New Orleans Saints
The New Orleans Saints are a professional American football team based in New Orleans, Louisiana. The Saints compete in the National Football League as a member of the league's National Football Conference South division; the team was founded by John W. Mecom Jr. David Dixon, the city of New Orleans on November 1, 1966; the Saints began play in Tulane Stadium in 1967. The name "Saints" is an allusion to November 1 being All Saints Day in the Catholic faith. New Orleans has a large Catholic population, the spiritual "When the Saints Go Marching In" is associated with New Orleans and is sung by fans at games; the franchise was founded on November 1, 1966. The team's primary colors are old gold and black, they played their home games in Tulane Stadium through the 1974 NFL season. The following year, they moved to the new Louisiana Superdome. For most of their first 20 years, the Saints were competitive, only getting to.500 twice. In 1987, they finished 12–3—their first-ever winning season—and qualified for the NFL playoffs for the first time in franchise history, but lost to the Minnesota Vikings 44–10.
The next season in 1988 ended with a 10 -- 6 record. Following the 2000 regular season, the Saints defeated the defending Super Bowl champion St. Louis Rams 31–28 to notch their first-ever playoff win. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina devastated much of the Gulf Coast region; the Superdome was used as temporary shelter for displaced residents. The stadium suffered damage from the hurricane; the Saints were forced to play their first scheduled home game against the New York Giants at Giants Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey. During the season, it was rumored that Saints' owner Tom Benson might deem the Superdome unusable and seek to void his contract and relocate the team to San Antonio, where he had business interests. However, the Superdome was repaired and renovated in time for the 2006 season at an estimated cost of US$185 million; the New Orleans Saints' first post-Katrina home game was an charged Monday Night Football game versus their division rival, the Atlanta Falcons. The Saints, under rookie head coach Sean Payton and new quarterback Drew Brees, defeated the Falcons 23–3, went on to notch the second playoff win in franchise history.
The 2009 season was a historic one for the Saints. Winning a franchise-record 13 games, they qualified for Super Bowl XLIV and defeated the AFC champion Indianapolis Colts 31–17. To date, it is the only Super Bowl championship that they have won, as it is the only Super Bowl the Saints have appeared in, they join the New York Jets and Tampa Bay Buccaneers as the only three NFL teams to win their lone Super Bowl appearance. In 52 seasons, the Saints' record was 371–446–5 overall, 362–435–5 in the regular season and 9–11 in the playoffs. First the brainchild of local sports entrepreneur Dave Dixon, who built the Louisiana Superdome and founded the USFL, the Saints were secretly born in a backroom deal brought about by U. S. Congressman Hale Boggs, U. S. Senator Russell Long, NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle; the NFL needed congressional approval of the proposed AFL–NFL merger. Dixon and a local civic group had been seeking an NFL franchise for over five years and had hosted record crowds for NFL exhibition games.
To seal the merger, Rozelle arrived in New Orleans within a week, announced on November 1, 1966, that the NFL had awarded the city of New Orleans an NFL franchise. The team was named for the great jazz song most identified with New Orleans – "When the Saints Go Marching In", it was no coincidence that the franchise's official birth was announced on November 1, the Catholic All Saints' Day; when the deal was reached a week earlier, Dixon suggested to Rozelle that the announcement be delayed until then. Dixon told an interviewer that he cleared the name with New Orleans' Archbishop Philip M. Hannan: "He thought it would be a good idea, he had an idea the team was going to need all the help it could get."Boggs' Congressional committee in turn approved the NFL merger. John W. Mecom Jr. a young oilman from Houston, became the team's first majority stockholder. The team's colors and gold, symbolized both Mecom's and New Orleans' strong ties to the oil industry. Trumpeter Al Hirt was part owner of the team, his rendition of "When the Saints Go Marching In" was made the official fight song.
The inaugural game in 1967 on September 17 started with a 94-yard opening kickoff return for a touchdown by John Gilliam, but the Saints lost that game 27–13 to the Los Angeles Rams at Tulane Stadium, with over 80,000 in attendance. It was one of the few highlights of a 3–11 season, which set an NFL record for most wins by an expansion team. For most of their first 20 years, the Saints were the definition of NFL futility, they did not finish as high as second in their division until 1979. The 1979 and 1983 teams were the only ones to finish at.500 until 1987. One of the franchise's early bright moments came on November 8, 1970, when Tom Dempsey kicked an NFL record-breaking 63-yard field goal at Tulane Stadium to defeat the Detroit Lions 19–17 in the final seconds of the game. Dempsey's record was not broken until 2013 by Matt Prater of the Denver Broncos, who kicked one yard far
At the Movies (1982 TV program)
At the Movies is an American movie review television program that aired from 1982 to 1990. It was produced by Tribune Entertainment and was created by Gene Siskel and Roger Ebert after leaving their show Sneak Previews, which ran on PBS from 1975 to 1982. For At the Movies and Ebert adopted the same format they had used in their previous series, Sneak Previews: two critics from opposing newspapers view clips from the week's new movies, discuss them pass judgment expressed in thumbs up or thumbs down. During this run, they would adopt several elements. For example, they would bring on an animal called "Spot the Wonder Dog" to help lead into a segment called "The Dog of the Week," covering the week's worst movie, they used another animal, "Aroma the Educated Skunk." Siskel and Ebert would occasionally feature an "X-Ray segment," in which they discussed current trends happening in the movies. None of these features were carried over when Siskel and Ebert left Tribune/PBS in 1986 over a contract dispute and created Siskel & Ebert & the Movies with Buena Vista Television, whose title was shortened to Siskel & Ebert.
They were replaced on At the Movies by film critics Rex Reed and Bill Harris, the latter a gossip correspondent for Entertainment Tonight. Under Reed and Harris, the show expanded beyond movie reviews, adding gossip. Harris was replaced by former ET host Dixie Whatley. At the Movies on IMDb
The Chicago Sun-Times is a daily newspaper published in Chicago, United States. It is the flagship paper of the Sun-Times Media Group, with the biggest circulation in Chicago and the 9th overall in the US; the Chicago Sun-Times claims to be the oldest continuously published daily newspaper in the city. That claim is based on the 1844 founding of the Chicago Daily Journal, the first newspaper to publish the rumor, now believed false, that a cow owned by Catherine O'Leary was responsible for the Chicago fire; the Evening Journal, whose West Side building at 17–19 S. Canal was undamaged, gave the Chicago Tribune a temporary home until it could rebuild. Though the assets of the Journal were sold to the Chicago Daily News in 1929, its last owner Samuel Emory Thomason immediately launched the tabloid Chicago Daily Illustrated Times; the modern paper grew out of the 1948 merger of the Chicago Sun, founded December 4, 1941 by Marshall Field III, the Chicago Daily Times. The newspaper was owned by Field Enterprises, controlled by the Marshall Field family, which acquired the afternoon Chicago Daily News in 1959 and launched WFLD television in 1966.
When the Daily News ended its run in 1978, much of its staff, including Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist Mike Royko, were moved to the Sun-Times. During the Field period, the newspaper had a populist, progressive character that leaned Democratic but was independent of the city's Democratic establishment. Although the graphic style was urban tabloid, the paper was well regarded for journalistic quality and did not rely on sensational front-page stories, it ran articles from The Washington Post/Los Angeles Times wire service. Among the most prominent members of the newspaper's staff was cartoonist Jacob Burck, hired by the Chicago Times in 1938, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1941 and continued with the paper after it became the Sun-Times, drawing nearly 10,000 cartoons over a 44-year career; the advice column "Ask Ann Landers" debuted in 1943. Ann Landers was the pseudonym of staff writer Ruth Crowley, who answered readers' letters until 1955. Eppie Lederer, sister of "Dear Abby" columnist Abigail van Buren, assumed the role thereafter as Ann Landers.
"Kup's Column", written by Irv Kupcinet made its first appearance in 1943. Jack Olsen joined the Sun-Times as editor-in-chief in 1954, before moving on to Time and Sports Illustrated magazines and authoring true-crime books. Hired as literary editor in 1955 was Hoke Norris, who covered the civil-rights movement for the Sun-Times. Jerome Holtzman became a member of the Chicago Sun sports department after first being a copy boy for the Daily News in the 1940s, he and Edgar Munzel, another longtime sportswriter for the paper, both would end up honored by the Baseball Hall of Fame. Famed for his World War II exploits, two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoonist Bill Mauldin made the Sun-Times his home base in 1962; the following year, Mauldin drew one of his most renowned illustrations, depicting a mourning statue of Abraham Lincoln after the November 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy. Two years out of college, Roger Ebert became a staff writer in 1966, a year was named Sun-Times's film critic.
He continued in this role for the remainder of his life. In 1975, a new sports editor at the Sun-Times, Lewis Grizzard, spiked some columns written by sportswriter Lacy J. Banks and took away a column Banks had been writing, prompting Banks to tell a friend at the Chicago Defender that Grizzard was a racist. After the friend wrote a story about it, Grizzard fired Banks. With that, the editorial employees union intervened, a federal arbitrator ruled for Banks and 13 months he got his job back. A 25-part series on the Mirage Tavern, a saloon on Wells Street bought and operated by the Sun-Times in 1977, exposed a pattern of civic corruption and bribery, as city officials were investigated and photographed without their knowledge; the articles received considerable publicity and acclaim, but a nomination for the Pulitzer Prize met resistance from some who believed the Mirage series represented a form of entrapment. In March 1978, the venerable afternoon publication the Chicago Daily News, sister paper of the Sun-Times, went out of business.
The two newspapers shared the same office building. James F. Hoge, Jr. editor and publisher of the Daily News, assumed the same positions at the Sun-Times, which retained a number of the Daily News's editorial personnel. In 1980, the Sun-Times hired syndicated TV columnist Gary Deeb away from the rival Chicago Tribune. Deeb left the Sun-Times in the spring of 1983 to try his hand at TV, he joined Chicago's WLS-TV in September 1983. In July 1981, prominent Sun-Times investigative reporter Pam Zekman, part of a Pulitzer Prize-winning team with the Chicago Tribune in 1976, announced she was leaving the Sun-Times to join WBBM-TV in Chicago in August 1981 as chief of its new investigative unit. "Salary wasn't a factor," she told the Tribune. "The station showed a commitment to investigative journalism. It was something I wanted to try."Pete Souza left the Sun-Times in 1983 to become official White House photographer for President Ronald Reagan until his second term's end in 1989. Souza returned to that position to be the official photographer for President Barack Obama.
Baseball writer Jerome Holtzman defected from the Sun-Times to the Tribune in late 1981, while Mike Downey left Sun-Times sports in September 1981 to be a columnist at the Detroit Free Press. In January 1984, noted Sun-Times business reporter James Warren quit to join the rival Chicago Tribune, he became the Tribune's Washington bureau chief and its managing editor for features. In 1984, Field Enterprises co-owners, half-brothers Marshall Field
Philip Kaufman is an American film director and screenwriter who has directed fifteen films over a career spanning more than six decades. He has been described as a "maverick" and an "iconoclast," notable for his versatility and independence, he is considered an "auteur". His choice of topics has been eclectic and sometimes controversial, having adapted novels with diverse themes and stories. Kaufman's works have included genres such as realism, fantasy, Westerns, underworld crime, inner city gangs. Examples are Milan Kundera's The Unbearable Lightness of Being, Michael Crichton's Rising Sun, a remake of Invasion of the Body Snatchers, the erotic writings of Anaïs Nin's Henry & June, his film The Wanderers has achieved cult status. But his greatest success was Tom Wolfe's true-life The Right Stuff, which received eight Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture. According to film historian Annette Insdorf, "no other living American director has so and made movies for adults, tackling sensuality, artistic creation, manipulation by authorities."
Other critics note that Kaufman's films are "strong on mood and atmosphere," with powerful cinematography and a "lyrical, poetic style" to portray different historic periods. His films have a somewhat European style, but the stories always "stress individualism and integrity, are American." Kaufman was born in Chicago in 1936, the only son of Elizabeth, a housewife, Nathan Kaufman, a produce businessman. He was the grandson of German Jewish immigrants. One of his grammar and high school friends was William Friedkin, who became a director, he developed an early love of movies and during his youth he would go to double features. He attended the University of Chicago where he received a degree in history, enrolled at Harvard Law School where he spent a year, he returned to Chicago for a postgraduate degree. In 1958 Kaufman married a year after they met as undergraduates, they had a son, Peter. Before graduating Kaufman became involved in the counterculture movement and in 1960 moved to San Francisco.
He took various jobs there, including postal worker, befriended a number of influential people, such as writer Henry Miller. He and his wife decided to travel and live in Europe for a while where he would teach. After spending time working on a kibbutz in Israel, he taught English and math for two years in Greece and Italy. During his travels he met author Anaïs Nin, whose relationship with her lover, Henry Miller became the inspiration and subject for Kaufman's film Henry and June, he met Saugus, Massachusetts-born Rose Fisher in 1957, when he was 21 and she was 18, both were undergraduates at the University of Chicago. A year in 1958, they married, they had Peter. Rose Kaufman was a screenwriter and had bit roles in two of her husband's films. After backpacking in Europe with his wife and their young son, they returned to the United States, his time in Europe influenced Kaufman's decision to become a filmmaker, when he and his wife would wander into small movie theaters showcasing the works of experimental new filmmakers such as John Cassavetes and Shirley Clarke, among others.
He recalls the effect of being exposed to those filmmakers as the "start of something new" which would inspire the European flavor of many of his films:I could feel the cry of America, the sense of jazz... So I came back to Chicago in 1962 and set about trying to learn as much as I could, seeing every foreign movie I could. Goldstein Kaufman returned to Chicago, he went around town looking for funding for his directorial debut, Goldstein, co-written and co-directed with Benjamin Manaster. Kaufman conceived of the story in an unfinished novel, but at the urging of Anaïs Nin he made it into a "mystical comedy" film, it was inspired by a story from Martin Buber's Tales of the Hasidim, was filmed on location in Chicago with a cast composed of local actors from The Second City comedy troupe. The film won the Prix de la Nouvelle Critique at the 1964 Cannes Film Festival, with French director Jean Renoir calling it the best American film he had seen in 20 years. François Truffaut, another leading French director, was visiting Chicago when the film premiered and he came to the opening.
Kaufman recalled that Truffaut "leaped to his feet" in the middle of the screening and began applauding. Fearless Frank Two years Kaufman went on to direct Fearless Frank, a comic book/counterculture fable, which he wrote and directed, it costarred Jon Voight in his film debut. Kaufman spent four years trying to find a distributor, but the film was a box-office failure when it played. While the movie didn't gain as much attention as Goldstein, it did help Kaufman land a contract in Universal Studios' Young Directors Program in 1969; the Great Northfield Minnesota Raid In 1972, Kaufman wrote and directed The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid starring Robert Duvall as Jesse James, in what was his first commercial film after the previous two independent ones. He spent a lot of time researching the real life characters when writing the screenplay, although the film took some liberties portraying some of the factual details; the Los Angeles Times wrote that "Kaufman is not an angry revisionist, but seems to be trying to tell it like it must have been, with an amused detachment, which sees the events as something close to an absurd spectacle."
The White Dawn Kaufman directed The White Dawn in 1974, a drama based on th
Roger Joseph Ebert was an American film critic, journalist and author. He was a film critic for the Chicago Sun-Times from 1967 until his death in 2013. In 1975, Ebert became the first film critic to win the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. Ebert and Chicago Tribune critic Gene Siskel helped popularize nationally televised film reviewing when they co-hosted the PBS show Sneak Previews, followed by several variously named At the Movies programs; the two verbally traded humorous barbs while discussing films. They created and trademarked the phrase "Two Thumbs Up", used when both hosts gave the same film a positive review. After Siskel died in 1999, Ebert continued hosting the show with various co-hosts and starting in 2000, with Richard Roeper. Neil Steinberg of the Chicago Sun-Times said Ebert "was without question the nation's most prominent and influential film critic", Tom Van Riper of Forbes described him as "the most powerful pundit in America", Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called him "the best-known film critic in America".
Ebert lived with cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands beginning in 2002. In 2006, he required treatment necessitating the removal of his lower jaw, leaving him disfigured and costing him the ability to speak or eat normally, his ability to write remained unimpaired and he continued to publish both online and in print until his death on April 4, 2013. Roger Joseph Ebert was born in Urbana, the only child of Annabel, a bookkeeper, Walter Harry Ebert, an electrician, he was raised Roman Catholic, attending St. Mary's elementary school and serving as an altar boy in Urbana, his paternal grandparents were German his maternal ancestry was Irish and Dutch. Ebert's interest in journalism began when he was a student at Urbana High School, where he was a sports writer for The News-Gazette in Champaign, Illinois. In his senior year, he was class president and editor-in-chief of his high school newspaper, The Echo. In 1958, he won the Illinois High School Association state speech championship in "radio speaking", an event that simulates radio newscasts.
Regarding his early influences in film criticism, Ebert wrote in the 1998 parody collection Mad About the Movies: Ebert began taking classes at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign as an early-entrance student, completing his high school courses while taking his first university class. After graduating from Urbana High School in 1960, Ebert attended and received his undergraduate degree in 1964. While at the University of Illinois, Ebert worked as a reporter for The Daily Illini and served as its editor during his senior year while continuing to work as a reporter for the News-Gazette of Champaign-Urbana, Illinois; as an undergraduate, he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity and president of the U. S. Student Press Association. One of the first movie reviews he wrote was a review of La Dolce Vita, published in The Daily Illini in October 1961. Ebert spent a semester as a master's student in the department of English there before attending the University of Cape Town on a Rotary fellowship for a year.
He returned from Cape Town to his graduate studies at Illinois for two more semesters and after being accepted as a PhD candidate at the University of Chicago, he prepared to move to Chicago. He needed a job to support himself while he worked on his doctorate and so applied to the Chicago Daily News, hoping that, as he had sold freelance pieces to the Daily News, including an article on the death of writer Brendan Behan, he would be hired by editor Herman Kogan. Instead Kogan referred Ebert to the city editor at the Chicago Sun-Times, Jim Hoge, who hired Ebert as a reporter and feature writer at the Sun-Times in 1966, he attended doctoral classes at the University of Chicago while working as a general reporter at the Sun-Times for a year. After movie critic Eleanor Keane left the Sun-Times in April 1967, editor Robert Zonka gave the job to Ebert; the load of graduate school and being a film critic proved too much, so Ebert left the University of Chicago to focus his energies on film criticism.
Ebert began his career as a film critic in 1967. That same year, he met film critic Pauline Kael for the first time at the New York Film Festival. After he sent her some of his columns, she told him they were "the best film criticism being done in American newspapers today"; that same year, Ebert's first book, a history of the University of Illinois titled Illini Century: One Hundred Years of Campus Life, was published by the University's press. In 1969, his review of Night of the Living Dead was published in Reader's Digest. Ebert co-wrote the screenplay for the 1970 Russ Meyer film Beyond the Valley of the Dolls and sometimes joked about being responsible for the film, poorly received on its release yet has become a cult classic. Ebert and Meyer made Beneath the Valley of the Ultra-Vixens, Up!, other films, were involved in the ill-fated Sex Pistols movie Who Killed Bambi? Starting in 1968, Ebert worked for the University of Chicago as an adjunct lecturer, teaching a night class on film at the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies.
In 1975, Ebert received the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. As of 2007, his reviews were syndicated to more than 200 newspapers in the United States and abroad. Ebert publish
Geneviève Bujold is a Canadian actress. She is best known for her portrayal of Anne Boleyn in the 1969 film Anne of the Thousand Days, for which she received a Golden Globe for Best Actress, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress. Subsequent film credits include The Trojan Women, Obsession, Murder by Decree, Dead Ringers, The House of Yes, Still Mine. Bujold was born in Montreal, the daughter of Laurette, a maid, Joseph Firmin Bujold, a bus driver, she is with distant Irish ancestry. Bujold received a strict convent education for twelve years, she was expelled from the convent for reading Fanny by Marcel Pagnol. She entered the Montreal Conservatory of Dramatic Art, where she was trained in the classics of French theatre. Two months before she was to graduate she made her stage debut as Rosine in Le Barbier de Séville in 1961 with Theatre de Gesu, she quit the school and was out of work, being in demand for radio, stage, TV and film. Bujold made her TV debut with Le square, a 60-minute TV film based on a play by Maguerite Duras co-starring Georges Groulx.
She was in episodes of Jeudi-théâtre and Les belles histoires des pays d'en haut and guest starred on Ti-Jean caribou. Her Canadian feature film debut was in Amanita Pestilens, she was in an international co production La fleur de l'âge, ou Les adolescentes and had a lead role in La terre à boire, the first Quebec feature to be financed. Bujold starred in La fin des étés and Geneviève, she toured Canada performing plays worked in radio and was voted actress of the year in Montreal. In 1965, she toured France with the company of the Théâtre du Rideau Vert. While in Paris, Bujold was in a play A House... and a Day when she was seen by renowned French director Alain Resnais. He selected her for a role in his film The War Is opposite Yves Montand and Ingrid Thulin, she returned home to appear in "Romeo and Jeannette" by Jean Anouilh alongside Michael Sarrazin, for a Canadian TV show Festival. For that show she did productions of The Murderer and A Doll's House, she stayed in France to make two more films: Philippe de Broca's King of Hearts, with Alan Bates, Louis Malle's The Thief of Paris, with Jean-Paul Belmondo.
Bujold won the Prix Suzanne as the Discovery of the Year and Elle magazine called her The Girl of the Day. Despite having established herself in France, she returned to Canada. Upon her return to Canada, Bujold married film director Paul Almond in 1967, he directed her in "The Puppet Caravan" for Festival in 1967. She appeared in Michel Brault's film Between Salt and Sweet Water went to New York to play the title role in a production of Saint Joan for Hallmark Hall of Fame on American TV. Although she said she preferred film most and television least out of all the mediums, she received great acclaim for this including an Emmy nomination. In Canada she starred in Isabel and directed by Almond, it was one of the first Canadian films to be picked up for distribution by a major Hollywood studio. International recognition came in 1969, when she starred as Anne Boleyn in Charles Jarrott's film Anne of the Thousand Days, with Richard Burton. Producer Hal B. Wallis cast her after seeing her in Isabell.
For her performance, she received the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama, received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. It was released by Universal. Back in Canada, she did a second feature with her husband, The Act of the Heart, co starring Donald Sutherland, which earned her a Best Actress at the Canadian Film Awards, she starred in a short film, Marie-Christine, directed by Claude Jutra. Wallis and Universal wanted Bujold to star in Mary, Queen of Scots but she refused so they sued her for $450,000. Instead she played the role of Cassandra, a Greek prophet, in Michael Cacoyannis's film version of The Trojan Women, opposite Katharine Hepburn, Vanessa Redgrave, Irene Papas, it was shot in Spain. In Canada, she made Journey with co-starring John Vernon. Bujold won another Canadian Film Award for Best Actress, she and Almond would divorce in 1973. She starred in Claude Jutra's Kamouraska, based on a novel by Anne Hébert, for which she received her third Canadian Film Award for Best Actress.
In the US, she appeared in an adaptation of Jean Anouilh's Antigone for PBS's Great Performances in 1974. The lawsuit with Universal was settled and she agreed to sign a new three picture film starting with Earthquake, with Charlton Heston. By now her marriage ended and she was keen to leave Montreal so she relocated to Los Angeles. Bujold went to France to make Incorrigible with de Belmondo. For Hallmark Hall of Fame and the BBC she was in a production of Caesar and Cleopatra alongside Alec Guinness, she was the female lead in a pirate film for Swashbuckler with Robert Shaw. She said she did not regret making the film because "Robert Shaw is a man worth knowing."More successful was Obsession directed by Brian De Palma with Cliff Robertson. Bujold made Alex & the Gypsy with Jack Lemmon and Another Man, Another Chance, with James Caan for Claude Lelouch, she had the lead role in a medical thriller directed by Michael Crichton, with Michael Douglas, a big hit. Bujold returned to Canada to play a key role in t
Clinton Eastwood Jr. is an American actor, filmmaker and politician. After achieving success in the Western TV series Rawhide, he rose to international fame with his role as the Man with No Name in Italian filmmaker Sergio Leone's Dollars Trilogy of spaghetti Westerns during the 1960s, as antihero cop Harry Callahan in the five Dirty Harry films throughout the 1970s and 1980s; these roles, among others, have made Eastwood an enduring cultural icon of masculinity. For his work in the Western film Unforgiven and the sports drama Million Dollar Baby, Eastwood won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture, as well as receiving nominations for Best Actor. Eastwood's greatest commercial successes have been the adventure comedy Every Which Way But Loose and its sequel, the action comedy Any Which Way You Can, after adjustment for inflation. Other popular films include the Western Hang'Em High, the psychological thriller Play Misty for Me, the crime film Thunderbolt and Lightfoot, the Western The Outlaw Josey Wales, the prison film Escape from Alcatraz, the action film Firefox, the suspense thriller Tightrope, the Western Pale Rider, the war films Where Eagles Dare, Kelly's Heroes, Heartbreak Ridge, the action thriller In the Line of Fire, the romantic drama The Bridges of Madison County, the drama Gran Torino.
In addition to directing many of his own star vehicles, Eastwood has directed films in which he did not appear, such as the mystery drama Mystic River and the war film Letters from Iwo Jima, for which he received Academy Award nominations, the drama Changeling, the South African biographical political sports drama Invictus. The war drama biopic American Sniper set box-office records for the largest January release and was the largest opening for an Eastwood film. Eastwood received considerable critical praise in France for several films, including some that were not well received in the United States. Eastwood has been awarded two of France's highest honors: in 1994 he became a recipient of the Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, in 2007 he was awarded the Legion of Honour medal. In 2000, Eastwood was awarded the Italian Venice Film Festival Golden Lion for lifetime achievement. Since 1967, Eastwood's Malpaso Productions has produced all but four of his American films. Elected in 1986, Eastwood served for two years as mayor of Carmel-by-the-Sea, California, a non-partisan office.
Eastwood was born on May 31, 1930, in San Francisco, the son of Clinton Eastwood and Ruth Wood. Ruth took the surname of her second husband, John Belden Wood, whom she married after the death of Clinton Sr. Eastwood was nicknamed "Samson" by the hospital nurses because he weighed 11 pounds 6 ounces at birth, he has Jeanne Bernhardt. Eastwood is of English, Irish and Dutch ancestry, he is descended from Mayflower passenger William Bradford, through this line is the 12th generation of his family born in North America. During the 1930s, his family moved as his father worked at jobs along the West Coast. Contrary to what Eastwood has indicated in media interviews, they did not move between 1940 and 1949. Settled in Piedmont, the Eastwoods lived in a wealthy part of the town, had a swimming pool, belonged to a country club, each parent drove their own car. Eastwood attended Piedmont Middle School. From January 1945 until at least January 1946, he attended Piedmont High School, but was asked to leave for writing an obscene suggestion to a school official on the athletic field scoreboard, for burying someone in effigy on the school lawn, on top of other school infractions.
He transferred to Oakland Technical High School and was scheduled in January 1949 to graduate midyear, although it is not clear if did. "Clint graduated from the airplane shop. I think, his major," joked classmate Don Kincade. Another high school friend, Don Loomis, echoed "I don't think he was spending that much time at school because he was having a pretty good time elsewhere." "I think what happened is he started having a good time. I just don't think he finished high school," explained Fritz Manes, a boyhood friend two years younger than Eastwood, who remained associated with him until their falling out in the mid-1980s. Biographer Patrick McGilligan notes that high school graduation records are a matter of strict legal confidentiality. Eastwood held a number of jobs, including as a lifeguard, paper carrier, grocery clerk, forest firefighter, golf caddy. Eastwood has said that he tried to enroll at Seattle University in 1951 but instead was drafted into the United States Army during the Korean War.
"He always dropped the Korean War reference, hoping everyone would conclude that he was in combat and might be some sort of hero. He'd been a lifeguard at Fort Ord in northern California for his entire stint in the military," commented Eastwood's former longtime companion, Sondra Locke. Don Loomis recalled hearing that Eastwood was romancing one of the daughters of a Fort Ord officer, who might have been entreated to watch out for him when names came up for postings. While returning from a prearranged tryst in Seattle, Washington, he was a passenger on a Douglas AD bomber that ran out of fuel and crashed into the ocean near Point Reyes. Using a life raft, he and the pilot swam 2 miles to safety. According to the CBS press release for Rawhide, the Universal film company