A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise different concepts and experiences. All communication is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize compassion; the variable'x', in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space. In cartography, an organized collection of symbols forms a legend for a map; the word symbol derives from the Greek σύμβολον symbolon, meaning "token, watchword" from σύν syn "together" and βάλλω bállō " "I throw, put."
The sense evolution in Greek is from "throwing things together" to "contrasting" to "comparing" to "token used in comparisons to determine if something is genuine." Hence, "outward sign" of something. The meaning "something which stands for something else" was first recorded in 1590, in Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene. Symbols are a means of complex communication that can have multiple levels of meaning. Symbols are the basis of all human understanding and serve as vehicles of conception for all human knowledge. Symbols facilitate understanding of the world in which we live, thus serving as the grounds upon which we make judgments. In this way, people use symbols not only to make sense of the world around them, but to identify and cooperate in society through constitutive rhetoric. Human cultures use symbols to express specific ideologies and social structures and to represent aspects of their specific culture. Thus, symbols carry meanings. In considering the effect of a symbol on the psyche, in his seminal essay The Symbol without Meaning Joseph Campbell proposes the following definition: A symbol is an energy evoking, directing, agent.
Expanding on what he means by this definition Campbell says: a symbol, like everything else, shows a double aspect. We must distinguish, therefore between the ` meaning' of the symbol, it seems to me clear that all the great and little symbolical systems of the past functioned on three levels: the corporeal of waking consciousness, the spiritual of dream, the ineffable of the unknowable. The term'meaning' can refer only to the first two but these, are in the charge of science –, the province as we have said, not of symbols but of signs; the ineffable, the unknowable, can be only sensed. It is the province of art, not'expression' or primarily, but a quest for, formulation of, experience evoking, energy-waking images: yielding what Sir Herbert Read has aptly termed a'sensuous apprehension of being'. Heinrich Zimmer gives a concise overview of the nature, perennial relevance, of symbols. Concepts and words are symbols, just as visions and images are. Through all of these a transcendent reality is mirrored.
There are so many metaphors reflecting and implying something which, though thus variously expressed, is ineffable, though thus rendered multiform, remains inscrutable. Symbols hold the mind to truth but are not themselves the truth, hence it is delusory to borrow them; each civilisation, every age, must bring forth its own." In the book Signs and Symbols, it is stated that A symbol... is a visual image or sign representing an idea -- a deeper indicator of a universal truth. Semiotics is the study of signs and signification as communicative behavior. Semiotics studies focus on the relationship of the signifier and the signified taking into account interpretation of visual cues, body language and other contextual clues. Semiotics is linked with psychology. Semioticians thus not only study what a symbol implies, but how it got its meaning and how it functions to make meaning in society. Symbols allow the human brain continuously to create meaning using sensory input and decode symbols through both denotation and connotation.
An alternative definition of symbol, distinguishing it from the term sign was proposed by Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung. In his studies on what is now called Jungian archetypes, a sign stands for something known, as a word stands for its referent, he contrasted a sign with a symbol: something, unknown and that cannot be made clear or precise. An example of a symbol in this sense is Christ. Kenneth Burke described Homo sapiens as a "symbol-using, symbol making, symbol misusing animal" to suggest that a person creates symbols as well as misuses them. One example he uses to indicate what he means by the misuse of symbol is the story of a man who, when told that a particular food item was whale blubber, could keep from throwing it up, his friend discovered it was just a dumpling. But the man's reaction was a direct consequence of the symbol of "blubber" representing something inedible in his mind. In addition, the symbol of "blubber" was created by the man through various kinds of learning. Burke goes on to describe symbols as being derived from Sigmund Freud's work on condensation and displacement, further stating that symbols are not just relevant to the theory of dreams but to "normal symbol systems".
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The Monkey is the ninth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Monkey is associated with the Earthly Branch symbol 申. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Monkey", while bearing the following elemental sign: Peter So. Kaori Working House, ed. Your Fate in 2016 - The Year of the Monkey. Translated by Jay Lowe. Forms Publications. ISBN 978-988-8325-85-6. Neil Somerville. Your Chinese Horoscope 2016: What the Year of the Monkey holds in store for you. 2015-02-22. Thorsons/HarperCollins. ISBN 9780007588268. Suzanne White. 2016 New Astrology Horoscopes - Chinese and Western: Fire Monkey Year - Monthly Horoscopes for All Signs. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. P. 360. ISBN 9781517127749
The tiger is the largest species among the Felidae and classified in the genus Panthera. It is most recognizable for its dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside, it is an apex predator preying on ungulates such as deer and bovids. It is territorial and a solitary but social predator, requiring large contiguous areas of habitat, which support its requirements for prey and rearing of its offspring. Tiger cubs stay with their mother for about two years, before they become independent and leave their mother's home range to establish their own; the tiger once ranged from Eastern Anatolia Region in the west to the Amur River basin, in the south from the foothills of the Himalayas to Bali in the Sunda islands. Since the early 20th century, tiger populations have lost at least 93% of their historic range and have been extirpated in Western and Central Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, in large areas of Southeast and South Asia and China. Today's tiger range is fragmented, stretching from Siberian temperate forests to subtropical and tropical forests on the Indian subcontinent and Sumatra.
The tiger is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1986. As of 2015, the global wild tiger population was estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 mature individuals, down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other. Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching. This, coupled with the fact that it lives in some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans; the tiger is among the most popular of the world's charismatic megafauna. It featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore and continues to be depicted in modern films and literature, appearing on many flags, coats of arms and as mascots for sporting teams; the tiger is the national animal of India, Bangladesh and South Korea. The Middle English tigre and Old English tigras derive from Latin tigris; this was a borrowing of Classical Greek τίγρις'tigris', a foreign borrowing of unknown origin meaning'tiger' as well as the river Tigris.
The origin may have been the Persian word tigra meaning'pointed or sharp', the Avestan word tigrhi'arrow' referring to the speed of the tiger's leap, although these words are not known to have any meanings associated with tigers. The generic name Panthera is traceable to the Old French word'pantère', the Latin word panthera, the Ancient Greek word πάνθηρ'panther'; the Sanskrit word पाण्डर pând-ara means'pale yellow, white'. In 1758, Carl Linnaeus described the tiger in his work Systema Naturae and gave it the scientific name Felis tigris. In 1929, the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the species under the genus Panthera using the scientific name Panthera tigris; the tiger's closest living relatives were thought to be the Panthera species lion and jaguar. Results of genetic analysis indicate that about 2.88 million years ago, the tiger and the snow leopard lineages diverged from the other Panthera species, that both may be more related to each other than to the lion and jaguar.
P. T. palaeosinensis from the Early Pleistocene of northern China is the most primitive known tiger to date. Fossil remains of Panthera zdanskyi were excavated in Gansu province of northwestern China; this species lived at the beginning of the Pleistocene about two million years ago, is considered to be a sister taxon of the modern tiger. It was about the size of a jaguar and had a different coat pattern. Despite being considered more "primitive", it was functionally and also ecologically similar to the modern tiger. Northwestern China is thought to be the origin of the tiger lineage. Tigers grew in size in response to adaptive radiations of prey species like deer and bovids, which may have occurred in Southeast Asia during the early Pleistocene. Panthera tigris trinilensis lived about 1.2 million years ago and is known from fossils excavated near Trinil in Java. The Wanhsien, Ngandong and Japanese tigers became extinct in prehistoric times. Tigers reached India and northern Asia in the late Pleistocene, reaching eastern Beringia and Sakhalin.
Some fossil skulls are morphologically distinct from lion skulls, which could indicate tiger presence in Alaska during the last glacial period, about 100,000 years ago. Tiger fossils found in the island of Palawan were smaller than mainland tiger fossils due to insular dwarfism. Fossil remains of tigers were excavated in Sri Lanka, Japan, Sarawak dating to the late Pliocene and Early Holocene; the Bornean tiger was present in Borneo between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, but may have gone extinct in prehistoric times. The potential tiger range during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene was predicted applying ecological niche modelling based on more than 500 tiger locality records combined with bioclimatic data; the resulting model shows a contiguous tiger range from southern India to Siberia at the Last Glacial Maximum, indicating an unobstructed gene flow between tiger populations in mainland Asia throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The tiger populations on the Sunda Islands and mainland Asia were separated during interglacial periods.
Results of a phylogeographic study indicate that all living tigers had a common ancestor 72,000–108,000 years ago. The tiger's full genome sequence was published in 2013, it was found to have similar repeat composition to other cat genomes and an appreciably conserved synteny. Following Linnaeus's first descriptions of t
The Rooster is the tenth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Rooster is represented by the Earthly Branch symbol 酉; the name is translated into English as Chicken. In the Tibetan zodiac and the Gurung zodiac, the bird is in place of the Rooster. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Rooster", while bearing the following elemental signs: Rooster Birds in Chinese mythology Fenghuang Donna Stellhorn. Chinese Astrology: 2017 Year of the Fire Rooster. ETC Publishing. P. 300. ISBN 978-1-944-622-16-9. Neil Somerville; the Rooster in 2016: Your Chinese Horoscope. 2017-02-22. Thorsons/HarperCollins. P. 320. ISBN 9780008138165. Neil Somerville. Your Chinese Horoscope 2017: What the Year of the Rooster holds in store for you. 2017-02-16. Thorsons/HarperCollins. P. 320. ISBN 9780008144531. Peter So. Kaori Working House, ed. Your Fate in 2017 - The Year of the Rooster. Translated by Jay Lowe. P. 457.
ISBN 978-962-14-61-71-1. Ted E. Bear Press. 2017 Year of the Rooster. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. P. 196. ISBN 9781542711012
The Rabbit is the fourth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Rabbit is associated with the Earthly Branch symbol 卯. In the Vietnamese zodiac and the Gurung zodiac, the cat takes the place of the Rabbit. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Rabbit", while bearing the following elemental sign: Rabbit
The traditional China calendar, or Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar or Lunar Calendar, is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years and days according to astronomical phenomena. It is defined by GB/T 33661-2017, "Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar", issued by the Standardisation Administration of China on 12 May 2017. Although modern day China uses the Gregorian calendar, the traditional Chinese calendar governs holidays in China and in overseas Chinese communities, it lists the dates of traditional Chinese holidays and guides people in selecting auspicious days for weddings, moving, or starting a business. Like Chinese characters, variants of this calendar are used in different parts of the Chinese cultural sphere. Korea and the Ryukyu Islands adopted the calendar, it evolved into Korean and Ryukyuan calendars; the main difference from the traditional Chinese calendar is the use of different meridians, which leads to some astronomical events—and calendar events based on them—falling on different dates.
The traditional Japanese calendar derived from the Chinese calendar, but its official use in Japan was abolished in 1873 as part of reforms after the Meiji Restoration. Calendars in Mongolia and Tibet have absorbed elements of the traditional Chinese calendar, but are not direct descendants of it. Days begin and end at midnight, months begin on the day of the new moon. Years begin on the second new moon after the winter solstice. Solar terms govern the end of each month. Written versions in ancient China included stems and branches of the year and the names of each month, including leap months as needed. Characters indicated whether a month was short; the traditional Chinese calendar was developed between 771 and 476 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period of the Eastern Zhou dynasty. Before the Zhou dynasty, solar calendars were used. One version of the solar calendar is the five-elements calendar. A 365-day year was divided into five phases of 73 days, with each phase corresponding to a Day 1 Wu Xing element.
A phase began followed by six 12-day weeks. Each phase consisted of two three-week months. Years began followed by a bǐngzǐ day and a 72-day fire phase. Other days were tracked using the Yellow River Map. Another version is a four-quarters calendar. Weeks were ten days long, with one month consisting of three weeks. A year had 12 months, with a ten-day week intercalated in summer as needed to keep up with the tropical year; the 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches were used to mark days. A third version is the balanced calendar. A year was 365.25 days, a month was 29.5 days. After every 16th month, a half-month was intercalated. According to oracle bone records, the Shang dynasty calendar was a balanced calendar with 12 to 14 months in a year; the first lunisolar calendar was the Zhou calendar, introduced under the Zhou dynasty. This calendar set the beginning of the year at the day of the new moon before the winter solstice, it set the shàngyuán as the winter solstice of a dīngsì year, making the year it was introduced around 2,758,130.
Several competing lunisolar calendars were introduced by states fighting Zhou control during the Warring States period. The state of Lu issued its own Lu calendar. Jin issued the Xia calendar in AD 102, with a year beginning on the day of the new moon nearest the March equinox. Qin issued the Zhuanxu calendar, with a year beginning on the day of the new moon nearest the winter solstice. Song's Yin calendar began its year on the day of the new moon after the winter solstice; these calendars are known as the six ancient calendars, or quarter-remainder calendars, since all calculate a year as 365 1⁄4 days long. Months begin on the day of the new moon, a year has 12 or 13 months. Intercalary months are added to the end of the year; the Qiang and Dai calendars are modern versions of the Zhuanxu calendar, used by mountain peoples. After Qin Shi Huang unified China under the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, the Qin calendar was introduced, it followed most of the rules governing the Zhuanxu calendar, but the month order was that of the Xia calendar.
The intercalary month, known as the second Jiǔyuè, was placed at the end of the year. The Qin calendar was used into the Han dynasty. Emperor Wu of Han r. 141 – 87 BC introduced reforms halfway through his reign. His Taichu Calendar defined a solar year as 365 385⁄1539 days, the lunar month was 29 43⁄81 days; this calendar introduced the 24 solar terms. Solar terms were paired, with the 12 combined periods known as climate terms; the first solar term of the period was known as a pre-climate, the second was a mid-climate. Months were named for the mid-climat
The Horse is the seventh of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. There is a long tradition of the Horse in Chinese mythology. Certain characteristics of the Horse nature are supposed to be typical of or to be associated with either a year of the Horse and its events, or in regard to the personality of someone born in such a year. Horse aspects can enter by other chronomantic factors or measures, such as hourly. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Horse", while bearing the following elemental sign: Horse Chinese astrology Chinese New Year Burmese zodiac Horse worship Hale, Jill; the Practical Encyclopedia of Feng Shui. New York: Barnes and Noble Books. ISBN 0-7607-3741-X