Wells National Estuarine Research Reserve
Wells National Estuarine Research Reserve, located in Wells, Maine, USA, is 2,250 acres of protected land headquartered at a restored saltwater farm called Laudholm. Wells Reserve funding is largely through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Wells Reserve at Laudholm is open to the public every day from 7 am to sunset. 7 miles of trails cross woodlands, grasslands, salt marsh, some research areas are closed to public access. The managed lands include three estuaries, the Webhannet River estuary, the Little River estuary, and the Ogunquit River estuary, the uplands include one of southern Maines largest managed grasslands. Also on the uplands are several conserved farm buildings, dating mostly to the 19th century, the historic buildings of Laudholm Farm are used by the Wells Reserve for several purposes. The main farmhouse holds a Visitor Center with exhibits and staff offices, the horse barn is used for special events, education activities, and storage. The cow barn holds an auditorium and library, the modern Maine Coastal Ecology Center, which opened in 2001, includes a research laboratory, teaching laboratory and offices.
The Alheim Commons, on an adjacent part of the Wells Reserve property, provides facilities for scientists, educators. Since the 1980s, the Wells Reserve research program has been expanding knowledge of coasts, Wells Reserve educators engage people in environmental learning, both on-site and in local communities. Each year, more than 3,000 children and adults participate in a variety of programs at the site. The Wells Reserve maintains indoor facilities to enrich teaching opportunities, Wells Reserve resource specialists manage about 500 acres representing many habitats that support an impressive flora and fauna. The protected lands comprising the Wells Reserve are entirely within the Town of Wells, the Wells Reserve site, farmed for well over three centuries, holds a prominent place in the town’s history. The Laudholm Farm campus reflects New England’s progressive farming era, by the 1970s, farming had ceased to be viable, but the effort to permanently protect Laudholm stimulated the establishment of Maine’s only National Estuarine Research Reserve.
Laudholm Farm’s buildings were restored and renovated to respect a treasured heritage while creating a platform for Wells Reserve research and stewardship programs
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive widely varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation, as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the land area of the world. The U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, some areas are managed in concert between levels of government. The Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a park operated by a state park system. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. They are often considered the jewels of the protected areas.
Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands, mainly through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I, the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level I and II lands in the world. These lands had an area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency, for instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National Preserves and National Recreation Areas. The National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies. States and local zoning bodies may or may not choose to protect these, the state of Colorado, for example, is very clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties.
State parks vary widely from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the National parks of England and Wales, about half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as forever wild by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska claims to be the largest state park by the amount of protected land, it is larger than many U. S. National Parks. Many states operate game and recreation areas. S, State and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are more than picnic areas or playgrounds, however
It serves the largest cities on the U. S. West Coast, including Seattle, Sacramento, Los Angeles, and San Diego, and links the cities of Washington, Oregon. Upon crossing the Mexican border at its terminus, Interstate 5 continues to Tijuana. Upon crossing the Canada–US border at its terminus, it continues to Vancouver as British Columbia Highway 99. It is the 12th longest highway in the U. S. following I-15, I-5 links to control cities in California and Washington. North of Seattle, the city is Vancouver, British Columbia, it is signed as Vancouver B. C. in order to avoid confusion with Vancouver. One notable control city that I-5 does not directly reach is San Francisco, to the south, in the Tracy area, I-580 splits from I-5 towards San Francisco, while to the north, near Vacaville, I-505 cuts south to I-80, which serves that city. That routing, via I-580, I-80, and I-505, was planned originally as I-5W, the southernmost point of I-5 is at the Mexican border at the San Ysidro border crossing, one of the busiest in the world.
Here I-5 is known as the San Diego Freeway, at Dana Point, I-5 turns inland and heads due north through Mission Viejo to the El Toro Y interchange in southeastern Irvine. I-5 becomes the Santa Ana Freeway as it runs southeast to northwest, passing through cities and suburbs in Orange. Southern Californians refer to it as the 5 Freeway or as the Santa Ana Freeway in the Los Angeles area, from this point, the San Diego Freeway continues northward as I-405. When the freeway reaches the East Los Angeles Interchange one mile east of downtown Los Angeles, the route continues through the San Fernando Valley and crosses the Newhall Pass through the Santa Susana Mountains into the Santa Clarita Valley. The interchange with State Route 14 is unusual in that traffic is separated into its own lanes for both the mainline of the freeway and the transition ramps to and from SR14. At that point, the Golden State Freeway rises sharply to the north through the Grapevine to eventually reach the second-highest point of its entire length, path 26 power lines generally follow the freeway along this stretch.
I-580 splits from I-5 at a point south of Tracy, providing a connection to the San Francisco Bay Area. After passing Tracy, I-5 heads north through Stockton and Sacramento before turning west to Woodland, at Woodland, the Interstate heads northwest again towards Dunnigan, where it converges with I-505. From Dunnigan, I-5 skirts north along the edge of the Sacramento Valley to Red Bluff. I-5 enters the Shasta Cascade region, passing through Redding, the interstate travels to Weed and Yreka before reaching the Oregon border
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
Redwood National and State Parks
The Redwood National and State Parks are old-growth temperate rainforests located in the United States, along the coast of northern California. Comprising Redwood National Park and Californias Del Norte Coast, Jedediah Smith, and Prairie Creek Redwoods State Parks, the combined RNSP contain 139,000 acres. Located entirely within Del Norte and Humboldt Counties, the four parks, protect 45% of all remaining coast redwood old-growth forests and these trees are the tallest and one of the most massive tree species on Earth. In addition to the forests, the parks preserve other indigenous flora, grassland prairie, cultural resources, portions of rivers and other streams. In 1850, old-growth redwood forest covered more than 2,000,000 acres of the California coast, the northern portion of that area, originally inhabited by Native Americans, attracted many lumbermen and others turned gold miners when a minor gold rush brought them to the region. Failing in efforts to strike it rich in gold, these men turned toward harvesting the giant trees for booming development in San Francisco, after many decades of unrestricted clear-cut logging, serious efforts toward conservation began.
Redwood National Park was created in 1968, by which time nearly 90% of the redwood trees had been logged. The ecosystem of the RNSP preserves a number of threatened species such as the tidewater goby, Chinook salmon, northern spotted owl. Modern day native groups such as the Yurok, Karok and Wiyot all have ties to the region. Archaeological study shows they arrived in the area as far back as 3,000 years ago, an 1852 census determined that the Yurok were the most numerous, with 55 villages and an estimated population of 2,500. They used the abundant redwood, which with its grain was easily split into planks, as a building material for boats, houses. For buildings, the planks would be erected side by side in a trench, with the upper portions bound with leather strapping. Redwood boards were used to form a sloping roof. Previous to Jedediah Smith in 1828, no other explorer of European descent is known to have investigated the inland region away from the immediate coast. The discovery of gold along the Trinity River in 1850 led to a secondary rush in California.
This brought miners into the area and many stayed on at the coast after failing to strike it rich and this quickly led to conflicts wherein native peoples were placed under great strain, if not forcibly removed or massacred. By 1895, only one third of the Yurok in one group of villages remained, by 1919, the miners logged redwoods for building, when this minor gold rush ended, some of them turned again to logging, cutting down the giant redwood trees. Representative John E. Raker, of California, became the first politician to introduce legislation for the creation of a national park
Mojave National Preserve
Mojave National Preserve is a United States National Preserve located in the Mojave Desert of San Bernardino County, California, USA, between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The preserve was established October 31,1994 with the passage of the California Desert Protection Act by the US Congress, previously, it was the East Mojave National Scenic Area, under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management. At 1,600,000 acres, it is the third largest unit of the National Park System in the contiguous United States. Natural features include the Kelso Dunes, the Marl Mountains and the Cima Dome, as well as volcanic formations such as Hole-in-the-Wall, the preserve encloses Providence Mountains State Recreation Area and Mitchell Caverns Natural Preserve, which are both managed by the California Department of Parks and Recreation. Impressive Joshua Tree forests cover parts of the preserve, the Cima Dome and Shadow Valley forests are the largest in the world. The defunct railroad depot and ghost town of Kelso are found there, the depot is now the visitor center.
The preserve is commonly traversed by 4 wheel drive vehicles traveling on the historic Mojave Road, summer temperatures average 90 °F, with highs exceeding 105 °F. Elevations in the Preserve range from 7,929 feet at Clark Mountain to 880 feet near Baker. Annual precipitation varies from 3.37 inches near Baker, to almost 9 inches in the mountains, at least 25% of precipitation comes from summer thunderstorms. Snow is often found in the mountains during the winter, the California Desert Protection Act of 1994 designated a wilderness area within Mojave National Preserve of approximately 695,200 acres. The National Park Service manages the wilderness in accordance with the Wilderness Act, the CDPA, the following climate data is for a higher elevation area in the preserve. See Climate of the Mojave Desert, Mojave Memorial Cross Official website Photo tour of Mojave National Preserve - from USGS
Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve
Between 60 and 85 percent of the local population make their living directly from the fishing industry, most of which is done in reserve waters. Seafood landings from the Apalachicola Reserve are worth $14–16 million dockside annually, at the consumer level, this represents a $900–$800 million industry. Understandably, research projects that target commercial fisheries management and the chain are a high priority in the Apalachicola Reserve. Other educational offerings include ongoing guest lectures for the community and coastal management workshops for environmental professionals, the reserves K-12 educational activities are divided between classroom and on-site programs
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve
Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve encompasses open waters, barrier beaches and uplands on the south shore of Cape Cod in the towns of Falmouth and Mashpee. The park is managed by the Department of Conservation and Recreation, the WBNERR is representative of the northern section of the Virginian biogeographic region. WBNERR is located within the border between the Virginian and Acadian biogeographic regions. The reserve comprises several individual sites, Visitor Center/Headquarters Property 28-acre The Visitors Center is open year round, has a short nature trail and runs numerous seasonal education programs. It is a ground for protected species such as piping plover. Sage Lot and Flat Ponds are salt ponds to the east of Waquoit Bay, Washburn Island Quashnet River Property 361 acres The river is the largest source of fresh water to the Bay and is mostly surrounded by upland forests. There is a loop trail along the river. Trout Unlimited that has converted a cranberry bog channel back to a river, north Quashnet Woodlands 25 acres Pine woodlands and an abandoned cranberry bog.
As such it is kept in trust for all citizens and is not privately owned, childs River, Abandoned cranberry bogs and pine woodlands. Artifacts dating back 450–1000 years, including flakes and shell middens, have been found on the Washburn Island. As late as the early 19th century, some Wampanoags still lived around Bourne and Caleb ponds, the administrative and education buildings are located in the historic buildings of the Sargent Estate. Purchased in 1987 by the Commonwealth, great care was given in restoring the buildings, the Quashnet River Property was purchased in 1987 and incorporated into the Reserve. The Reserve and the Division of Fisheries and Wildlife manage the river property, in addition to interpretive programs, the reserve offers opportunities for hiking, camping and restricted hunting
National Estuarine Research Reserve
The National Estuarine Research Reserve System is a network of 28 protected areas established by partnerships between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and coastal states. The reserves represent different biogeographic regions of the United States, for thousands of years and estuarine environments have provided people with food, safe harbors, transportation access, flood control, and a place to play and relax. The pressures on the nation’s coast are enormous and the impacts on economies, severe storms, climate change, habitat alteration and rapid population growth threaten the ecological functions that have supported coastal communities throughout history. The System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 as estuarine sanctuaries and was renamed to estuarine research reserves in the 1988 reauthorization of the CZMA, NOAA provides funding, national guidance and technical assistance. Each reserve is managed on daily basis by a state agency or university.
Reserve staff work with communities and regional groups to address natural resource management issues, such as non-point source pollution, habitat restoration. Through integrated research and education, the reserves help communities develop strategies to deal successfully with these coastal resource issues, reserves provide long-term water quality monitoring as well as opportunities for both scientists and graduate students to conduct research in a living laboratory. Additionally, the serve as sentinel sites to better understand the effects of climate change. The topics of these projects are varied and depend on local needs and issues, topics may include issues such as investigating the impacts of non-point source pollution, understanding the role of social science in coastal resource management, and controlling invasive species. The System Wide Monitoring Program was established in 1995 as a means of observing short-term variability, biological monitoring includes measures of biodiversity and population characteristics.
Watershed and land use classifications provide information on types of use by humans. SWMP data can be viewed and downloaded from the CDMO, the NERRS Science Collaborative is designed to put Reserve-based science to work for local communities. The results of projects is shared throughout the System. Each research reserve is a member of the local and regional education community. The Reserve System Education Network is working to advance estuary, climate & ocean literacy, estuaries are interconnected with the world ocean and with major systems and cycles on Earth. Estuaries are dynamic ecosystems with tremendous variability within and between them in physical and biological components, estuaries support an abundance of life, and a diversity of habitat types. Ongoing research and monitoring is needed to increase our understanding of estuaries and to improve our ability to protect, even those living far from the coast, rely on goods and services supplied by estuaries Principle 6. Human activities can impact estuaries by degrading water quality or altering habitats, therefore, we are responsible for making decisions to protect, Coastal Training Programs offered by reserves focus on issues such as stormwater management, community development, restoration science, land use planning and others
Lassen Volcanic National Park
Lassen Volcanic National Park is a United States National Park in northeastern California. The dominant feature of the park is Lassen Peak, the largest plug dome volcano in the world, Lassen Volcanic National Park started as two separate national monuments designated by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1907, Cinder Cone National Monument and Lassen Peak National Monument. The source of heat for volcanism in the Lassen area is subduction off the Northern California coast of the Gorda Plate diving below the North American Plate, the area surrounding Lassen Peak is still active with boiling mud pots, stinking fumaroles, and churning hot springs. Lassen Volcanic National Park is one of the few areas in the world where all four types of volcano can be found, the park is accessible via State Routes SR89 and SR44. SR89 passes north-south through the park, beginning at SR36 to the south, SR89 passes immediately adjacent the base of Lassen Peak. A large lodge with concession facilities was located near the south-west entrance, a new, full-service visitor center was constructed in the same location, and opened to the public in 2008.
Near the old location was located Lassen Ski Area. Native Americans have inhabited the area long before white settlers first saw Lassen. The natives knew that the peak was full of fire and water, White immigrants in the mid-19th century used Lassen Peak as a landmark on their trek to the fertile Sacramento Valley. One of the guides to these immigrants was a Danish blacksmith named Peter Lassen, Lassen Peak was named after him. Nobles Emigrant Trail was cut through the area and passed Cinder Cone. Inconsistent newspaper accounts reported by witnesses from 1850 to 1851 described seeing fire thrown to a terrible height, as late as 1859, a witness reported seeing fire in the sky from a distance, attributing it to an eruption. Early geologists and volcanologists who studied the Cinder Cone concluded the last eruption occurred between 1675 and 1700, after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, the United States Geological Survey began reassessing the potential risk of other active volcanic areas in the Cascade Range.
Further study of Cinder Cone estimated the last eruption occurred between 1630 and 1670, recent tree-ring analysis has placed the date at 1666. The Lassen area was first protected by being designated as the Lassen Peak Forest Preserve, Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone were declared as U. S. National Monuments in May 1907 by President Theodore Roosevelt. Starting in May 1914 and lasting until 1921, a series of minor to major eruptions occurred on Lassen and these events created a new crater, and released lava and a great deal of ash. Fortunately, because of warnings, no one was killed, because of the eruptive activity, which continued through 1917, and the areas stark volcanic beauty, Lassen Peak, Cinder Cone and the area surrounding were declared a National Park on August 9,1916. The 29-mile Main Park Road was constructed between 1925 and 1931, just 10 years after Lassen Peak erupted, near Lassen Peak the road reaches 8,512 feet, making it the highest road in the Cascade Mountains