Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair
Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair anglicised Turlough Mór O'Connor / O'Conor, was King of Connacht and High King of Ireland. The youngest son of Ruaidrí na Saide Buide, his mother was daughter of Toirdelbach Ua Briain, his brothers were Niall, Tadc and Domnall, King of Connacht. There was Dubhchobhlaigh Bean Ua hEaghra of Luighne Connacht. Ruaidrí was married to four or more women. In 1092, King Ruaidrí was blinded by Flaithbertaigh Ua Flaithbertaigh, an incident which led to the domination of Connacht by the Dal gCais of Munster, led by Tairrdelbach's uncle, Muirchertach Ua Briain, who took Tairrdelbach into his household to groom him for the day when he would be king of Connacht; however this would not occur until 1106. Tairrdelbach's brothers Tadc and Domnall both gained the kingship at different times, but depended upon the support of Ua Briain. In 1106, with the support of his uncle Muirchertach Ua Briain, eighteen-year-old Tairrdelbach deprived his older brother Domnall of the kingship of Connacht.
"Tairrdelbach maintained his alliance with Ua Briain, sending troops to aid the high king against the Ui Ruaric of Bréifne in 1109. But he was determined to defend his kingdom against predators such as Domnall Mac Lochlainn, king of the north of Ireland." Tairrdelbach constructed Dún Gaillimhe in 1124. A small settlement grew up around this fort and this developed into Galway city; the Cross of Cong, made at the behest of Tairrdelbach was designed to be placed on top of a religious staff or crosier. It was made for the Cathedral church at Tuam; the cross was subsequently moved to Cong Abbey. He is believed to have refounded Cong Abbey ca. 1135. Tairrdelbach has been summed up as follows: " was fifty years King of Connacht, one of the longest reigns of any European monarch, he dominated Irish politics.. Leading armies and navies all over Éire... subjugating entire kingdoms. A superb military commander by any standards, his victory at Móin Mór in 1151 was among the most decisive in Irish history, inflicting 7000 enemy casualties...
An innovative tyrant, his creation of castles was novel in Éire... as was his apparent wish to introduce male primogeniture... Commercial and political networks connected him with fellow-rulers in Britain and Scandinavia, he reorganised lordships and kingdoms as suited him, carving out a well-defended personal domain within Connacht, an imperium that he would have span all Éire. Dún Mór was its caput, Tuaim Dá Ghualann the seat of its archbishop, Dún Gaillimhe its main port - military and merchant. Quite an achievement for what is perceived as the'timeless' western'fringe' of twelfth-century Europe, but was a dynamic society ruled as aggressively as those in'feudal' Europe." Despite giving hostages to Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in 1150, thereby ceasing to be King of Ireland, Tairrdelbach was still capable of active overlordship in southern Ireland. In 1151 he and his allies - King Diarmaid Mac Murchadha of Leinster, Maelseachlainn son of Murchadh Ó Maelseachlainn of Mide, King Tighearnán Ó Ruairc of Kingdom of Breifne - met the forces of King Toirdhealbhach Ó Briain of Thomond at Móin Mór near Glanmire.
In what was one of the most decisive battles fought in Ireland, Tairrdelbach defeated Ó Briain, killing "7000". According to the Annals of Tigernach: "Until sand of sea and stars of heaven are numbered, no one will reckon all the sons of the kings and chiefs and great lords of the men of Munster that were killed there, so that of the three battalions of Munster that had come thither, none escaped save only one shattered battalion." Tairrdelbach had the following known wives: Caillech Dé Ní Eidin Órfhlaith Ní Mailshechlainn, died 1115 Mór Ní Lochlainn, died 1122 Tailltiu Ní Mailshechlainn, sister of Órfhlaith, died 1127 Derbforgaill Ní Lochlainn, died 1151. Dubhcobhlach Ní Maíl Ruanaid, died 1168. Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh, writing in 1649, wrote the following account of Tairrdelbach's family: " Toirdhealbhach Mor s. Ruaidhri, high-king of Ireland, had many sons. – Conchobar Ua Conchobair, fl. 1126–1144 – unnamed daughter, wife of Murchadh Ua hEaghra, murdered 1134 – Aedh Dall Ua Conchobair, fl.
1136–1194 – Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, fl. 1136–1198 – Tadhg Alainn Ua Conchobair, died 1143/1144 – Cathal Migarán Ua Conchobair, died 1151 or 1152 – Cathal Crobdearg Ua Conchobair, 1152–1224 – Donnell Mor Mideach Ua Conchobair, died 1176 – Brian Breifneach Ua Conchobair, fl. 1156 – Brian Luighnech Ua Conchobhair, fl. 1156–1181 – Maghnus Ua Conchobair, died 1181 – Mór Ní Conchobair, died 1190 – Muirchertach Muimhnech Ua Conchobair, died 1210 – Máel Ísa, Abbot of Roscommon, died 1223 – Muirgheas the Canon, died 1224 – Aedh – Maghnus – Lochlann – Donchadh – Maol Seachlainn – Tadhg Fiodhnacha – Conchobair –
Annals of the Four Masters
The Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland or the Annals of the Four Masters are chronicles of medieval Irish history. The entries span from the Deluge, dated as 2,242 years after creation to AD 1616. Due to the criticisms by Irish historian Tuileagna Ó Maol Chonaire, the text was not published in the lifetime of any of the participants; the annals are a compilation of earlier annals, although there is some original work. They were compiled between 1632 and 1636 at a Franciscan friary near the Drowes river in County Leitrim, on the border with County Donegal and County Sligo; the patron of the project was Fearghal Ó Gadhra, M. P. a Gaelic lord in Coolavin, County Sligo. The chief compiler of the annals was Brother Mícheál Ó Cléirigh from Ballyshannon, assisted by, among others, Cú Choigcríche Ó Cléirigh, Fearfeasa Ó Maol Chonaire and Peregrine Ó Duibhgeannain. Although only one of the authors, Mícheál Ó Cléirigh, was a Franciscan friar, they became known as'The Four Friars' or in the original Irish, Na Ceithre Máistrí.
The Anglicized version of this was "The Four Masters", the name that has become associated with the annals themselves. The annals are written in Irish; the several manuscript copies are held at Trinity College Dublin, the Royal Irish Academy, University College Dublin and the National Library of Ireland. The first substantial English translation was published by Owen Connellan in 1846; the Connellan translation included the annals from the eleventh to the seventeenth centuries. The only version to have a four-colour frontispiece, it included a large folding map showing the location of families in Ireland; this edition, neglected for over 150 years, was republished in the early twenty-first century. The original Connellan translation was followed several years by a full translation by the historian John O'Donovan; the translation was funded by a government grant of £1,000 obtained by the notable mathematician Sir William Rowan Hamilton while he was president of the Royal Irish Academy. The Annals are one of the principal Irish-language sources for Irish history up to 1616.
While many of the early chapters are lists of names and dates, the chapters, dealing with events of which the authors had first-hand accounts, are much more detailed. The reliability and usefulness of the Annals as a historical source has sometimes been questioned on the grounds that they were limited to accounts of the births and activities of the Gaelic nobility of Ireland and ignore wider social trends or events. On the other hand, the Annals, as one of the few prose sources in Irish from this period provide a valuable insight into events such as the Desmond Rebellions and the Nine Years War from a Gaelic Irish perspective; the early part of this work is based upon the Lebor Gabala. Today, most scholars regard the Lebor Gabála as myth rather than history, it appears to be based on medieval Christian pseudo-histories, but it incorporates some of Ireland's native pagan mythology. Scholars believe the goal of its writers was to provide an epic history for Ireland that could compare to that of the Israelites or the Romans, which reconciled native myth with the Christian view of history.]
It is suggested, for example, that there are six'takings' to match the "Six Ages of the World" Lebor Gabála Érenn is considered a "highly influential Middle Irish prose-and-verse treatise written in order to bridge the chasm between Christian world-chronology and the prehistory of Ireland". O'Donovan, John, ed. Annala rioghachta Eireann: Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, by the Four Masters, from the earliest period to the year 1616, 7 volumes, Royal Irish Academy. Volume 1, HTML e-text via CELT: irish, Volume 2, HTML e-text via CELT: irish, Volume 3, HTML e-text via CELT: irish, Volume 4, HTML e-text via CELT: irish, Volume 5, HTML e-text via CELT: irish, Volume 6, HTML e-text via CELT: irish, english † Volume 7 † The appendix of volume 6 contains the done pedigrees of a small selection of the Gaelic Irish nobility, pp.2377 ff Irish annals The Chronicle of Ireland Template:Cite AFM for citing the Annal in articles at Wikipedia Cunningham, Bernadette. The Annals of the Four Masters: Irish History and Society in the Early Seventeenth Century.
Dublin: Four Courts. ISBN 978-1-84682-203-2. Cunningham, Bernadette, ed.. O'Donnell Histories: Donegal and the Annals of the Four Masters. Rathmullan: Rathmullan & District Local Historical Society. Mc Carthy, Daniel P.. The Irish Annals: Their Genesis and History. Dublin: Four Courts. Mc Carthy, Daniel P.. "Irish Chronicles and Their Chronology". Retrieved 5 April 2010. Ó Muraíle, Nollaig. "The autograph manuscripts of the Annals of the Four Masters". Celtica. 19: 75–95. O'Sullivan, William. "The Slane manuscript of the Annals of the Four Masters". Ríocht na Mídhe: Journal of the County Meath Historical Society. 10: 78–85. Catholic Encyclopedia: Annals of the Four Masters List of Published Texts at CELT — University College Cork's Corpus of Electronic Texts project has the full text of the annals online, both in the original Irish and in O'Donovan's translation. Irish Script On Screen — The ISOS project at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies has high-resolution digital images of the Royal Irish Academy's copy of the Annals
Annals of Ulster
The Annals of Ulster are annals of medieval Ireland. The entries span the years from A. D. 431 to A. D. 1540. The entries up to A. D. 1489 were compiled in the late 15th century by the scribe Ruaidhrí Ó Luinín, under his patron Cathal Óg Mac Maghnusa on the island of Belle Isle on Lough Erne in the kingdom of Fermanagh. Entries were added by others. Entries up to the mid-6th Century are retrospective, drawing on earlier annalistic and historical texts, while entries were contemporary, based on recollection and oral history. T. M. Charles-Edwards has claimed that the main source for its records of the first millennium A. D. is a now lost Armagh continuation of the Chronicle of Ireland. The Annals used the Irish language, with some entries in Latin; because the Annals copied its sources verbatim, they are useful not just for historians, but for linguists studying the evolution of the Irish language. A century the Annals of Ulster became an important source for the authors of the Annals of the Four Masters.
It informs the Irish text Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib. The Library of Trinity College Dublin possesses the original manuscript. There are two main modern English translations of the annals – Mac Airt and Mac Niocaill and MacCarthy. Several kings are mentioned throughout the Annals of Ulster; the Annals tend to follow the lives of the kings, including important battles and their ultimate death. Between the years of 847 and 879, three different kings are highlighted. For example: Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid, the king of the southern Ui Neill clan from 846–862: 839.6 – First mentioned in the Annals of Ulster having killed Crunnmael son of Fiannamail. 841.2 – Kills Diarmait 843.1 – Mael Sechnaill's father, Mael Ruanaid, dies 845.7 – Kills his brother Flann 845.8 – Takes Tuirgéis prisoner 846.7 – Suffers heavy losses at hands of Tigernach 847.2 – Begins his reign. 847.3 – Destroys the Island of Loch Muinremor 848.4 – defeats Vikings at Forach 849.12 – conducts siege in Crupat 850.3 – Cinaed, king of Cianacht, with help from foreign forces rebels against Mael Sechnaill 851.2 – kills Cinaed, king of Cianacht 851.5 – attends conference in Ard Macha 854.2 – took hostages from Mumu at Inneóin na nDéise 856.2 – took hostages from Mumu at Caisel 856.3 – battle against the Vikings 858.4 – marched against Mumu, took hostages from them and travelled with them "from Belat Gabráin to Inis Tarbnai off the Irish coast, from Dún Cermna to Ára Airthir."
859.3 – attends conference at Ráith Aeda Meic Bric "to make peace and amity between the men of Ireland" 860.1 – leads army into the north, but hold position 862.5 – Dies and is described as "king of all Ireland"The same pattern is followed for Aed mac Neill, the king of the northern Ui Neill clan. Aed mac Neill appears in the following entries in the Annals of Ulster: 855.3, 856.5, 860.1, 861.1, 862.2, 862.3, 863.2, 864.1, 864.3, 866.4, 868.4, 870.2, 874.4, 879.1 The final entry ends with the entry about his death and includes a poem. It reads "Aed son of Niall, king of Temair, fell asleep on the twelfth of the Kalends of 20 December Nov at Druim Inasclainn in the territory of Conaille. 1. "Just as with the Irish kings, the Annals of Ulster follow the lives of the Viking kings of Dublin. For example, Amlaíb Conung is mentioned in the following entries: 853.2, 857.1, 859.2, 863.4, 864.2, 866.1, 867.8, 869.6, 870.6, 871.2, 875.4 The final entry deviates from the Irish kings and instead tells of the death of Amlaib’s son, Oistín and reads: "Oistín son of Amlaíb, king of the Norsemen, was deceitfully killed by Albann."
Along with kings and kingdoms, the entries in the Annals of Ulster focus on important places of Ireland such as Armagh, the ecclesiastical capital of Ireland which appears several times throughout the text. Dublin for example, referred to in the text as either Áth Cliath or Duiblinn, is described in the Annals of Ulster with entries ranging from the settlement of Dublin by Vikings to deaths of notable names to Dublin being ruled by the Irish; the town appears 66 different times in the Annals of Ulster and can be found in the following entries: 770.1, 790.2, 841.4, 842.2, 842.7, 845.12, 851.3, 870.2, 871.2 893.4, 895.6, 902.2, 917.4, 919.3, 920.5, 921.5, 921.8, 924.3, 926.6, 927.3, 930.1, 936.2, 938.5, 938.6, 939.1, 942.3, 942.7, 944.3, 945.6, 946.1, 947.1, 950.7, 951.3, 951.7, 956.3, 960.2, 961.1, 978.3, 980.1, 994.6, 995.2, 999.8, 1000.4, 1013.12, 1013.13, 1014.2, 1018.2, 1021.1, 1022.4, 1031.2, 1035.5, 1070.2, 1075.1, 1075.4, 1084.8, 1088.4, 1094.2, 1095.4, 1100.5, 1103.5, 1105.3, 1115.4, 1118.6, 1121.7, 1126.7, 1128.6 The Annals of Ulster contain a large amount of historical information on the invasions of the Vikings into Ireland and several specific events are mentioned that are paralleled in other Irish works such as the Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib.
The Annals of Ulster documents the Viking invasions one year after the common starting event of the Viking Period, the raiding of Lindisfarne in 793, as mentioned by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The first mentioning of the Vikings is brief. "794.7 Devastation of all the islands of Br
Henry II of England
Henry II known as Henry Curtmantle, Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Anjou and Nantes, Lord of Ireland. Before he was 40 he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France—an area that would come to be called the Angevin Empire. Henry was the son of daughter of Henry I of England, he became involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England occupied by Stephen of Blois, was made Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards became the Duke of Aquitaine by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII of France had been annulled. Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry's military expedition to England in 1153, Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later. Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his grandfather Henry I.
During the early years of his reign the younger Henry restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou and Touraine. Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury; this controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket's murder in 1170. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a "cold war" over several decades. Henry expanded his empire at Louis' expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse. Henry and Eleanor had eight children -- five sons. Three of his sons would be king, though Henry the Young King was named his father's co-ruler rather than a stand-alone king; as the sons grew up, tensions over the future inheritance of the empire began to emerge, encouraged by Louis and his son King Philip II. In 1173 Henry's heir apparent, "Young Henry", rebelled in protest.
France, Brittany and Boulogne allied themselves with the rebels. The Great Revolt was only defeated by Henry's vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them "new men" appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in 1183; the Norman invasion of Ireland provided lands for his youngest son John, but Henry struggled to find ways to satisfy all his sons' desires for land and immediate power. By 1189, Young Henry and Geoffrey were dead, Philip played on Richard's fears that Henry II would make John king, leading to a final rebellion. Decisively defeated by Philip and Richard and suffering from a bleeding ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon castle in Anjou, he was succeeded by Richard. Henry's empire collapsed during the reign of his youngest son, John. Many of the changes Henry introduced during his long rule, had long-term consequences. Henry's legal changes are considered to have laid the basis for the English Common Law, while his intervention in Brittany and Scotland shaped the development of their societies and governmental systems.
Historical interpretations of Henry's reign have changed over time. In the 18th century, scholars argued that Henry was a driving force in the creation of a genuinely English monarchy and a unified Britain. During the Victorian expansion of the British Empire, historians were keenly interested in the formation of Henry's own empire, but they expressed concern over his private life and treatment of Becket. Late-20th-century historians have combined British and French historical accounts of Henry, challenging earlier Anglocentric interpretations of his reign. Henry was born in France at Le Mans on 5 March 1133, the eldest child of the Empress Matilda and her second husband, Geoffrey the Fair, Count of Anjou; the French county of Anjou was formed in the 10th century and the Angevin rulers attempted for several centuries to extend their influence and power across France through careful marriages and political alliances. In theory, the county answered to the French king, but royal power over Anjou weakened during the 11th century and the county became autonomous.
Henry's mother was King of England and Duke of Normandy. She was born into a powerful ruling class of Normans, who traditionally owned extensive estates in both England and Normandy, her first husband had been the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. After her father's death in 1135, Matilda hoped to claim the English throne, but instead her cousin Stephen of Blois was crowned king and recognised as the Duke of Normandy, resulting in civil war between their rival supporters. Geoffrey took advantage of the confusion to attack the Duchy of Normandy but played no direct role in the English conflict, leaving this to Matilda and her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester; the war, termed the Anarchy by Victorian historians, degenerated into stalemate. Henry spent some of his earliest years in his mother's household, accompanied Matilda to Normandy in the late 1130s. Henry's childhood from the age of seven, was spent in Anjou, where he was educated by Peter of Saintes, a noted grammarian of the day. In late 1142, Geoffrey decided t
Archbishop of Armagh
The Archbishop of Armagh is an archiepiscopacy in both the Church of Ireland and the Roman Catholic Church, two of the main Christian churches in Ireland. It takes its name from the city of Armagh in Northern Ireland; the ordinary holds the title of Primate of All Ireland in each church. Since the Reformation, parallel successions to the archiepiscopal see have taken place. In the Church of Ireland, the Archbishop is Richard Clarke, the ecclesiastical head of the Church of Ireland and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Armagh, he was elected as archbishop in October 2012 and enthroned on 15 December 2012 at St Patrick's Church of Ireland Cathedral, Armagh. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Archbishop is Eamon Martin, the ecclesiastical head of the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland, metropolitan of the Province of Armagh and the ordinary of the Archdiocese of Armagh, he succeeded on 8 September 2014, having been ordained Coadjutor Archbishop of Armagh on 21 April 2013 at St Patrick's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Armagh.
In the medieval Irish church, the earliest bishops doubled as abbots, with the bishop becoming the junior of the two positions. From the 8th century, if not earlier, the house of Armagh claimed foundation from Saint Patrick, the position of comarba Pátraic was held by the abbot of Armagh until the position of abbot and bishop were merged again in the 12th century, with the creation of the archbishopric of Armagh. Primate of All Ireland Irish Bishops Conference
Raymond FitzGerald, nicknamed Le Gros, was a Cambro-Norman commander during the Norman invasion of Ireland. Raymond was among the first of a small band of Norman knights who landed on the South coast of Ireland before being reinforced by a larger force led by Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, he was active consolidating Norman rule over Ireland before he retired to his estates in Waterford where he died in the late 12th century. Raymond grew up in Wales, was a grandson of Princess Nest ferch Rhys, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, the last independent Prince of South Wales, his father was William Lord of Carew. He was sent by Strongbow to Ireland in 1170, landed at Baginbun Head at the Hook Peninsula, near Waterford, where he was besieged in his entrenchments by the combined Irish and Ostmen, whom he repulsed. Although vastly outnumbered in this battle, he won a resounding victory which he achieved by rounding up a nearby herd of cattle which his men had foraged and driving them headlong into the oncoming enemy ranks.
The result was that about 1000 of the combined Galic and Hiberno-Norse force were either killed or captured. He was Strongbow's second in command and had the chief share both in the capture of Waterford and in the successful assault on Dublin, he was sent to Aquitaine to hand over Strongbow's conquests to Henry II of England, but was back in Dublin in July 1171, when he led one of the sallies from the town. Strongbow offended him by refusing him the marriage of his sister Basilia, widow of Robert de Quincy. Raymond retired to Wales and Hervey de Mountmaurice became constable in his place. At the outbreak of a general rebellion against the earl in 1174, Raymond returned with his uncle Meiler FitzHenry, after receiving a promise of marriage with Basilia, he brought about 450 men with him and relieved Strongbow, under siege in Waterford. His marriage to Basilia took place in Wexford directly following this encounter. Reinstated as constable, he secured a series of successes including the capture of Limerick city in October 1175.
Mountmaurice meanwhile obtained Raymond's recall on the ground that his power threatened the royal authority, but the constable was delayed by a fresh outbreak at Limerick, the earl's troops refusing to march without him. On the death of Strongbow, he acted as governor until the arrival of William FitzAldelm, to whom he handed over the royal fortresses, he was deprived of his estates near Dublin and Wexford, but the Geraldines secured the recall of FitzAldelm early in 1183, regained their power and influence. In 1182 he relieved his half-uncle Robert Fitz-Stephen, besieged in Cork. In 1185, his first cousin Philip de Barry, son of William FitzOdo de Barry came to Ireland to assist in the recovery of some cantreds in the Kingdom of Desmond; the time of his death is not certain. He was alive when John of England came to Ireland in 1185. Gerald of Wales did not record his death in his Expugnatio Hibernica, finished in 1189, his widow Basilia married Geoffrey FitzRobert at some time between 1198 and 1201.
According to tradition he was buried in Molana Abbey. He is described by Giraldus Cambrensis as "very stout, a little above the middle height, his nose was rather prominent, his countenance high-coloured and pleasant. Such was his care of his troops that he passed whole nights without sleep, going the rounds of the guards himself, challenging the sentinels to keep them on the alert... He was not effeminate in either his food or his dress, he was a liberal and circumspect man. Raymond is considered the soldier. Raymond is remembered in song; the song contains a detailed hymn, stylized him a hero: Translated: I will tell you of a knight, named Raymond le Gros. He was a brave and victorious follower, he was rich and powerful, counting the mightiest to its peers. Raymond Constable is the region of Leinster, he holds good men under the command of Count. He recruited soldiers and knights, archers and mercenaries to hunt the king's enemies in Ireland and to shame. Connolly, S. J. ed. "Raymond fitz William", The Oxford Companion to Irish History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-211695-9 Flanagan, M. T. "Fitzgerald, Raymond fitz William", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9582, retrieved 24 August 2010 Gwynn, Aubrey.
"Allies and an Overlord, 1169–72". In Cosgrove, A. Medieval Ireland, 1169–1534. New History of Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. 67–97. ISBN 978-0-19-821755-8 – via Google Books. Orpen, Goddard Henry, Ireland under the Normans, 1169-1216, 1–2, Oxford Roach, The Norman Invasion of Ireland, Anvil Books, ISBN 0-947962-81-6Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Fitzgerald, Raymond". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. P. 445. Orpen, Goddard Henry, Ireland under the Normans, Dublin: Four Courts, ISBN 1-85182-715-3 All four original volumes in one. E
Diarmait Mac Murchada
Diarmait Mac Murchada, anglicised as Dermot MacMurrough, Dermod MacMurrough, Dermot MacMorrogh or Dermot MacMorrow, was a King of Leinster in Ireland. In 1167, he was deprived of his kingdom by the High King of Ireland – Ruaidri Ua Conchobair; the grounds for the dispossession were that Mac Murchada had, in 1152, abducted Derbforgaill, the wife of the King of Breifne, Tiernan O'Rourke. To recover his kingdom, Mac Murchada solicited help from the King of England Henry II of England, his issue unresolved, he gained the military support of the Earl Richard de Clare, the 2nd Earl of Pembroke, in opposition to Henry II due to his support for Stephen, King of England against Henry's mother in The Anarchy. In exchange for his aid, Strongbow was married to Mac Murchada's daughter Aoife and promised succession to the Kingship of Leinster. Henry II mounted a larger second invasion in 1171 to ensure his control over Strongbow, resulting in the Norman Lordship of Ireland. Mac Murchada was known as Diarmait na nGall.
Diarmait was born around a son of Donnchad mac Murchada, King of Leinster and Dublin. His father's paternal grandmother, was a daughter of Donnchad, King of Munster and thus a granddaughter of Brian Boru. In 1115 his father died in the ensuing battle; the citizens of Dublin buried him with the carcass of a dog, considered to be a huge insult. He had two wives, the first of whom, Sadb Ní Faeláin, was mother of a daughter named Órlaith who married Domnall Mór, King of Munster, his second wife, Mór ingen Muirchertaig, was mother of Aoife / Eva of Leinster and his youngest son Conchobar Mac Murchada. He had two other sons, Domhnall Caomhánach mac Murchada and Énna Cennselach mac Murchada. Diarmait is buried in the Cathedral graveyard of Ferns village. After the death of his older brother, Énna Mac Murchada, Diarmait unexpectedly became King of Leinster; this was opposed by the High King of Ireland, Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair who feared that Mac Murchada would become a rival. Toirdelbach sent one of his allied Kings, Tigernán Ua Ruairc to conquer Leinster and oust the young Mac Murchada.
Ua Ruairc went on a brutal campaign slaughtering the livestock of Leinster and thereby trying to starve the province's residents. Mac Murchada was ousted from his throne, but was able to regain it with the help of Leinster clans in 1132. Afterwards followed two decades of an uneasy peace between Ua Diarmait. In 1152 he assisted the High King to raid the land of Ua Ruairc who had by become a renegade. Mac Murchada is said to have abducted Ua Ruairc's wife Derbforgaill along with all her furniture and goods, with the aid of Derbforgaill's brother, a future pretender to the kingship of Meath. Other sources say that Derbforgaill was not an unwilling prisoner and that she remained in Ferns with Mac Murchada in comfort for a number of years, her advanced age indicates that she may have been a hostage. Whatever the reality, the abduction was given as a further reason for enmity between the two kings; as king of Leinster, in 1140–70 Diarmait commissioned Irish Romanesque churches and abbeys at: Baltinglass – a Cistercian abbey Glendalough Ferns KilleshinHe sponsored convents at Dublin, in c.1151 two more at Aghade, County Carlow and at Kilculliheen near Waterford city.
He sponsored the successful career of churchman St Lawrence O'Toole. He married O'Toole's half-sister Mor in 1153 and presided at the synod of Clane in 1161 when O'Toole was installed as archbishop of Dublin. In 1166, Ireland's new High King and Mac Murchada's only ally Muirchertach Ua Lochlainn had fallen, a large coalition led by Tigernán Ua Ruairc marched on Leinster; the High King deposed Mac Murchada from the throne of Leinster. Mac Murchada fled to Wales and from there to England and France seeking the support of Henry II of England in the recruitment of soldiers to reclaim his kingship. Henry authorised Diarmait to seek help from the mercenaries in his kingdom; those who agreed to help included Richard de Clare and half-brothers Robert Fitz-Stephen and Maurice FitzGerald. Robert was accompanied by his half-nephew Robert de Barry. Strongbow was offered Diarmait's daughter Aoife in marriage and promised the kingship of Leinster on Diarmait's death. Robert and Maurice were promised elsewhere for their services.
In Mac Murchada's absence, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair had become the new King of Ireland. On returning to Wales, Robert Fitz-Stephen helped him organise a mercenary army of English and Welsh soldiers. Landing at Bannow Bay, they laid siege to Wexford which fell in May 1169. After a period of inactivity, they went on to raid the Kingdom of Ossory, they launched raids in the territories of the Uí Tuathail, the Uí Broin, Uí Conchobhair Failghe. Mac Murchada gambled that King Ruaidrí would not hurt the Leinster hostages which he had, which included Mac Murchada's son, Conchobar Mac Murchada; however Ua Ruairc forced his hand and they were all killed. Although he had been distracted by disturbances else where in the kingdom, King Ruaidrí could no longer ignore this powerful force, he marched his forces into Leinster and, with the mediation of the Church, the commanders of the two armies began negotiations at Ferns, Diarmait's political base. An agreement was reached, whereby Diarmait was allowed to remain King of Leinster with Diarmait for his par