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Ofonius Tigellinus known as Tigellinus Ofonius, Ophonius Tigellinus, Sophonius Tigellinus and Gaius Ofonius Tigellinus, was a prefect of the Roman imperial bodyguard, known as the Praetorian Guard, from 62 until 68, during the reign of emperor Nero. Tigellinus gained imperial favour through his acquaintance with Nero's mother Agrippina the Younger, was appointed prefect upon the death of his predecessor Sextus Afranius Burrus, a position Tigellinus held first with Faenius Rufus and Nymphidius Sabinus; as a friend of Nero he gained a reputation around Rome for cruelty and callousness. During the second half of the 60s however, the emperor became unpopular with the people and the army, leading to several rebellions which led to his downfall and suicide in 68; when Nero's demise appeared imminent, Tigellinus deserted him and shifted his allegiance to the new emperor Galba. For Tigellinus, Galba was replaced by Otho six months after his accession. Otho ordered the execution of Tigellinus, upon. Gaius Ofonius Tigellinus, born in about 10 AD, was of humble origin.

His family, of Greek descent, were natives of Agrigentum in Sicily. His father lived as an exile in Scyllaceum in Southern Italy, Tigellinus may have been born there. In his twenties, he was in contact with the Imperial Family. In 39, during the reign of Caligula, he was banished from the city, he had been accused of adultery with Agrippina the Younger and Julia Livilla, Caligula's two surviving sisters. His exile was ended by the new emperor, Claudius, in 41, but he was forbidden to enter the Imperial Palace. Tigellinus was said by the Roman historian Tacitus to have had an immoral youth and a vicious old age; as an adult, he first worked as a merchant in Greece. He inherited a fortune, bought land in Apulia and Calabria on the Italian mainland and devoted himself to breeding racehorses, it was through this profession that he gained the acquaintance and favor of Nero, who he aided and abetted in his vices and cruelties. Settling in Rome in about 60, he became Urban Prefect of the three Urban Cohorts, the city's paramilitary police force.

On the death of Sextus Afranius Burrus in 62, Tigellinus succeeded him as Prefect of the Praetorian Guard.. He persecuted his successive co-prefects, Faenius Rufus and Nymphidius Sabinus, to secure his position as one of Nero's closest and most trusted advisors, he fabricated evidence to justify the murder of Nero's first wife, Claudia Octavia. In 64, he made himself notorious for the orgies. In July of 64, he was suspected of incendiarism in connection with the Great Fire of Rome. After the fire had subsided it broke out again in Tigellinus' estate in the Amaelian district of the city; this led to the claim by Tacitus. In 65, during the investigation into the abortive conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso, he and Nero's second wife, Poppaea Sabina, formed a kind of imperial privy council, falsely accusing the courtier and novelist Petronius Arbiter of treason. Under house-arrest in the coastal resort of Cumae, Petronius did not wait for a sentence of execution to be passed. Instead, he chose to commit suicide by slitting and rebinding his wrists - over a period of several days, during which he entertained his friends - until he chose to be fatally drained of blood.

In 67 Tigellinus accompanied Nero on his tour of Greece. He had a role in the death of the famous General Corbulo, invited to come to Greece but was ordered to commit suicide. In 68, when Nero's downfall appeared imminent, Tigellinus deserted him suffering from'incurable bodily diseases'. With his co-prefect Nymphidius Sabinus, he brought about the defection of the Praetorian Guard. Nymphidius ordered him to surrender his command. Under the new emperor, Galba, he managed to save his life by lavishing presents upon Titus Vinius, the favourite of Galba, his widowed daughter, whose life Tigellinus had once saved; the next emperor, upon his accession in January 69, was determined to remove someone, so intensely hated by the people. At his country estate near the coastal spa city of Sinuessa, Tigellinus was given the imperial order to return to Rome. Knowing that he would be facing death, he attempted to save his life by resorting to bribery - he had vessels anchored in the bay for such an eventuality.

When that failed, he gave the bribe money as a gift to Otho's messenger and was allowed to hold a farewell party. Afterwards, on the pretext that he needed to shave before leaving, he committed suicide by cutting his own throat with a razor. Tigellinus appears as a character in the opera Neró i Acté by Juan Manén. Tigellinus appears in both the 1932 film The Sign of the Cross, he is a character in Henryk Sienkiewicz's 1895 novel Quo Vadis and in the 6-hour 1985 mini-series A. D.. In the 1951 film Quo Vadis, based on the novel, Tigellinus is stabbed to death by a rebel soldier with the cry of A sword from Plautius! in the Circus of Nero when the Roman people revolt against the emperor near the end of the film. He is a prominent character in the latter stages of the 1985 novel The Kingdom of the Wicked by Anthony Burgess, he is the leading character in John Hersey's 1972 novel portraying Rome as a police state, The Conspiracy. Tigellinus appears in Simon Scarrow's 2011 novel Praetorian as an optio of the Praetorian Guard.


Hydro Ottawa

Hydro Ottawa is a regulated electricity distribution company operating in the City of Ottawa and the Village of Casselman in Ontario, Canada. As the third-largest municipally owned electrical utility in Ontario, Hydro Ottawa maintains the electricity distribution systems in the province, serves over 335,000 residential and commercial customers across a service area of 1,100 square kilometres. Hydro Ottawa was formed in November 2000 from the amalgamation of five local distribution companies; the history of the supply of electricity began in the 1880s with private electrical suppliers, became public in the early 1900s and continued in competition with private suppliers, chiefly those of Thomas Ahearn and his companies, until the 1950s. In 1882, Electric lighting in Ottawa started in at Young's mill in Lebreton Flats. A year the House of Commons and the Senate were illuminated; the first electric street lighting in Canada occurred on Victoria Day, 1884 when the Peterborough Light and Power Company lit 17 arc lights on George Street in Peterborough Ontario.

In 1885, the Royal Electric Company set up street lighting systems in Charlottetown and St. John's, Newfoundland. Ottawa had intended on using this company to light the city's streets, council contracted Ottawa Electric Light Company to install 165 arc lamps on the city's streets; that company, which had as a director one of its founders Francis Clemow, along with founder lumber baron G. B. Pattee, had built a power station which used a water-powered generator. In May 1885, the streets of Ottawa were lit by electricity. In 1887, the Chaudière Electric Light and Power Company was formed by Thomas Ahearn, a local man and partner of Ahearn & Soper, formed in the early 1880s. In 1890, there were two electrical providers, Ottawa Electric Light Company, Ahearn's company, Chaudière Electric Light and Power Company. In 1894 Ahearn merged Ottawa Electric Light Company, Chaudière Electric Light and Power Company, bought out Standard Electric Company of Ottawa in the process, naming it Ottawa Electric Company, creating a virtual monopoly on electrical services in Ottawa..

The following decades would see a continuous struggle between the City of Ottawa and Thomas Ahearn regarding the supplying of electricity to the city. In 1899, a charter was granted by the city to Consumers Electric, a rival company to Ahearn's Ottawa Electric Company. In 1905, The City purchased Consumers Electric for $200,000, ending Ahearn's ongoing attempts at acquiring the company, they renamed it "Municipal Electric Department", the city's public electricity provider. In 1908 Ahearn & Soper bought the Ottawa Gas Company, with the Ottawa Electric Company formed the Ottawa Light and Power Company Limited; this parent holding company wholly owned the two previous companies and would refer to Ottawa Electric as its "Ottawa Electric division" well into the new century. This meant that there were no longer outside shareholders to Ottawa Electric, but there were shareholders to Ottawa Light and Power Company. In 1915 the "Municipal Electric Department" became Ottawa Hydro. In 1920 Ottawa Light and Power Company Limited acquired the assets of The Ottawa Power Company, Limited which included the power plant at Victoria Island erected in 1900.

In 1950 Ottawa Hydro acquired the "Ottawa Light and Power Company, Limited", removing the last private sector competitor. Hydro Ottawa was formed in 2000 when five municipal local distribution companies were merged: Gloucester Hydro, Goulbourn Hydro, Kanata Hydro, Nepean Hydro and Ottawa Hydro. In May 2002, Casselman Hydro became a part of Hydro Ottawa. Ottawa Hydro Electric Company Building is a Heritage building in Ottawa located at 109 Bank Street, on the south-east corner of Albert Street, it was designated as under Part IV of the Ontario Heritage Act in 1992. It commissioned W. C. Beattie to design this Art Deco style office building in 1934, it was Ottawa Hydro's headquarters until 1957. Hydro Ottawa provides electricity supply to its customers, by taking electricity from the provincial grid and distributing it to homes and businesses. Hydro Ottawa offers programs to help customers conserve electricity. List of Canadian electric utilities Bibliography Official website

R/K selection theory

In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring. The focus on either an increased quantity of offspring at the expense of individual parental investment of r-strategists, or on a reduced quantity of offspring with a corresponding increased parental investment of K-strategists, varies seemingly to promote success in particular environments; the terminology of r/K-selection was coined by the ecologists Robert MacArthur and E. O. Wilson in 1967 based on their work on island biogeography; the theory was popular in the 1970s and 1980s, when it was used as a heuristic device, but lost importance in the early 1990s, when it was criticized by several empirical studies. A life-history paradigm has replaced the r/K selection paradigm but continues to incorporate many of its important themes. In r/K selection theory, selective pressures are hypothesised to drive evolution in one of two generalized directions: r- or K-selection.

These terms, r and K, are drawn from standard ecological algebra as illustrated in the simplified Verhulst model of population dynamics: d N d t = r N where N is the population, r is the maximum growth rate, K is the carrying capacity of the local environment, dN/dt, the derivative of N with respect to time t, is the rate of change in population with time. Thus, the equation relates the growth rate of the population N to the current population size, incorporating the effect of the two constant parameters r and K; the choice of the letter K came from the German Kapazitätsgrenze. R-selected species are those that emphasize high growth rates exploit less-crowded ecological niches, produce many offspring, each of which has a low probability of surviving to adulthood. A typical r species is the dandelion. In unstable or unpredictable environments, r-selection predominates due to the ability to reproduce rapidly. There is little advantage in adaptations that permit successful competition with other organisms, because the environment is to change again.

Among the traits that are thought to characterize r-selection are high fecundity, small body size, early maturity onset, short generation time, the ability to disperse offspring widely. Organisms whose life history is subject to r-selection are referred to as r-strategists or r-selected. Organisms that exhibit r-selected traits can range from bacteria and diatoms, to insects and grasses, to various semelparous cephalopods and small mammals rodents; as with K-selection, the r/K paradigm has controversially been associated with human behavior and separately evolved populations. By contrast, K-selected species display traits associated with living at densities close to carrying capacity and are strong competitors in such crowded niches, that invest more in fewer offspring, each of which has a high probability of surviving to adulthood. In scientific literature, r-selected species are referred to as "opportunistic" whereas K-selected species are described as "equilibrium". In stable or predictable environments, K-selection predominates as the ability to compete for limited resources is crucial and populations of K-selected organisms are constant in number and close to the maximum that the environment can bear.

Traits that are thought to be characteristic of K-selection include large body size, long life expectancy, the production of fewer offspring, which require extensive parental care until they mature. Organisms whose life history is subject to K-selection are referred to as K-strategists or K-selected. Organisms with K-selected traits include large organisms such as elephants and whales, but smaller, long-lived organisms such as Arctic terns and eagles. Although some organisms are identified as r- or K-strategists, the majority of organisms do not follow this pattern. For instance, trees have traits such as longevity and strong competitiveness that characterise them as K-strategists. In reproduction, trees produce thousands of offspring and disperse them traits characteristic of r-strategists. Reptiles such as sea turtles display both r- and K-traits: although sea turtles are large organisms with long lifespans, they produce large numbers of unnurtured offspring; the r/K dichotomy can be re-expressed as a continuous spectrum using the economic concept of discounted future returns, with r-selection corresponding to large discount rates and K-selection corresponding to small discount rates.

In areas of major ecological disruption or sterilisation, r- and K-strategists play distinct roles in the ecological succession that regenerates the ecosystem. Because of their higher reproductive rates and ecological opportunism, primary colonisers are r-strategists and they are followed by a succession of competitive flora and fauna; the ability of an environment to increase energetic content, through photosynthetic capture of solar energy, increases with the increase in complex bi

Kurissery Gopala Pillai

Kurissery Gopala Pillai was an orientalist, lexicographer, essayist and scholar of Malayalam and Sanskrit languages. He specialised in Comparative study of languages, he was born to Cheruvilayil Padmanabha Pillai and L. Kalyani Amma on 3 March 1914 at Panmana in Kollam district, he married P. Soudamini Amma in 1943, he is survived by two sons. He did his schooling in Panmana Manayil High School and joined the H. H The Maharaja's Sanskrit College, Thiruvananthapuram, he had five years of Sanskrit study before joining the college. From Sanskrit College, he completed Upadhyaya courses. Gopala Pillai started his professional career as Headmaster of Sanskrit schools at Perumbuzha and Panmana. From 1938 to'42, he was the headmaster of Brahmanandodayam Sanskrit School run by Advaithashramam in Kalady, he was the secretary of the Hindu Youth Service Society, presided over by Swami Agamananda, social reformer and founder of Advaita Ashram at Kalady. During 1944 -' 45, he traveled across North India, he worked as Malayalam Lexicon Pandit at University of Kerala and as research officer at Oriental Research Institute and Manuscript Library of the University of Kerala at Thiruvananthapuram.

He served as the president of Malayalam Sahitya Samsat from 1966 to 1972 and worked in Kerala Sahitya Sahakarana Sanghom. He was a member of Kavimandalam. Gopala Pillai, a versatile writer in Malayalam has written books in Sanskrit as well, he had knowledge of Hindi, Assamese, Punjabi and Kannada languages too. His works covered diverse topics. Kerala Gauthameeyam is one of the important works in Malayalam on Tarka sastra. Published in 1959, it was re-published in 2013 by Kerala Bhasha Institute. "Vidyadhirajan" is the biography of Chattampi Swamikal. "Udayakiranangal" was prescribed as text book for graduate courses of University of Kerala during 1970s. "Vijayalahari" is a collection of poems celebrating Indian victory in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. He has compiled "Sabdavaijayanthi", a Sanskrit- Malayalam dictionary. Sanskrit Dasakumaracharitha Samgraha Sri Sankara Charitham Srikrishna Vijayam Malayalam Sabdavaijayanthi Vasantharagini Vidyadhirajan Aharavum Krishiyum Kerala Gauthameeyam Tharkasastram Udayakiranangal Jeevitha Geetha Vijayalahari Sameekshanam Vijnana Deepam Bhashachinthakal He was referred by the title'Kerala Gauthaman' for his contributions in familiarising Tarka sastra in Malayalam.

The book "Kerala Gauthameeyam Tharkasastram" was honoured by the Kerala Sahitya Akademi. He was awarded by the Prime Minister of Kerala State Government. Volume 3, Akhila Vijanakosam. C. Books, Kottayam.


Joypul is a census town in Barasat I CD Block in Barasat Sadar subdivision in North 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is a part of Kolkata Urban Agglomeration. Duttapukur, Chandrapur, Chatta Baria and Joypul form a cluster of census towns in the northern part of the CD Block; the entire cluster has a high density of population.. Duttapukur police station has jurisdiction over Barasat I CD Block; as of 2011 India census, Joypul had a population of 16,134. It has an average literacy rate of 81.72%, higher than the national average of 74.04%. As per District Census Handbook 2011, Joypul covered an area of 5.6004 km2. It had 6 primary schools, 1 middle school and 1 secondary school, the nearest senior secondary school was 3 km away at Duttapukur and the nearest degree college 15 km away at Barasat; the nearest hospital was available 7 km away, the nearest dispensary/health centre 4 km away, the nearest family welfare centre 7 km away, the nearest maternity and child welfare centre 4 km away and the nearest maternity home 12 km away.

National Highway 112 passes through Joypul. Bira railway station on the Sealdah-Bangaon line, part the Kolkata Suburban Railway railway system, is located nearby. There is a primary health centre at Duttapukur. For other medical facilities in the area see Barasat Sadar subdivision. North 24 Parganas district has been identified as one of the areas where ground water is affected by arsenic contamination. Map of Barasat I CD Block on Page 393 of District Census Handbook


Excellentia is a management consulting company, based in Stockholm, Sweden. The company is a part of the Impact creation group AB and was founded in 2010 by the founder and CEO Therése Gedda. In 2008 the idea of Excellentia was created in New York; the company had their official Launch in the end of March 2011. Excellentia focuses on improving the efficiency, leadership skills and entrepreneurial skills of a company's employees, each of their programs falls under these four categories. Excellentia have five speakers: John Alexander: PhD public speaker, cultural consultant, trend analyst and writer. John has been running workshops and training sessions for 20 years. Therése Gedda: Action-oriented entrepreneur with a background in management consulting, inspirational education and strategic business advising for executives and entrepreneurs in Sweden as well as in the UK and US, she is the CEO of Excellentia. Ronald Jones: Professor of Interdisciplinary Studies at Konstfack and leads The Experience Design Group.

He is a guest professor in Experience Design at the National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad in India. Ronald holds a Certificate from the Harvard University Graduate School of Education and sits on numerous boards of cultural organizations. Thomas Lavelle: Senior lecturer and Director of the Center for Modern Languages at Stockholm School of Economics. Gregg Vanourek: Author and expert in the fields of leadership and personal development, he has co-authored two books, with a new one in the works. He has co-authored regular blogs for Harvard Business Online and written columns for The Washington Times