Nero was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, during his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire. His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a revolt in Britain, Nero annexed the Bosporan Kingdom to the empire and may have begun the First Jewish–Roman War. In 64 AD, most of Rome was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, writing a generation later, claims that many Romans believed Nero himself had started the fire, in order to clear land for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. In 68, the rebellion of Vindex in Gaul and the acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne, facing a false report of being denounced as a public enemy who was to be executed, he committed suicide on 9 June 68. His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors.
Neros rule is often associated with tyranny and extravagance and he is known for many executions, including that of his mother, and the probable murder by poison of his stepbrother Britannicus. Nero was rumored to have had captured Christians dipped in oil and this view is based on the writings of Tacitus and Cassius Dio, the main surviving sources for Neros reign, but a few sources paint Nero in a more favourable light. Some sources, including some mentioned above, portray him as an emperor who was popular with the common Roman people, some modern historians question the reliability of ancient sources when reporting on Neros tyrannical acts. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, was born on 15 December 37 in Antium and he was the only son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the Younger, sister of Emperor Caligula. Neros father, was the son of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus was thus the grandson of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and probably Aemilia Lepida on his fathers side, and the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor on his mothers side.
Thus, Nero had as his paternal grandmother Antonia Major, through Octavia, Nero was the great-nephew of Caesar Augustus. Neros father had employed as a praetor and was a member of Caligulas staff when the latter travelled to the East. Neros father was described by Suetonius as a murderer and a cheat who was charged by Emperor Tiberius with treason, Tiberius died, allowing him to escape these charges. Neros father died of edema in 39 when Nero was two, Neros mother was Agrippina the Younger, a great-granddaughter of Caesar Augustus and his wife Scribonia through their daughter Julia the Elder and her husband Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Agrippinas father, was a grandson of Augustuss wife, Livia, on one side and Mark Antony, Germanicus mother Antonia Minor was a daughter of Octavia Minor and Mark Antony. Germanicus was the son of Tiberius. Agrippina poisoned her second husband Passienus Crispus, so many ancient historians accuse her of murdering her third husband, the emperor Claudius
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. The wars paved the way for Julius Caesar to become the ruler of the Roman Republic. Still, Gaul was of significant military importance to the Romans, conquering Gaul allowed Rome to secure the natural border of the river Rhine. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, as a result of the financial burdens of his consulship in 59 BC, Caesar incurred significant debt. When the Governor of Transalpine Gaul, Metellus Celer, died unexpectedly, Caesars governorships were extended to a five-year period, a new idea at the time. Caesar had initially four veteran legions under his command, Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX Hispana. As he had been Governor of Hispania Ulterior in 61 BC and had campaigned successfully with them against the Lusitanians, Caesar had the legal authority to levy additional legions and auxiliary units as he saw fit.
His ambition was to conquer and plunder some territories to get out of debt. It is more likely that he was planning a campaign against the Kingdom of Dacia, the countries of Gaul were civilized and wealthy. Most had contact with Roman merchants and some, particularly those that were governed by such as the Aedui. The Romans respected and feared the Gallic tribes, only fifty years before, in 109 BC, Italy had been invaded from the north and saved only after several bloody and costly battles by Gaius Marius. Around 62 BC, when a Roman client state, the Arverni, conspired with the Sequani and the Suebi nations east of the Rhine, to attack the Aedui, the Sequani and Arverni sought Ariovistus’ aid and defeated the Aedui in 63 BC at the Battle of Magetobriga. The Sequani rewarded Ariovistus with land following his victory, Ariovistus settled the land with 120,000 of his people. When 24,000 Harudes joined his cause, Ariovistus demanded that the Sequani give him land to accommodate the Harudes people.
This demand concerned Rome because if the Sequani conceded, Ariovistus would be in a position to all of the Sequani land. They did not appear to be concerned about a conflict between non-client and allied states, by the end of the campaign, the non-client Suebi under the leadership of the belligerent Ariovistus, stood triumphant over both the Aedui and their coconspirators. Fearing another mass migration akin to the devastating Cimbrian War, the Helvetii was a confederation of about five related Gallic tribes that lived on the Swiss plateau, hemmed in by the mountains, and the Rhine and Rhone rivers. They began to come under increased pressure from German tribes to the north, by 58 BC, the Helvetii were well on their way in the planning and provisioning for a mass migration under the leadership of Orgetorix
Aventicum was the largest town and capital of Roman Switzerland. Its remains are beside the town of Avenches. Under the rule of Emperor Vespasian, who grew up there, Aventicum was raised to the status of a colonia in 72 AD, whereupon it entered its golden age. The town wall was 5.6 km long but was impracticable for defensive purposes and was intended as a display of the status of the city. In the Christian era Aventicum was the seat of a bishopric, the most famous of its bishops was Marius Aventicensis, whose terse chronicle, spanning the years 455 to 581, is one of the few sources for the 6th-century Burgundians. Shortly after the Council of Macon,585, Marius removed the see from Aventicum, the area around Aventicum was occupied before the Romans founded the city. There are numerous lake-dwellings - station lacustre- discovered in the adjoining Lake Murten, in the largest site, the piles extend over an area of 460 square metres thus forming a large station or village. The pottery is a coarse, dark red kind of earthenware containing numerous grains of quartz, the Helvetii probably reached southern Germany around the year 111 BC and soon invaded Gaul.
When they invaded the Roman Provincia Narbonensis they defeated a Roman army under L. Cassius Longinus near Agendicum in 107 BC and they marched into Spain, Gaul and northern Italy. However following defeats in 102-101 BC the surviving Helvetii retreated across the Alps, in 58 BC the nobleman Orgetorix instigated a new Helvetian migration, in which the entire tribe was to leave their territory and to establish a supremacy over all of Gaul. They marched from their villages but were stalled by Julius Caesar on the banks of the Rhône, following their surrender the Helvetii became foederati, an allied civitas that were required to provide soldiers but were not citizens. The Helvetii most likely lost their status as foederati only six years later, sometime between 50 and 45 BC, the Romans founded the Colonia Iulia Equestris at the site of the Helvetian settlement Noviodunum. During the following century, the Helvetii would become increasingly romanized. During this time, there were two settlements near where Aventicum would be founded, the first was the oppidum on Vully hill between Lake Murten and Lake Neuchatel, which was given up in the 1st century BC.
The second was the Bois de Châtel, which was fortified in the half of the 1st century BC. The Bois de Châtel would be destroyed early in the 1st century AD, in the course of Augustus’ reign, Roman dominance became more concrete. Some of the traditional Celtic oppida were now used as legionary garrisons, while the exact date of the founding of Aventicum is not well known, it likely happened either during or shortly after Augustuss reign. By 5 AD there was a dock on the shore of Lake Murten, a grave has been discovered in the city that dates to 15 AD
The Mediomatrici were an ancient Celtic people of Gaul, who belong to the division of Belgae. Julius Caesar shows their position in a way when he says that the Rhine flows along the territories of the Sequani, Triboci or Tribocci. Ptolemy places the Mediomatrici south of the Treviri, divodurum was the capital of the Mediomatrici. Besides Metz, settlements in France include the oppidum of Hérapel, other settlements and oppida in Germany were thought to be Saarbrücken, Speyer and Rodalben, although today the ascription of Speyer, Homburg und Rodalben is hotly disputed. The name Mediomatrici has been explained as the people between the Matrona and the Matra and this agrees with Strabo, who says that the Sequani and Mediomatrici inhabit the Rhine, among whom are settled the Triboci, a Germanic nation which had crossed over from their own country. Elements of the Mediomatrici may have settled near Novara, in northern Italy and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, William, ed.
Belgae. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
The Jura Mountains French, Massif du Jura, are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border. The Jura separates the Rhine and Rhône basins, forming part of the watershed of each, the name Jura is derived from juria, a Latinized form of a Celtic stem jor- forest. The mountain range gives its name to the French department of Jura, the Swiss Canton of Jura, the Jurassic period of the timescale. The Jura Mountains are a province of the larger Central European uplands. In France, the Jura covers most of the Franche-Comté region, the range reaches its highest point at Le Crêt de la Neige in the department of Ain and finds its southern terminus in the northwestern part of the department of Savoie. The north end of the Jura extends into the tip of the Alsace region. Roughly 1,600 square kilometres of the range in France is protected by the Jura Mountains Regional Natural Park. The Swiss Jura is one of the three geographical regions of Switzerland, the other being the Swiss plateau and the Swiss Alps.
In Switzerland, the covers the western border with France in the cantons of Basel-Landschaft, Jura, Neuchâtel. Much of the Swiss Jura region has no association with Early Modern Switzerland and was incorporated as part of the Swiss Confederacy only in the 19th century. In the 20th century, a movement of Jurassic separatism developed which resulted in the creation of the canton of Jura in 1979, the Swiss Jura has been industrialized since the 18th century and became a major centre of the watchmaking industry. The area has several cities at very high altitudes, such as La Chaux-de-Fonds, Le Locle, the Jura range proper is continued as the Table Jura in the cantons of Basel-Landschaft and Aargau, and further to Schaffhausen and into southern Germany towards the Swabian and Franconian plateaus. The range is built up vertically while decreasing in size laterally and this deformation accommodates the compression from alpine folding as the main Alpine orogenic front moves roughly northwards. The deformation becomes less pervasive away from the younger, more active Alpine mountain building, the geologic folds comprise three major bands of building that date from three epochs, the Lias, the Dogger and the Malm geologic periods.
Each era of folding reveals effects of shallow marine environments as evidenced by beds with carbonate sequences, containing abundant bioclasts. Structurally, the Jura consists of a sequence of geologic folds, the highest peak in the Jura range is Le Crêt de la Neige at 1,720 metres. Vosges and Jura coal mining basins The Jura range offer a variety of tourist activities including hiking, downhill skiing, there are many signposted trails including the Jura ridgeway, a 310 km hiking route. Tourist attractions include natural features such as the Creux du Van, lookout peaks such as the Chasseral, caves such as the Grottes de lOrbe, and gorges such as Taubenloch
The Menapii were a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul in pre-Roman and Roman times. In geographical terms this corresponds roughly to the modern coast of Flanders. It extended into neighbouring France and the deltas of the southern Netherlands. Their civitas, or administrative capital, under the Roman empire was Cassel, both of these are near Thérouanne, which was the civitas of the neighbouring Morini tribe, and indeed in the Middle Ages Cassel became part of the Diocese of Thérouanne. Cassel was therefore in the extreme of the Menapii lands. A pattern of placing Roman tribal capitals in the south is found in the neighbouring Belgian tribal states, of the Nervii. The positions of such Roman tribal capitals frequently didnt correspond to the centre of a territory in pre-Roman political geography. To the north and east of the Menapii lay the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, in the time of Caesar, the Menapii had settlements throughout this region and over the Rhine into Germany. During Roman times these islands were under the province of Germania Inferior.
Of these last three, the Marsaci appear to be mentioned in place by Pliny as having a presence on the coast south of the delta, neighbouring the Menapii. The Frisiavones are mentioned within the listing for Belgian Gaul, in one inscription, from Bulla Regia, the Tungri and Frisiavones are grouped together, apparently confirming that the Frisiavones lived inland. It is suggested that the Marsaci and the Sturii could be pagi belonging to the civitas of either the Frisiavones or the Menapii. South of the delta, east of the river Scheldt from the Menapii and it is known that the Toxandri were associated with the civitates of both the Nervii and the Tungri, so they presumably had a presence in both. Apparently following Caesar he said that they dwell amongst marshes and forests, not lofty and they are referred to in Ptolemys 2nd century Geographia, situated above the Nervii, and near the Meuse river. In any case as mentioned above they bordered in Roman times upon the Toxandrians, south of the Menapii were the Atrebates in Artois, and south-west along the coast were the Morini.
The boundary with the Morini in classical times appears to have been the River Aa, the civitas Menapiorum became the civitas Turnencensium. By medieval times, when these Roman districts evolved into medieval Roman Catholic dioceses, Cassel had in fact part of the diocese of Thérouanne. The Menapii were persistent opponents of Julius Caesars conquest of Gaul and they were part of the Belgic confederacy defeated by Caesar in 57 BC, contributing 9,000 men
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
The Teutons were a Germanic tribe or Celtic tribe mentioned by Greek and Roman authors, notably Strabo and Marcus Velleius Paterculus. The Teutones and Cimbri were recorded as passing west through Gaul before attacking Roman Italy, the defeat of the Teutones occurred at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae. Some of the captives were reported to have been among the rebelling Gladiators in the Third Servile War. The linguistic affinities of the Teutones are a matter of dispute amongst historians, if the Teutones really came from the same quarter as the Cimbri, it is possible that their name may have been preserved in the Thyland or Thythsyssel regions, found in the far north-west of Jutland. According to the writings of Valerius Maximus and Florus, the king of the Teutones, under the conditions of the surrender, three hundred married women were to be handed over as Roman slaves. When the matrons of the Teutones heard of this stipulation, they begged the consul that they instead be allowed to minister in the temples of Ceres.
When their request was denied, the Teutonic women slew their own children, the next morning, all the women were found dead in each others arms, having strangled each other during the night. This act passed into Roman legends of Teutonic fury, furor Teutonicus Teutonic Theodisca Fick, Alf Torp and Hjalmar Falk, Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen. Part 3, Wortschatz der Germanischen Spracheinheit and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Teutoni. Chicago, F. E. Compton and Co
Nyon is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. It is located some 25 kilometers north east of Genevas city centre and it lies on the shores of Lake Leman and is the seat of the district of Nyon. The town has a population of 20,088 and it is connected to the rest of Switzerland by way of the Route Suisse, the A1 Motorway and the railways of the Arc Lémanique. Nyon derives from one of the used by the Romans for the town. Nyon is first mentioned around 367-407 as civitas Equestrium id est Noiodunus, in 1236 it was mentioned as Neveduni and in 1292 as Nyons. A few, scattered neolithic items were discovered in the 19th century, north of the city, some bronze rings and the ruins of a Bronze Age settlement were discovered. It was founded by the Romans between 50 and 44 BC under the name of Colonia Iulia Equestris or Colonia Equestris Noiodunum, at Roman contact, the country round the town was held by the Helvetii. The towns importance is reflected in its numerous mentions in ancient sources, the Antonine Itineraries place the town on the road from Geneva to Lacus Lausonius.
It is first mentioned by Pliny, and by Ptolemy and Ptolemy simply name it Equestris, and so it is named in the Itineraries. On some inscriptions it is called Civ and Col. Julia Equ. from which some have concluded that it was founded by Julius Caesar. In the Notitia it is called Civ, Noviodunum was part of a loose network of settlements that radiated out from Lugdunum and helped to control the Rhone Valley. It served, along with other Roman colonies in the area, a rectangular grid pattern divided the area of the wall-less city. A monumental center, housing everything needed for the economic, only portions of this first forum have been discovered. At its east end was a two-story basilica, grid-like residential streets radiated out from the center. Under Tiberius, the forum was expanded and redesigned into a pattern for the provinces. The sacred area was surrounded on three sides by colonnades, which were built on half-sunken Cryptoporticus, two outbuildings, including most likely the seat of the Curia, flanked the building. A market building with a courtyard around which were the sales rooms.
The forum witnessed further transformations, particularly the establishment of large building
Places called Mormont are found in the Érezée and Nassogne municipalities of Belgium. Le Mormont is a hill in the Swiss canton of Vaud, rising to an elevation of 605 metres and it is part of the Éclépens municipality. The name is first recorded in AD814, as Mauromonte and it is derived from the Roman-era personal name Maurus. The mountain is connected to the Jura Mountains to the west. East of Le Mormont runs the Entreroches gorge, through which the Canal d’Entreroches was dug in the 17th century, the canal ceased to be profitable in the 18th century, and when a bridge across the canal collapsed in 1829, it was shut down altogether. The course of the canal is now traversed by a railway tunnel of the Lausanne-Yverdon line. Le Mormont has been mined for chalk used in cement production. The site was reported as being of unprecedented size and richness for the period, a total of 250 pits containing sacrificial deposits were recorded. Among the deposited goods were ceramic and bronze vessels, iron tools, grinding stones, coins and it is unclear whether the human remains represent a cemetery or evidence of human sacrifice.
The site is of importance for Gaulish religion on the eve of the Roman conquest. Because of the importance of the site, the mining operation has been put on hold until a more detailed archaeological excavation scheduled for 2014/15
The Morini were a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul. They were mentioned in classical works as the Commentarii de Bello Gallico written by Julius Caesar. They became a part of the Roman empire with the coastal parts of the present-day départment of Pas-de-Calais in northernmost France. A generation after their entry into the Roman Empire the writer Vergil described them poetically as the remotest of people, the tribes name Morini is thought to be Celtic meaning those of the sea. It is apparently derived from the suffix -no- and the Celtic word mori meaning sea, another derived word morici exists and is translated into Latin as marini sailors. The variation morici is found in Aremorici those who live in front of the sea, mori is a close relative of Welsh môr, Breton and Cornish mor, Irish muir. The Indo-European prototype was perhaps *móri that gave birth to Germanic *mari, English mere, German Meer, etc. Old Slavic morje. One of the most important cities of the Morini, was Gesoriacum, modern Boulogne-sur-Mer, called Bononia by Zosimus in late antiquity, Itius Portus or Portus Itius was the name of a Morini port city, generally considered to be either Wissant or Boulogne.
The administrative capital or civitas during the Roman Empire was Tarwanna or Tervanna, modern Thérouanne, today in France, to the south of the Morini and Atrebates were the Ambiani, whose civitas was at modern Amiens. Strabo in his Geographica, describes the country of the Morini as being on the sea, close to the Menapii, during the rainy season these proved secure hiding-places, but in times of drought they were easily taken. Caesar described the Belgae, including the Morini, as Gauls who had different language, customs and he mentioned that he had heard that the Belgae had some Germanic ancestry from east of the Rhine. Pliny the Elder remarked that the Morini cultivated flax and used linen to make sails, the area was known for exporting wool, pork and garum. In late classical times Zosimus implied the Germanic character of the city, Caesar was very interested in that part of the Morini territory, which is where the crossing of the sea to Britannia was the shortest. The Morini had several harbours of which Portus Itius, was only one, the tribe counted some pagi, apparently, could make their own decisions.
The Morini fled into or behind the marshes and became unreachable for the Roman army, in 56 BC, when autumn was very wet, this tactic worked. The year after, which was much dryer, it failed, the Morini participated together with other coastal people and tribes from Britain, in the uprising of the Veneti. Caesar wanted to induce fear in the northern Morini so that they wouldnt attack him, the territory of the Morini and Menapii was well protected by marshes and woodland and suited for guerrilla tactics. The dangers outweighed the benefits of subduing those economically less interesting regions, in 55 BC Labienus tightened the Roman grip upon the strategically more important western side of the Morini tribal areas
The largest city of the region is Marseille. The Romans made the region into the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana and it was ruled by the Counts of Provence from their capital in Aix-en-Provence until 1481, when it became a province of the Kings of France. While it has been part of France for more than five hundred years, it retains a distinct cultural and linguistic identity. The coast of Provence has some of the earliest known sites of habitation in Europe. Primitive stone tools dated to 1 to 1.05 million years BC were found in the Grotte du Vallonnet near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco. The Paleolithic period in Provence saw great changes in the climate, with the arrival, at the beginning of the Paleolithic period, the sea level in western Provence was 150 meters higher than it is today. By the end of the Paleolithic, it had dropped 100 to 150 metres lower than sea level.
The cave dwellings of the inhabitants of Provence were regularly inundated by the rising sea or left far from the sea. The changes in the sea led to one of the most remarkable discoveries of signs of early man in Provence. In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille, the entrance led to a cave above sea level. Inside, the walls of the Cosquer Cave are decorated with drawings of bison, auks and outlines of human hands, dating to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC. The end of the Paleolithic and beginning of the Neolithic period saw the sea settle at its present level, a warming of the climate and the retreat of the forests. The disappearance of the forests and the deer and other easily hunted game meant that the inhabitants of Provence had to survive on rabbits, since they were settled in one place they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by the pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BC they created the first pottery to be made in France.
Around 6000 BC, a wave of new settlers from the east and they were farmers and warriors, and gradually displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands. They were followed in about 2500 BC by another wave of people, known as the Courronniens, traces of these early civilisations can be found in many parts of Provence. A Neolithic site dating to about 6,000 BC was discovered in Marseille near the Saint-Charles railway station, and a dolmen from the Bronze Age can be found near Draguignan. Between the 10th and 4th century BC the Ligures were found in Provence from Massilia as far as modern day Liguria and they were of uncertain origin, they may have been the descendants of the indigenous neolithic peoples