Liski, Voronezh Oblast
Liski is a town and the administrative center of Liskinsky District in Voronezh Oblast, Russia. Population: 55,864 . Liski was founded as Novaya Pokrovka in 1571 and renamed Svoboda in 1943, after a period again as Liski, it was renamed Georgiu-Dezh in 1965 for the Romanian communist leader, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, before returning to Liski again in 1990. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Liski serves as the administrative center of Liskinsky District; as an administrative division, it is, together with the khutor of Kalach in Liskinsky District, is incorporated within Liskinsky District as Liski Urban Settlement. As a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban settlement status and is a part of Liskinsky Municipal District. Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №87-ОЗ от 27 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №41-ОЗ от 13 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Воронежской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения"».
Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Молодой коммунар", №123, 3 ноября 2006 г.. Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №85-ОЗ от 2 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ, наделении соответствующим статусом, определении административных центров муниципальных образований Лискинского и Подгоренского районов, образовании в их составе новых муниципальных образований», в ред. Закона №209-ОЗ от 30 декабря 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Воронежской области "Об установлении границ, наделении соответствующим статусом, определении административных центров муниципальных образований Лискинского и Подгоренского районов, образовании в их составе новых муниципальных образований"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Коммуна", №189, 4 декабря 2004 г
Ostrogozhsk is a town and the administrative center of Ostrogozhsky District in Voronezh Oblast, located on the Tikhaya Sosna River, 142 kilometers south of Voronezh, the administrative center of the oblast. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 33,842. Ostogozhsk is a historical center of Eastern Sloboda Ukraine, it was established in 1652 by Belgorod Voivode Fedor Arsenyev and Cossack Ivan Zevkovsky as Ostogozhsk bringing along some 2,000 resettlers from Chernigov and Nezhin Regiments around an ostrog of the Belgorod Defensive Line of Russia. During the time of Stepan Razin's revolt against Aleksey Mikhailovich of Russia the city was under control of rebellious Cossacks. In 1696 Peter the Great stopped at Ostrogozhsk to meet with the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host Ivan Mazepa and Cossacks of Ostrogozhsk regiment. At the Ostrogozhsk city square is located a memorial commemorating the event. In 1765 the city was incorporated into newly established the Sloboda Ukraine Governorate. In 1802 the city of Ostrogozhsk ended up in the new Voronezh Governorate and same year it was granted the town rights.
Since the city became a center of the split East Sloboda Ukraine. According to the 1897 Russian census there were 1.1 million of Little Russians in Voronezh Governorate, only insignificantly less than the number of Great Russians. From 19th Century Ostrogozhsk became one of important cultural centers of South Russia, in this town were active such important figures for the history of Russian culture like writer und historian Nikolai Kostomarov, philosopher Nikolai Stankevich, painter Ivan Kramskoi, poet Kondraty Ryleyev and many others. In 1917-1918, the town was controlled by the pro-German Ukrainian Hetmanate. From 1919 the town was controlled by Anton Denikin's South Russian White Armee. In 1920, Ostrogozhsk became a part of Soviet Russia, while borders between the Soviet Russia and the Soviet Ukraine were not finalized until 1923-25. In 1928 Ostrogozhsk became a district's administrative center within; the town was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II from July 5, 1942 to January 20, 1943, when it was liberated in the course of the Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive.
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Ostrogozhsk serves as the administrative center of Ostrogozhsky District. As an administrative division, it is, together with six rural localities in Ostrogozhsky District, incorporated within Ostrogozhsky District as Ostrogozhsk Urban Settlement; as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban settlement status and is a part of Ostrogozhsky Municipal District. Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №87-ОЗ от 27 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №41-ОЗ от 13 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Воронежской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Молодой коммунар", №123, 3 ноября 2006 г.. Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №88-ОЗ от 2 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ, наделении соответствующим статусом, определении административных центров муниципальных образований Грибановского, Каширского, Острогожского, Семилукского, Таловского, Хохольского районов и города Нововоронеж», в ред.
Закона №77-ОЗ от 4 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Воронежской области в связи с изменением границ некоторых муниципальных образований Воронежской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Коммуна", №189, 4 декабря 2004 г.. Unofficial website of Ostrogozhsk History of Ostrogozhsk History of Ostrogozhsk in the 19th–20th centuries
Biryuch is a town and the administrative center of Krasnogvardeysky District in Belgorod Oblast, located on the bank of the Tikhaya Sosna River. Its population was 7,846 , it was known as Biryuchenskoye Komissarstvo, Krasnogvardeyskoye. It was founded on March 7, 1705 by Ivan Medkov, a Cossack sotnik, as Biryuchenskoye Komissarstvo, was granted town status in 1779. On January 27, 1919, it was renamed Budyonny, after Semyon Budyonny. In 1958, it was demoted in status to that of a rural locality, it was granted urban-type settlement status in 1975, in 2005 it was again granted town status. On January 30, 2007, the town's original name of Biryuch was restored. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Biryuch serves as the administrative center of Krasnogvardeysky District, to which it is directly subordinated; as a municipal division, the town of Biryuch, together with two rural localities in Krasnogvardeysky District, is incorporated within Krasnogvardeysky Municipal District as Biryuch Urban Settlement.
There is a railway station in Biryuch. Белгородская областная Дума. Постановление №П/21-21-4 от 8 ноября 2007 г. «О перечнях населённых пунктов Белгородской области», в ред. Постановления №П/47-25-5 от 28 мая 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в Постановление Белгородской областной Думы от 8 ноября 2007 г. №П/21-21-4 "О перечнях населённых пунктов Белгородской области"». Опубликован: "Сборник нормативных правовых актов Белгородской области", №116, ноябрь 2007 г.. Белгородская областная Дума. Закон №159 от 20 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред. Закона №244 от 4 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 12 Закона Белгородской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Белгородские известия", №218–220, 24 декабря 2004 г..
History of Biryuch
The Don is one of the major Eurasian rivers of Russia and the fifth-longest river in Europe. The Don basin is between the Dnieper basin to the west, the Volga basin to the east, the Oka basin to the north; the Don rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 kilometres southeast of Tula, flows for a distance of about 1,870 kilometres to the Sea of Azov. From its source, the river first flows southeast to Voronezh southwest to its mouth; the main city on the river is Rostov on Don. Its main tributary is the Seversky Donets. According to the Kurgan hypothesis, the Volga-Don river region was the homeland of the Proto-Indo-Europeans c. 4000BC. The Don river functioned as a fertile cradle of civilization where the Neolithic farmer culture of the Near East fused with the hunter-gatherer culture of Siberian groups, resulting in the nomadic pastoralism of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. In antiquity, the river was viewed as the border between Europe and Asia by some ancient Greek geographers. In the Book of Jubilees, it is mentioned as being part of the border, beginning with its easternmost point up to its mouth, between the allotments of sons of Noah, that of Japheth to the north and that of Shem to the south.
During the times of the old Scythians it was known in Greek as the Tanaïs and has been a major trading route since. Tanais appears in ancient Greek sources as both the name of the river and of a city on it, situated in the Maeotian marshes. Pliny gives the Scythian name of the Tanais as Silys. According to Plutarch, the Don River was home to the legendary Amazons of Greek mythology; the area around the estuary is speculated to be the source of the Black Death. While the lower Don was well known to ancient geographers, its middle and upper reaches were not mapped with any accuracy before the gradual conquest of the area by Muscovy in the 16th century; the Don Cossacks, who settled the fertile valley of the river in the 16th and 17th centuries, were named after the river. The fort of Donkov was founded by the princes of Ryazan in the late 14th century; the fort stood on the left bank of the Don, about 34 kilometers from the modern town of Dankov, until 1568, when it was destroyed by the Crimean Tatars, but soon restored at a better fortified location.
It is shown as Donko in Mercator's Atlas, Donkov was again relocated in 1618, appearing as Donkagorod in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645. Both Blaeu and Mercator follow the 16th-century cartographic tradition of letting the Don originate in a great lake, labelled Resanskoy ozera by Blaeu. Mercator still follows Giacomo Gastaldo in showing a waterway connecting this lake to Ryazan and the Oka River. Mercator shows Mtsensk as a great city on this waterway, suggesting a system of canals connecting the Don with the Zusha and Upa centered on a settlement Odoium, reported as Odoium lacum in the map made by Baron Augustin von Mayerberg, leader of an embassy to Muscovy in 1661. In modern literature, the Don region was featured in the work And Quiet Flows the Don by Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov, a Nobel-prize winning writer from the stanitsa of Veshenskaya. At its easternmost point, the Don comes near the Volga, the Volga-Don Canal, connecting the two rivers, is a major waterway; the water level of the Don in this area is raised by the Tsimlyansk Dam, forming the Tsimlyansk Reservoir.
For the next 130 kilometres below the Tsimlyansk Dam, the sufficient water depth in the Don River is maintained by the sequence of three dam-and-ship-lock complexes: the Nikolayevsky Ship Lock, Konstantinovsk Ship Lock, the best known of the three, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock. The Kochetovsky Lock, built in 1914–1919 and doubled in 2004–2008, is 7.5 kilometres below the fall of the Seversky Donets into the Don, 131 kilometres upstream of Rostov-on-Don, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock is located. This facility, with its dam, maintains sufficient water level both in its section of the Don and in the lowermost stretch of the Seversky Donets; this is presently the last lock on the Don. In order to improve shipping conditions in the lower reaches of the Don, the waterway authorities support the proposals for the construction of one or two more low dams with locks, in Bagayevsky District and also in Aksaysky District. Main tributaries from source to mouth: Krasivaya Mecha Bystraya Sosna Veduga Voronezh Tikhaya Sosna Bityug Black Kalitva Khopyor – 1,010 kilometres Medveditsa Ilovlya Chir Seversky Donets – 1,053 kilometres Aidar – 264 kilometres Sal Manych Aksay Temernik Don goat And Quiet Flows The Don Rostov railway drawbridge Don at GEOnet Names Server
Central Russian Upland
The Central Russian Upland is an upland area of the East European Plain and is an undulating plateau with an average elevation of 230–250 m. It highest peak is measured at 293 m; the southeastern portion of the upland known as the Kalach Upland. The Central Upland is built of Precambrian deposits of the crystalline Voronezh Massif, it spans 180,000 miles² in central and southern European Russia northeast of Ukraine, extending from the Oka river to the Donets river. The upland stretches across number of regions in Ukraine and the European portion of Russian Federation, its north and northwest borders are considered to be an imaginary line Kaluga-Ryazan. To the southeast towards the Donets River, the upland changes into the Donets Lowland. To the east its natural border is defined by the Oka-Don Lowland and to the west there is the Dnieper Lowland. Most of the upland lies within the borders of Russia, hence its name. Sumy Oblast Kharkiv Oblast Luhansk Oblast Kursk Oblast Belgorod Oblast Bryansk Oblast Voronezh Oblast Rostov Oblast Oryol Oblast The Voronezh Massif is part of the East European Craton and southwesterly descends towards the Dnieper-Donets Through which along with Prypiat Through forms the Prypiat-Dniper-Donets aulacogen.
Most of the Voronezh Massif is covered with thin layers of sedimentary deposits of the Devonian, Jurassic and Paleogene periods. In the southeast along the Don River between the cities of Boguchar and Pavlovsk the crystalline layers come to the surface. On all sides of the upland the Precambrian deposits descend far below the sedimentary layers. A small part of the upland in the northwest was covered with a glacier during the Dnieper glaciation. Today all of the upland is covered with loess and loessial loams. Central Upland at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly