold of Snowdonia formed the nucleus of that realm and would become the last redoubt of independent Wales — only overcome in 1283. To this day it remains a stronghold of the Welsh language and a centre for Welsh national and cultural identity; the area is home to two of the three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Wales. These are Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and canal and, the Edwardian castles and town walls of the region which comprise those at Caernarfon, Beaumaris and Harlech, it shares with Powys and Ceredigion the distinction of hosting the only UNESCO Biosphere reserve in Wales, Biosffer Dyfi Biosphere. The region is made up of the following administrative areas: the county borough of Wrexham the county of Flintshire the county of Denbighshire the county borough of Conwy the county of Gwynedd the county of the Isle of Anglesey In addition to the six Local Authority divisions, North Wales is divided into the following preserved counties for various ceremonial purposes: the preserved county of Clwyd the preserved county of Gwynedd North Wales was a European Parliament constituency until 1999.
There is an electoral region for the National Assembly for Wales with the name, which covers the northeast of Wales as well as the northern-most coastal areas of north-western Wales. The area is rural with many mountains and valleys. This, in combination with its coast, means. Farming, once the principal economic force in the area, is now much reduced in importance; the average income per capita of the local population is the lowest in the UK and much of the region has EU Objective 1 status. The eastern part of North Wales contains the most populous areas, with more than 300,000 people living in the areas around Wrexham and Deeside. Wrexham, with a population of 63,084 in 2001 is the largest town; the total population of North Wales is 687,937. The majority of other settlements are along the coast, including some popular resort towns, such as Rhyl, Llandudno and Tywyn; the A55 road links these towns to cities like Manchester and Birmingham and the port of Holyhead for ferries to Ireland. There are two cathedral cities – Bangor and St. Asaph – and a number of mediaeval castles The area of North Wales is about 6,172 square kilometres, making it larger than the country of Brunei, or the island of Bali.
The highest mountain in Wales and Ireland, is Snowdon in northwest Wales. North Wales has a diverse and complex geology with Precambrian schists along the Menai Strait and the great Cambrian dome behind Harlech and underlying much of western Snowdonia. In the Ordovician period much volcanism deposited a range of minerals and rocks over the north western parts of Gwynedd whilst to the east of the River Conwy lies a large area of upland rolling hills underlain by the Silurian mudstones and grits comprising the Denbigh and Migneint Moors. To the east, around Llangollen, to the north on Halkyn Mountain and the Great Orme and in eastern Anglesey are beds of limestone from which metals have been mined since pre-Roman times. Added to all this are the complexities posed by Parys Mountain and the outcrops of unusual minerals such as Jasper and Mona Marble which make the area of special interest to geologists. North Wales has a distinct regional identity, its dialect of the Welsh language differs from that of other regions, such as South Wales, in some ways: for example llefrith is used in most of the North instead of llaeth for "milk".
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either or out of stone. Although stone tool-dependent societies and cultures still exist today, most stone tools are associated with prehistoric cultures that have become extinct. Archaeologists study such prehistoric societies, refer to the study of stone tools as lithic analysis. Ethnoarchaeology has been a valuable research field in order to further the understanding and cultural implications of stone tool use and manufacture. Stone has been used to make a wide variety of different tools throughout history, including arrow heads and querns. Stone tools may be made of either ground stone or chipped stone, a person who creates tools out of the latter is known as a flintknapper. Chipped stone tools are made from cryptocrystalline materials such as chert or flint, chalcedony, obsidian and quartzite via a process known as lithic reduction. One simple form of reduction is to strike stone flakes from a nucleus of material using a hammerstone or similar hard hammer fabricator.
If the goal of the reduction strategy is to produce flakes, the remnant lithic core may be discarded once it has become too small to use. In some strategies, however, a flintknapper reduces the core to a rough unifacial or bifacial preform, further reduced using soft hammer flaking techniques or by pressure flaking the edges. More complex forms of reduction include the production of standardized blades, which can be fashioned into a variety of tools such as scrapers, knives and microliths. In general terms, chipped stone tools are nearly ubiquitous in all pre-metal-using societies because they are manufactured, the tool stone is plentiful, they are easy to transport and sharpen. Archaeologists classify stone tools into industries that share distinctive technological or morphological characteristics. In 1969 in the 2nd edition of World Prehistory, Grahame Clark proposed an evolutionary progression of flint-knapping in which the "dominant lithic technologies" occurred in a fixed sequence from Mode 1 through Mode 5.
He assigned to them relative dates: Modes 1 and 2 to the Lower Palaeolithic, 3 to the Middle Palaeolithic, 4 to the Advanced and 5 to the Mesolithic. They were not to be conceived, however, as either universal—that is, they did not account for all lithic technology. Mode 1, for example, was in use in Europe. Clark's scheme was adopted enthusiastically by the archaeological community. One of its advantages was the simplicity of terminology; the transitions are of greatest interest. In the literature the stone tools used in the period of the Palaeolithic are divided into four "modes", each of which designate a different form of complexity, which in most cases followed a rough chronological order. KenyaStone tools found from 2011 to 2014 at Lake Turkana in Kenya, are dated to be 3.3 million years old, predate the genus Homo by half million years. The oldest known Homo fossil is 2.8 million years old compared to the 3.3 million year old stone tools. The stone tools may have been made by Australopithecus afarensis —also called Kenyanthropus platyops— the species whose best fossil example is Lucy, which inhabited East Africa at the same time as the date of the oldest stone tools.
Dating of the tools was by dating volcanic ash layers in which the tools were found and dating the magnetic signature of the rock at the site. EthiopiaGrooved and fractured animal bone fossils, made by using stone tools, were found in Dikika, Ethiopia near the remains of Selam, a young Australopithecus afarensis girl who lived about 3.3 million years ago. The earliest stone tools in the life span of the genus Homo are Mode 1 tools, come from what has been termed the Oldowan Industry, named after the type of site found in Olduvai Gorge, where they were discovered in large quantities. Oldowan tools were characterised by their simple construction; these cores were river pebbles, or rocks similar to them, struck by a spherical hammerstone to cause conchoidal fractures removing flakes from one surface, creating an edge and a sharp tip. The blunt end is the proximal surface. Oldowan is a percussion technology. Grasping the proximal surface, the hominid brought the distal surface down hard on an object he wished to detach or shatter, such as a bone or tuber.
The earliest known Oldowan tools yet found date from 2.6 million years ago, during the Lower Palaeolithic period, have been uncovered at Gona in Ethiopia. After this date, the Oldowan Industry subsequently spread throughout much of Africa, although archaeologists are unsure which Hominan species first developed them, with some speculating that it was Australopithecus garhi, others believing that it was in fact Homo habilis. Homo habilis was the hominin who used the tools for most of the Oldowan in Africa, but at about 1.9-1.8 million years ago Homo erectus inherited them. The Industry flourished in southern and eastern Africa between 2.6 and 1.7 million years ago, but was spread out of Africa and into Eurasia by travelling bands of H. erectus, who took it as far east as Java by 1.8 million years ago and Northern China by 1.6 million years ago. More complex, Mode 2 tools began to be developed through the Acheulean Industry, named after the site
Cushendall known as Newtown Glens, is a village and townland in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is located in the historic barony of Glenarm Lower and the civil parish of Layd, is part of Causeway Coast and Glens district, it is on the A2 coast road between Glenariff and Cushendun, in the Antrim Coast and Glens Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. It lies in the shadow of the table topped Lurigethan Mountain and at the meeting point of three of the Glens of Antrim: Glenaan and Glencorp; this part of the Irish coastline is separated from Scotland by the North Channel, with the Mull of Kintyre about 16 miles away. In the 2001 Census it had a population of 1,241 people, with a 2008 estimate of 1,363. Much of the historic character of the 19th century settlement on the north bank of the River Dall remains. In 1973 it was designated as only the second Conservation Area in Northern Ireland, includes the intact Irish Georgian buildings of the town's four original streets. Since 1990, Cushendall has hosted the Heart Of The Glens festival every August.
Thomas D'Arcy McGee, a father of Canadian Confederation, spent his childhood in Cushendall when his father, who worked for the Coast Guard Service, was posted there. Cushendall is classified as a village, the population of Cushendall on Census day was 1241 people; the demographic characteristics of the people living in Cushendall was as follows: 26.1% were aged under 16 years. On Census day in 2011: 92.1% were from a Catholic background and 6.3% were from a Protestant background The Curfew Tower in the centre of the village was built by landlord of the town, Francis Turnley, in 1817, to confine riotous prisoners. Dan McBride, an army pensioner, was given the job of permanent garrison and was armed with one musket, a bayonet, a brace of pistols and a thirteen-feet-long pike; the tower is now owned by artist Bill Drummond. Oisín's Grave, off the main Cushendall to Ballymoney road, is a megalithic court cairn on a hillside in Lubitavish, near the Glenann River, it is believed to be the burial place of Oísín - the Celtic Warrior Poet.
A stone cairn was erected here in 1989 in memory of the poet of the Glens. The ruins of Layd Church, a Franciscan foundation partially from the 13th century, are found 1.5 km north of Cushendall. They are accessible by a cliff path from Cushendall, as well as by road. There are old vaults in the churchyard and it was one of the main burial places of the MacDonnells. There is a stone cross memorial to Dr James MacDonnell, one of the organisers of the last Belfast Festival of Harpists in 1792 and pioneer of the use of chloroform in surgery. By the gate of the churchyard is a holestone and nearby two'corp stones' on which coffins were rested. Layd Church saw service as a parish church from 1306 until about 1790. Red Bay Castle, situated between the villages of Cushendall and Waterfoot. Built by the Bisset family in the 14th century and occupied by the MacDonnells, one of the outposts of the Kingdom of Dál Riata. Glenariff Forest Park, 5 miles inland from Cushendall, covers an area of 1185 hectares.
In the park are two small rivers containing spectacular waterfalls, tranquil pools and stretches of fast flowing water tumbling through rocky gorges. There is toilets and an exhibition centre. Four way-marked trails of varying length wind through the forest leading you into some of the park's wooded areas. One follows the Glenariff River with its famous waterfalls and passes through the National Nature Reserve. In 1922, in the period following the Treaty between the British Government and the Republican forces in Ireland, three young men, John Gore, James McAllister, John Hill, were killed in Cushendall on the night of Friday, 23 June, by members of the Ulster special police, who arrived in the village with British soldiers in motor lorries and Crossley armoured cars. Although an inquiry was promised in the House of Commons by Winston Churchill no such inquiry took place. Sergeant Joseph Campbell, a Catholic Royal Ulster Constabulary officer, was shot dead on 25 February 1977 by a rogue police officer called Charlie McCormick as he locked up the local RUC station.
McCormick was acquitted on appeal. RUC officer Alexander Bell died as a result of his injuries on 25 July 1989 from a previous Provisional Irish Republican Army land mine attack on his patrol car. Founded in 1906, the local club Ruairí; the first county senior championship was won in 1981, when the team captained by John Delargy beat Ballycastle Mc Quillans after a replay. The club have since won 13 County Championships, they have won numerous underage tournaments. On the 17th March 2016, Cushendall lost. Cushendall Golf Club is a tricky little nine-hole course presenting many challenges for those wanting to improve their short game; the course is a great place for young players to develop and has produced numerous successful amateurs over the years. The course is located in a superb wooded valley with the Abhainn Dala running through its centre to the sea. Established in 1951, Cushendall Sailing & Boating Club is the ideal place to learn basic introductory, as well as advanced Sailing skills. The
The Ulster Museum, located in the Botanic Gardens in Belfast, has around 8,000 square metres of public display space, featuring material from the collections of fine art and applied art, ethnography, treasures from the Spanish Armada, local history, industrial archaeology, botany and geology. It is the largest museum in Northern Ireland, one of the components of National Museums Northern Ireland; the Ulster Museum was founded as the Belfast Natural History Society in 1821 and began exhibiting in 1833. It has included an art gallery since 1890. Called the Belfast Municipal Museum and Art Gallery, in 1929, it moved to its present location in Stranmillis; the new building was designed by James Cumming Wynne. In 1962, courtesy of the Museum Act 1961, it was renamed as the Ulster Museum and was formally recognised as a national museum. A major extension constructed by McLaughlin & Harvey Ltd to designs by Francis Pym who won the 1964 competition was opened in 1972 and Pym's only completed work, it was published in several magazines and was until alteration the most important example of Brutalism in Northern Ireland.
It was praised by David Evans for the "almost barbaric power of its great cubic projections and cantilevers brooding over the conifers of the botanic gardens like a mastodon". Since the 1940s the Ulster Museum has built up good collection of art by modern Irish, Ulster-based artists. In 1998, the Ulster Museum merged with the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum and the Ulster-American Folk Park to form the National Museums and Galleries of Northern Ireland. In July 2005, a £17m refurbishment of the museum was announced, with grants from the Heritage Lottery Fund and the Department of Culture and Leisure. In October 2006 the museum closed its doors until 2009. Illustrations of historic interest of interiors before alterations will be found as nos 183 and 237 in Larmour, P. 1987. The redevelopment drew criticism from many significant figures in the architectural community and the Twentieth Century Society for changes to the Brutalist character and dismantling of the spiral sequence of rooms in the Pym extension.
The museum reopened in eighty years to the day since its original opening. Within a month over 100,000 people had visited the museum; the reopening saw the introduction of Monday closure, which has received criticism from the public and in the press. All NMNI sites are to close on Mondays; this decision is being reviewed by DCAL. The museum has galleries covering the history of Northern Ireland from the earliest times to the recent past, collections of art modern or ethnographic and contemporary fashion and textiles, holds exhibitions; the scientific collections of the Ulster Museum contain important collections of Irish birds, insects, marine invertebrates, flowering plants and lichens, as well as an archive of books and manuscripts relating to Irish natural history. The museum maintains a natural history website named Habitas. In the late 1980s and the early 1990s it had a permanent exhibition on dinosaurs which has since been scaled back considerably. There is a collection of rocks and fossils.
The museum contains significant finds from Northern Ireland, although in earlier periods these were sent to the British Museum or Dublin, as with the Broighter Hoard, now in the National Museum of Ireland. Objects in the museum include the Malone Hoard of 19 polished Neolithic axe heads, the Moss-side Hoard of Mesolithic stone tools, the important Downpatrick Hoard of Bronze Age gold jewellery, part of the Late Roman Coleraine Hoard, the Viking Shanmullagh Hoard, the medieval coins in the Armagh City Hoard and Armagh Castle Street Hoard. There are other significant objects of the Bronze Age gold jewellery for which Ireland is notable, including four of the 100-odd surviving gold lunulae, some important early Celtic art, including a decorated bronze shield found in the River Shannon, the Bann Disk, bronze with triskele decoration. Joseph Whitaker early 20th century, mounted birds from Sicily. William Thompson mid-19th-century author of Natural History of Ireland, birds, algae. Robert Templeton mid-19th-century insects from Ceylon.
George Crawford Hyndman mollusca and Indian birds. William Monad Crawford early 20th-century butterflies from Burma. Canon William Frederick Johnson early 20th-century, Coleoptera. Charles Langham early 20th century, Irish insects European butterflies. H. M Peebles Himalayan snow butterflies Robert Welch early 20th-century Mollusca. Herbert T Malcolmson early 20th-century James Sheals bird mounts. Thomas Workman late 19th-century Lepidoptera Paul Wilcox butterflies of Malaya. Paul Smart tropical butterflies Raymond Haynes Irish butterflies and moths James P. Brock Ichneumonidae Shell collections and sea sponges J. R. Stoffel types of Agrias butterflies Holotype of the emperor penguin collected by Captain Crozier of Banbridge Champion Patrick of Ifold - Irish Wolfhound Dwarf elephant skeletons from Sicily; the Egyptian mummified body of Takabuti. Mummy case of Tjesmutperet. Slender-billed curlew Queen Alexandra's and other birdwing butterflies. Giant clam - given to the Belfast Natural History Society by Francis Walker Lammergeier mount by James Sheals Gervais' beaked whale Japanese spider crab Bonaparte's gull collected by William Thompson - the first European specimen.
Giant squid model Thylacine Coelacanth Bald eagle juvenile from near Garrison, County Fermanagh on 11 January 1973. First European record. Passenger pigeon Irish elk Yellow-billed cuckoo (Irish
A stone row, is a linear arrangement of upright, parallel megalithic standing stones set at intervals along a common axis or series of axes dating from the Neolithic or Bronze Age. Rows may be individual or grouped, three or more stones aligned can constitute a stone row. Stone rows can be few metres or several kilometres in length and made from stones that can be as tall as 2m, although 1m high stones are more common; the terminals of many rows have the largest stones and other megalithic features are sometimes sited at the ends burial cairns. The stones are placed at intervals and may vary in height along the sequence, to provide a graduated appearance, though it is not known whether this was done deliberately. Stone rows were erected by the Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples in the British Isles, parts of Scandinavia and northern France; the most famous example is a complex of stone rows around Carnac in Brittany. There are a number of examples on Dartmoor including the row at Stall Down and three rows at Drizzlecombe and the Hill O Many Stanes in Caithness.
In Britain they are found in isolated moorland areas. The term alignment is sometimes taken to imply that the rows were placed purposely in relation to other factors such as other monuments or topographical or astronomical features. Archaeologists treat stone rows as discrete features however and alignment refers to the stones being lined up with one another rather than anything else, their purpose is thought to be religious or ceremonial marking a processual route. Another theory is that each generation would erect a new stone to contribute to a sequence that demonstrated a people's continual presence. Beenalaght - Six stones, County Cork, Ireland Coolcoulaghta Standing Stones - two stones, County Cork, Ireland Eightercua - Four stones, County Kerry, Ireland Knocknakilla - Four stones, County Cork, Ireland Maughanasilly Stone Row - five stones, County Cork, Ireland Denis Power. Archaeological inventory of County Cork, Volume 3: Mid Cork, 9467 ColorBooks. ISBN 0-7076-4933-1 Lancaster Brown, P..
Megaliths and men: an introduction to astro-archaeology. New York: Taplinger Pub. Co. English Heritage Monument Description Thesaurus listing Megalith Map of Stone Circles and Rows