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Tiger Force (air)

Tiger Force known as the Very Long Range Bomber Force, was the name given to a World War II British Commonwealth long-range heavy bomber force, formed in 1945, from squadrons serving with RAF Bomber Command in Europe, for proposed use against targets in Japan. The unit was scheduled to be deployed to Okinawa in the Pacific theatre in the lead-up to the Allies' proposed invasion of Japan; the unit was disbanded after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet invasion of Manchuria ended the war. At the Quebec Conference of September 1944, the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill proposed to transfer a large part of Bomber Command to the Pacific, comprising from 500 to 1,000 heavy bombers, once Germany was defeated. US President Franklin D. Roosevelt accepted the offer, stating that a "long and costly struggle" still lay ahead of the Allies; the offer made at the Second Quebec Conference in September 1944 was for forty squadrons of long-range bombers, of which 20 would act as tankers in flight.

The Air Ministry prepared a provisional plan for three Groups, each of 12 squadrons of heavy bombers and 6 squadrons of long-range fighters. Air Marshal Sir Hugh Lloyd was designated commander in November 1944, it was expected that American bases would be used, but they said their resources were stretched and asked that the Brits provide their own bases. In March 1945 the only area for bases was northern Luzon in the Philippines. Estimates were that a base in the Calgayan Valley for 20 squadrons of heavy bombers and three squadrons of support aircraft would require 56,000 men to build and develop it, with 19,000 retained thereafter, but the Americans had more facilities on Okinawa than expected, on 30 May offered bases there for ten British squadrons immediately. This was accepted by the British Chiefs of Staff on 4 June, on the 11th their advisors said that the new base would require 37,400 men, 15,000 for operations and the rest for construction and administration On 14 June the Chiefs of Staff decided to send ships without waiting for the Americans to supply the Pacific routing.

A cargo ship left Liverpool on the 20th with vehicles and stores, a faster ship left on 7 July with 3000 men. The proposed force was soon scaled back to 22 squadrons in three groups: one British Royal Air Force, one Royal Canadian Air Force and one from various air forces. By late 1945 this had been scaled back to 10 squadrons in two composite groups, made up of RAF, RCAF, Royal Australian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force squadrons. Tiger Force was to have been based on Okinawa and would have used Avro Lancasters, Avro Lincolns and Consolidated Liberators. Two RAF fighter squadrons had begun converting to the new Hawker Tempest II at RAF Chilbolton, in order to perform escort duties, when the war ended. Escorts would have been available from the fighter units of the U. S. Far East Air Force, the Australian First Tactical Air Force and/or other Commonwealth units; the colour scheme for Tiger Force aircraft was white upper-surfaces with black undersides. To enable the aircraft to operate at the long distances involved, flight refuelling using Liberator tankers was to have been employed, using equipment developed by Flight Refuelling Ltd.

Tiger Force was disbanded on October 31, 1945, by which stage it included only British units. Ehrman, John. Grand Strategy Volume VI: October 1944 – August 1945. History of the Second World War: United Kingdom Military Series. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Herington, John. Air Power Over Europe 1944–1945. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 3 – Air. Volume IV. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 3633419. Odgers, George. Air War Against Japan 1943–1945. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 3 – Air. Volume II. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 1990609. Department of National Defence, 2007, "Tiger Force - NO. 6614 Wing Greenwood" A photograph of a Lancaster VII in Tiger Force colour scheme "Payload and Long Range" a 1945 Flight article on the flight refuelling system, to have been used by Tiger Force

David Sumberg

David Anthony Gerald Sumberg is a British politician, former Member of the European Parliament for the North West England region for the Conservative Party. He was first elected to the European Parliament in 1999 and stood down in 2009. Before this he was the Member of Parliament for Bury South, north of Manchester, from 1983 to 1997 when he lost in the Labour landslide to Ivan Lewis, he is married to Carolyn and has two grown up children and Katie. In the 1970s he was a partner in a firm of Manchester lawyers Maurice Co.. Prior to his election, he stood unsuccessfully for Manchester Wythenshawe in 1979, being beaten by Labour's Alf Morris, he had been a Manchester City Councillor for Brooklands ward in Wythenshawe. As an MP he acted as the Parliamentary Private Secretary for the Attorney General, Sir Patrick Mayhew, he seconded the Loyal Humble Address of Ian Gow MP in November 1989. He held on to his seat in 1992 with a majority of 788 votes over Labour's Hazel Blears, making Bury South one of the most marginal in the country.

Blears was elected in nearby Salford and Eccles from 1997-2015. After losing his seat in 1997, the Labour Government published correspondence about the "Hillsborough Disaster Inquiry", during which period Sumberg was PPS to the Home Office, it was revealed. As an MEP, he said that he was "not a signed up member" of the "European Project" and did not support a more centralised European Union, "unlike most of my MEP colleagues", he has been criticised by members of other political parties and the national media for his low attendance and political inactivity in the European Parliament. Although he has made speeches on other occasions. From 2004 to 2008 he made only two speeches and gave twelve "explanations of votes" - a total of 536 words, he has tabled only five questions and has not written any of the reports or tabled any resolutions to the one committee he sat on. His local rival, Chris Davies MEP, said he would undoubtedly make the shortlist for Britain's laziest MEP. Defending himself, he said speeches in the European Parliament did not achieve a great deal as they are to empty chambers with no-one listening.

When he stepped down from the European Parliament, his reasons were made public. He paid his wife £54,000 per year from the staff allowance and claimed £40,000 per year in office expenses. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by David Sumberg Profile on European Parliament website


A single-stage-to-orbit vehicle reaches orbit from the surface of a body using only propellants and fluids and without expending tanks, engines, or other major hardware. The term but not refers to reusable vehicles. No Earth-launched SSTO launch vehicles have been constructed. To date, orbital launches have been performed by either or expendable multi-stage rockets; the main projected advantage of the SSTO concept is elimination of the hardware replacement inherent in expendable launch systems. However, the nonrecurring costs associated with design, development and engineering of reusable SSTO systems are much higher than expendable systems due to the substantial technical challenges of SSTO, assuming that those technical issues can in fact be solved, it is considered to be marginally possible to launch a single-stage-to-orbit chemically-fueled spacecraft from Earth. The principal complicating factors for SSTO from Earth are: high orbital velocity of over 7,400 metres per second. Additionally, the retirement of NASA's Shuttle launch vehicle has resulted in a substantial reduction in the cost to launch a kilogram of payload to either low Earth orbit or the International Space Station, removing the main projected advantage of the SSTO concept.

Notable single stage to orbit concepts include Skylon, the DC-X, the Lockheed Martin X-33, the Roton SSTO. However, despite showing some promise, none of them has come close to achieving orbit yet due to problems with finding a sufficiently efficient propulsion system. Single-stage-to-orbit is much easier to achieve on extraterrestrial bodies that have weaker gravitational fields and lower atmospheric pressure than Earth, such as the Moon and Mars, has been achieved from the Moon by both the Apollo program's Lunar Module and several robotic spacecraft of the Soviet Luna program. Before the second half of the twentieth century little research was conducted into space travel. During the 1960s some of the first concept designs for this kind of craft began to emerge. One of the earliest SSTO concepts was the expendable One stage Orbital Space Truck proposed by Philip Bono, an engineer for Douglas Aircraft Company. A reusable version named ROOST was proposed. Another early SSTO concept was a reusable launch vehicle named NEXUS, proposed by Krafft Arnold Ehricke in the early 1960s.

It was one of the largest spacecraft conceptualized with a diameter of over 50 metres and the capability to lift up to 2000 short tons into Earth orbit, intended for missions to further out locations in the solar system such as Mars. The North American Air Augmented VTOVL from 1963 was a large craft which would have used ramjets to decrease the liftoff mass of the vehicle by removing the need for large amounts of liquid oxygen while traveling through the atmosphere. From 1965, Robert Salked investigated various single stage to orbit winged spaceplane concepts, he proposed a vehicle which would burn hydrocarbon fuel while in the atmosphere and switch to hydrogen fuel for increasing efficiency once in space. Further examples of Bono's early concepts which were never constructed include: ROMBUS, another design from Philip Bono; this was not technically single stage since it dropped some of its initial hydrogen tanks, but it came close. Ithacus, an adapted ROMBUS concept, designed to carry soldiers and military equipment to other continents via a sub-orbital trajectory.

Pegasus, another adapted ROMBUS concept designed to carry passengers and payloads long distances in short amounts of time via space. SASSTO, another launch vehicle concept. Hyperion, yet another Philip Bono concept which used a sled to build up speed before liftoff to save on the amount of fuel which had to be lifted into the air. Around 1985 the NASP project was intended to launch a scramjet vehicle into orbit, but funding was stopped and the project cancelled. At around the same time, the HOTOL tried to use precooled jet engine technology, but failed to show significant advantages over rocket technology; the DC-X, short for Delta Clipper Experimental, was an uncrewed one-third scale vertical takeoff and landing demonstrator for a proposed SSTO. It is one of only a few prototype SSTO vehicles built. Several other prototypes were intended, including the DC-X2 and the DC-Y, a full-scale vehicle which would be capable of single stage insertion into orbit. Neither of these were built, but the project was taken over by NASA in 1995, they built the DC-XA, an upgraded one-third scale prototype.

This vehicle was lost when it landed with only three of its four landing pads deployed, which caused it to tip over on its side and explode. The project has not been continued since. From 1999 to 2001 Rotary Rocket attempted to build, it received a large amount of media attention and a working sub-scale prototype was completed, but the design was impractical. There have been various approaches to SSTO, including pure rockets that are launched and land vertically, air-breathing scramjet-powered vehicles that are launched and land horizontally, nuclear-powered vehicles, jet-engine-powered vehicles that can fly into orbit and return landing like an airliner intact. For rocket-powered SSTO, the main challenge is achieving a high enough mass-ratio to carry sufficient propellant to achieve orbit, plus a meaningful payload weight. One possibility is to give the rocket an initial speed with a space gun, as planned in

Sarah Silverman: Jesus Is Magic

Sarah Silverman: Jesus Is Magic is a 2005 stand-up comedy film written by and starring Sarah Silverman, directed by Liam Lynch, distributed by Roadside Attractions. The movie is a concert film consisting of 72 minutes of clips taken from Silverman's previous stand-up show of the same name, interspersed with flashbacks and comedic sketches. Silverman addresses a number of topics, including religion, AIDS, the Holocaust, sexism, political parties, people with disabilities, homeless people, dwarves. Silverman performs several original songs in the film; the film was released November 2005 in eight theatres. Receiving positive reviews, it made just under $125,000 during opening weekend, its performance led to an expanded release in as many as 57 theatres, resulting in a box office take of more than $1.2 million. The film was released on DVD on June 6, 2006 in the United States, June 13 in Canada, October 13, 2008 in the United Kingdom. A soundtrack CD was released featuring most of the musical numbers, excerpts from Silverman's stand-up comedy, several additional songs which did not appear in the film.

Jesus is Magic. A. O. Scott of the New York Times believed that the film's comedic value rests too on the shock value of having such irreverent jokes delivered via the Jewish American Princess persona embodied by Silverman. Mr. Scott wrote, "Most of the humor in'Jesus Is Magic' depends on the scandal of hearing a nice, middle-class Jewish girl make jokes about rape, anal sex, the Holocaust and AIDS, she makes fun of religion. She riffs on 9/11, but Ms. Silverman is not smashing taboos so much as she is searching for them." Others, like Leo Benedictus of The Guardian, credit the intelligence of Silverman and the skill of the performance. Using as an example of Silverman's off-color joke that “being raped by a doctor” could be “kind of bittersweet for a Jewish girl,” Benedictus concluded that “it's not the Jewish stereotype that powers the laugh, or the perfect inappropriateness of, it's the flip of mood from: ‘Here's something you can't joke about’ to, ‘Oh yes you can.’ Dangerous – and liberating.”

Rotten Tomatoes gives the show a rating of 64%. Sarah Silverman: Jesus Is Magic on IMDb

List of number-one dance singles of 1976 (U.S.)

These are the Billboard magazine Hot Dance Club Play number one hits of 1976. Note: Billboard magazine's dance/disco chart, which began in 1974 and ranked the popularity of tracks in New York City discothèques, expanded to feature multiple charts each week which highlighted playlists in various cities such as San Francisco, Los Angeles, Miami, Phoenix and Houston. During this time, Billboard rival publication Record World was the first to compile a dance chart which incorporated club play on a national level. Noted Billboard statistician Joel Whitburn has since "adopted" Record Worlds chart data from the weeks between March 29, 1975 and August 21, 1976 into Billboards club play history. For the sake of continuity, Record Worlds national chart is incorporated into the 1975 and 1976 lists. With the issue dated August 28, 1976, Billboard premiered its own national chart and their data is used from this date forward. 1976 in music List of number-one dance hits List of artists who reached number one on the U.

S. Dance chart Some weeks may be found at Billboard magazine courtesy of Google Books: 1975—1979


A fatberg is a congealed mass in a sewer system formed by the combination of flushed non-biodegradable solid matter, such as wet wipes, congealed grease or cooking fat. Fatbergs became a problem in the 2010s in Britain, because of ageing Victorian sewers and the rise in usage of disposable cloths. Fatbergs form at the rough surfaces of sewers. In pipes and tubes with smooth inner linings, fluid near the containing wall flows only slower than fluid in the central channel of the pipe; when fluid encounters an obstruction, a resulting swirl of water starts trapping debris. An obstruction can be any type of rough surface capable of snagging debris. In brick or concrete sewers there may be surplus cement drips, damaged brickwork, or loose mortar joints damaged by frost heave. In any sub-surface pipe of the most advanced design, penetration by foreign intrusions such as tree roots is a commonplace cause of a fatberg blockage. In sewers carrying alkaline fluids, lipids can solidify. Comprising not only wet wipes and fat, fatbergs may contain other items that do not break apart or dissolve when flushed down the toilet, such as sanitary napkins, cotton buds, needles and food waste washed down kitchen sinks.

The resulting lumps of congealed material can be as strong as concrete, require specialist equipment to remove. In some areas, such as London, fat blocked in a sewer can react with the lining of the pipe and undergo saponification, converting the oil into a solid, soap-like substance. Grease and fat blockages can cause sanitary sewer overflows, in which sewage is discharged into the environment without treatment. In the United States half of all sewer blockages are caused by grease. Fatbergs have been considered as a source of fuel biogas. Most of the fatberg discovered in Whitechapel in London in 2017, weighing 130 tonnes and stretching more than 250 metres, was converted into biodiesel. Fatbergs can be mitigated through public awareness campaigns about flushable waste and grease traps for filtration at the source. Campaigns have been launched against wet wipes because of their effect on sewer systems, most notably by Surfers Against Sewage and the Marine Conservation Society, among other environmental NGOs, who called on the UK's Advertising Standards Authority to end “misleading” branding and packaging.

Fatbergs occur in sewer systems in cities and smaller towns. Giant fatbergs have blocked sewers in London, New York, Denver and Melbourne. Fatberg is a compound of the words berg, after iceberg; the word was used in 2008 to describe "large, rock-like lumps of cooking fat" washing up on beaches in Wales, by 2010 was used in reference to sewer-blocking fat deposits in London. The word was added to Oxford Dictionaries Online in 2015; the term is used by authorities both in southern England. 6 August 2013: A fatberg the size of a bus that weighed 15 tonnes, consisting of food fat and wet wipes, was discovered in drains under London Road in Kingston upon Thames, London. 1 September 2014: A solid mass of waste fat, wet wipes, tennis balls and wood planks the size of a Boeing 747 aeroplane was discovered and cleared by sanitation workers in a drain beneath a 260-foot section of road in Shepherd's Bush, London. 3 September 2014: The sewerage system beneath Melbourne, Australia was clogged by a large mass of fat and waste.

January 2015: As part of a campaign against drain blocking, Welsh Water released a video showing a fatberg in drains in Cardiff. April 2015: A 40-metre-long fatberg was removed from sewers under Chelsea, it took over two months to remove, the damage it caused cost an estimated £400,000 to repair. July 2015: A 120-metre-long fatberg was discovered in Welshpool in mid-Wales. January 2016: A blockage caused by a fatberg near Newcastle, New South Wales, damaged the Eleebana sewage pumping station; the fatberg "took four hours to remove" by crane. September 2017: A 250-metre-long fatberg weighing over 130 tonnes was found under Whitechapel, London. Working seven days a week at a cost of £1 million per month, officials estimated it would take two months to destroy it. Two pieces of the fatberg were cut off on 4 October 2017 and, after several weeks of drying, were displayed at the Museum of London from 9 February 2018 through June 2018, as part of the museum's City Now City Future season. According to curator Vyki Sparkes, the fatberg became one of the museum's most popular exhibits.

September 2017: A fatberg of congealed fat, wet wipes, waste was discovered under the streets of Baltimore, Maryland that caused the spillage of 1.2 million US gallons of sewage into Jones Falls. April 2018: A fatberg discovered under South Bank in London is suspected to be larger than the one found under Whitechapel. December 2018: Sewer workers discovered a fatberg in Sidmouth, Devon, 64 metres long. Workers took eight weeks to remove it, it was the largest fatberg discovered in the UK outside a major city, the largest in the history of South West Water. February 2019: The largest fatberg in the UK was discovered in a sewer at Birchall Street in Liverpool, it was 250 metres long. It is still being removed from the sewer as it is proving to be difficult to break-down using conventional tools and equipment. December 2019: The first occurrence of a large fatberg in the north of England was reported by United Utilities under HM Prison Manchester; the 170 ft-long fatberg was estimate