3D rendering is the 3D computer graphics process of automatically converting 3D wire frame models into 2D images on a computer. 3D renders may include non-photorealistic rendering. Rendering is the final process of creating the actual 2D animation from the prepared scene; this can be compared to taking a photo or filming the scene after the setup is finished in real life. Several different, specialized, rendering methods have been developed; these range from the distinctly non-realistic wireframe rendering through polygon-based rendering, to more advanced techniques such as: scanline rendering, ray tracing, or radiosity. Rendering may take from fractions of a second to days for a single image/frame. In general, different methods are better suited for either photo-realistic rendering, or real-time rendering. Rendering for interactive media, such as games and simulations, is calculated and displayed in real time, at rates of 20 to 120 frames per second. In real-time rendering, the goal is to show as much information as possible as the eye can process in a fraction of a second.
The primary goal is to achieve an as high as possible degree of photorealism at an acceptable minimum rendering speed. In fact, exploitations can be applied in the way the eye'perceives' the world, as a result, the final image presented is not that of the real world, but one close enough for the human eye to tolerate. Rendering software may simulate such visual effects as depth of field or motion blur; these are attempts to simulate visual phenomena resulting from the optical characteristics of cameras and of the human eye. These effects can lend an element of realism to a scene if the effect is a simulated artifact of a camera; this is the basic method employed in games, interactive worlds and VRML. The rapid increase in computer processing power has allowed a progressively higher degree of realism for real-time rendering, including techniques such as HDR rendering. Real-time rendering is polygonal and aided by the computer's GPU. Animations for non-interactive media, such as feature films and video, are rendered much more slowly.
Non-real time rendering enables the leveraging of limited processing power in order to obtain higher image quality. Rendering times for individual frames may vary from a few seconds to several days for complex scenes. Rendered frames are stored on a hard disk can be transferred to other media such as motion picture film or optical disk; these frames are displayed sequentially at high frame rates 24, 25, or 30 frames per second, to achieve the illusion of movement. When the goal is photo-realism, techniques such as ray tracing, path tracing, photon mapping or radiosity are employed; this is the basic method employed in artistic works. Techniques have been developed for the purpose of simulating other occurring effects, such as the interaction of light with various forms of matter. Examples of such techniques include particle systems, volumetric sampling and subsurface scattering; the rendering process is computationally expensive, given the complex variety of physical processes being simulated.
Computer processing power has increased over the years, allowing for a progressively higher degree of realistic rendering. Film studios that produce computer-generated animations make use of a render farm to generate images in a timely manner. However, falling hardware costs mean that it is possible to create small amounts of 3D animation on a home computer system; the output of the renderer is used as only one small part of a completed motion-picture scene. Many layers of material may be rendered separately and integrated into the final shot using compositing software. Models of reflection/scattering and shading are used to describe the appearance of a surface. Although these issues may seem like problems all on their own, they are studied exclusively within the context of rendering. Modern 3D computer graphics rely on a simplified reflection model called Phong reflection model. In refraction of light, an important concept is the refractive index. In most 3D programming implementations, the term for this value is "index of refraction".
Shading can be broken down into two different techniques, which are studied independently: Surface shading - How light spreads across a surface Reflection/Scattering - How light interacts with a surface at a given point Popular surface shading algorithms in 3D computer graphics include: Flat shading: A technique that shades each polygon of an object based on the polygon's "normal" and the position and intensity of a light source. Gouraud shading: Invented by H. Gouraud in 1971, a fast and resource-conscious vertex shading technique used to simulate smoothly shaded surfaces. Phong shading: Invented by Bui Tuong Phong, used to simulate specular highlights and smooth shaded surfaces. Ref
Digitization, less digitalization, is the process of converting information into a digital format, in which the information is organized into bits. The result is the representation of an object, sound, document or signal by generating a series of numbers that describe a discrete set of its points or samples; the result is called digital representation or, more a digital image, for the object, digital form, for the signal. In modern practice, the digitized data is in the form of binary numbers, which facilitate computer processing and other operations, but speaking, digitizing means the conversion of analog source material into a numerical format. Digitization is of crucial importance to data processing and transmission, because it "allows information of all kinds in all formats to be carried with the same efficiency and intermingled". Unlike analog data, which suffers some loss of quality each time it is copied or transmitted, digital data can, in theory, be propagated indefinitely with no degradation.
This is. The term digitization is used when diverse forms of information, such as an object, sound, image or voice, are converted into a single binary code; the core of the process is the compromise between the capturing device and the player device so that the rendered result represents the original source with the most possible fidelity, the advantage of digitization is the speed and accuracy in which this form of information can be transmitted with no degradation compared with analog information. Digital information exists as one of two digits, either 0 or 1; these are known as the sequences of 0s and 1s that constitute information are called bytes. Analog signals are continuously variable, both in the number of possible values of the signal at a given time, as well as in the number of points in the signal in a given period of time. However, digital signals are discrete in both of those respects – a finite sequence of integers – therefore a digitization can, in practical terms, only be an approximation of the signal it represents.
Digitization occurs in two parts: Discretization The reading of an analog signal A, and, at regular time intervals, sampling the value of the signal at the point. Each such reading may be considered to have infinite precision at this stage. In general, these can occur at the same time. A series of digital integers can be transformed into an analog output that approximates the original analog signal; such a transformation is called a DA conversion. The sampling rate and the number of bits used to represent the integers combine to determine how close such an approximation to the analog signal a digitization will be; the term is used to describe, for example, the scanning of analog sources into computers for editing, 3D scanning that creates 3D modeling of an object's surface, audio and texture map transformations. In this last case, as in normal photos, the sampling rate refers to the resolution of the image measured in pixels per inch. Digitizing is the primary way of storing images in a form suitable for transmission and computer processing, whether scanned from two-dimensional analog originals or captured using an image sensor-equipped device such as a digital camera, tomographical instrument such as a CAT scanner, or acquiring precise dimensions from a real-world object, such as a car, using a 3D scanning device.
Digitizing is central to making digital representations of geographical features, using raster or vector images, in a geographic information system, i.e. the creation of electronic maps, either from various geographical and satellite imaging or by digitizing traditional paper maps or graphs. "Digitization" is used to describe the process of populating databases with files or data. While this usage is technically inaccurate, it originates with the proper use of the term to describe that part of the process involving digitization of analog sources, such as printed pictures and brochures, before uploading to target databases. Digitizing may used in the field of apparel, where an image may be recreated with the help of embroidery digitizing software tools and saved as embroidery machine code; this machine code is applied to the fabric. The most supported format is DST file. Apparel companies digitize clothing patterns Analog signals are continuous electrical signals. Analog signal can be converted to digital signal by ADC.
Nearly all recorded music has been digitized. About 12 percent of the 500,000+ movies listed on the Internet Movie Database are digitized on DVD; the handling of an analog signal becomes easy when it is digitized because the signal is digitized before modulation and transmission. The conversion process of analog to digital consists of two processes: quantizing. Digitization of personal multimedia, such as home movies and photographs is a popular method of preserving and sharing older repositories. Slides and photographs may be scanned using an image scanner. Slides can be digitized with different film scanner by Nikon such as the Nikon Coolscan 5000ED. At most 1 in 20 texts have been digitized as of 2006. Older print books are be
In video games, first person is any graphical perspective rendered from the viewpoint of the player's character, or a viewpoint from the cockpit or front seat of a vehicle driven by the character. Many genres incorporate first-person perspectives, among them adventure games, driving and flight simulators. Most notable is the first-person shooter, in which the graphical perspective is an integral component of the gameplay. Games with a first-person perspective are avatar-based, wherein the game displays what the player's avatar would see with the avatar's own eyes. Thus, players cannot see the avatar's body, though they may be able to see the avatar's weapons or hands; this viewpoint is frequently used to represent the perspective of a driver within a vehicle, as in flight and racing simulators. Games with a first-person perspective do not require sophisticated animations for the player's avatar, nor do they need to implement a manual or automated camera-control scheme as in third-person perspective.
A first-person perspective allows for easier aiming, since there is no representation of the avatar to block the player's view. However, the absence of an avatar can make it difficult to master the timing and distances required to jump between platforms, may cause motion sickness in some players. Players have come to expect first-person games to scale objects to appropriate sizes. However, key objects such as dropped items or levers may be exaggerated in order to improve their visibility. While many games featured a side-scrolling or top-down perspective during the 1970s and 80's, several early games attempted to render the game world from the perspective of the player. While light gun shooters have a first-person perspective, they are distinct from first-person shooters, which use conventional input devices for movement, it is not clear when the earliest such first-person shooter video game was created. There are two claimants and Maze War; the uncertainty about, first stems from the lack of any accurate dates for the development of Maze War—even its developer cannot remember exactly.
In contrast, the development of Spasim is the dates more certain. The initial development of Maze War occurred in the summer of 1973. A single player made their way through a simple maze of corridors rendered using fixed perspective. Multiplayer capabilities, with players attempting to shoot each other, were added in 1973 and in the summer of 1974. Spasim was developed in the spring of 1974. Players moved with gameplay resembling the 2D game Empire ire. Graphically, Spasim lacked hidden line removal, but did feature online multiplayer over the worldwide university-based PLATO network. Spasim had a documented debut at the University of Illinois in 1974; the game was a rudimentary space flight simulator. Futurewar by high-school student Erik K. Witz and Nick Boland based on PLATO, is sometimes claimed to be the first true FPS; the game included a vector image of other armaments that pointed at the monsters. Set in A. D. 2020, Futurewar anticipated Doom, although as to Castle Wolfenstein's transition to a futuristic theme, the common PLATO genesis is coincidental.
A further notable PLATO FPS was the tank game Panther, introduced in 1975 acknowledged as a precursor to Battlezone. 1979 saw the release of two first-person space combat games: the Exidy arcade game Star Fire and Doug Neubauer's seminal Star Raiders for the Atari 8-bit family. Star Raiders was followed by a series of similar games, including Starmaster for the Atari 2600, Space Spartans for Intellivision, Shadow Hawk One for the Apple II, went on to influence major first-person games of the 1990s such as Wing Commander and X-Wing. Atari, Inc.'s 1983 Star Wars arcade game leaned on action rather than tactics, but offered 3D color vector renderings of TIE Fighters and the surface of the Death Star. Other shooters with a first-person view from the early 1980s include Taito's Space Seeker in 1981, Horizon V for the Apple II the same year, Imagic's Star Voyager for the Atari 2600 in 1982, Sega's stereoscopic arcade game SubRoc-3D in 1982, Novagen's Encounter in 1983, EA's Skyfox for the Apple II in 1984.
Flight simulators were a first-person staple in the 1980s, including the series from subLOGIC, which became Microsoft Flight Simulator. MicroProse found a niche with first-person aerial combat games: Hellcat Ace, Spitfire Ace, F-15 Strike Eagle. Amidst a flurry of faux-3D first -person maze games where the player was locked into one of four orientations, like Spectre, 3D Monster Maze, Phantom Slayer, Dungeons of Daggorath, came the 1982 release of Paul Edelstein's Wayout from Sirius Software. Not a shooter, it has smooth, arbitrary movement that came from what was labeled a raycasting engine, giving it a visual fluidity seen in future games MIDI Maze and Wolfenstein 3D, it was followed in 1983 by the split-screen Capture the Flag, allowing two players at once, foreshadowing a common gameplay mode for 3D games of the 1990s. The arrival of the Atari ST and Amiga in 1985, the Apple IIGS a year increased the computing power and graphical capabilities available in consumer-level machines, leading to a new wave of innovation.
1987 saw the release of an important transitional game for the genre. Unlike its contemporaries, MIDI Maze used raycasting to speedily draw square corridors, it offered a networked multi
First-person shooter engine
A first-person shooter engine is a video game engine specialized for simulating 3D environments for use in a first-person shooter video game. First-person refers to the view. Shooter refers to games which revolve around wielding firearms and killing other entities in the game world, either non-player characters or other players; the development of the FPS graphic engines is characterized by a steady increase in technologies, with some breakthroughs. Attempts at defining distinct generations lead to arbitrary choices of what constitutes a modified version of an'old engine' and what is a new engine; the classification is complicated as game engines blend new technologies. Features considered advanced in a new game one year. Games with a combination of both older and newer features are the norm. For example, Jurassic Park: Trespasser introduced physics to the FPS genre, which did not become common until around 2002. Red Faction featured something still not common in engines years later. Game rendering for this early generation of FPS were from the first-person perspective and with the need to shoot things, however they were made up using Vector graphics.
There are two possible claimants for the first Maze War and Spasim. Maze War was developed in 1973 and involved a single player making his way through a maze of corridors rendered using a fixed perspective. Multiplayer capabilities, where players attempted to shoot each other, were added and were networked in 1974. Spasim was developed in 1974 and involved players moving through a wire-frame 3D universe. Spasim could be played by up to 32 players on the PLATO network. Developed in-house by Incentive Software, the Freescape engine is considered to be one of the first proprietary 3D engines to be used for computer games, although the engine was not used commercially outside of Incentive's own titles; the first game to use this engine was the puzzle game Driller in 1987. Games of this generation are regarded as Doom clones, they were not capable of full 3D rendering, but used ray casting 2.5D techniques to draw the environment and sprites to draw enemies instead of 3D models. However these games began to use textures to render the environment instead of simple wire-frame models or solid colors.
Hovertank 3D, from id Software, was the first to use this technique in 1990, but was still not using textures, a capability, added shortly after on Catacomb 3D with the Wolfenstein 3D engine, used for several other games. Catacomb 3D was the first game to show the player's hand on-screen, furthering the implication of the player into the character's role. Wolfenstein 3D engine was still primitive, it did not apply textures to the floor and ceiling, the ray casting restricted walls to a fixed height, levels were all on the same plane. Though it was still not using true 3D, id Tech 1, first used in Doom and again from id Software, removed these limitations, it first introduced the concept of binary space partitioning. Another breakthrough was the introduction of multiplayer abilities in the engine. However, because it was still using 2.5D, it was impossible to look up and down properly in Doom, all Doom levels were two-dimensional. Due to the lack of a z-axis, the engine did not allow for room-over-room support.
Doom's success spawned several games using the same engine or similar techniques, giving them the name Doom clones. The Build engine, used in Duke Nukem 3D removed some of the limitations of id Tech 1, such as the Build engine being able to have support for room-over-room by stacking sectors on top of sectors, however the techniques used remained the same. In the mid-1990s, game engines recreated true 3D worlds with arbitrary level geometry. Instead of sprites the engines used textured polygonal objects. FromSoftware released King's Field, a full polygon free roaming first-person real-time action title for the Sony PlayStation in December 1994. Sega's 32X release Metal Head was a first-person shooter mecha simulation game that used texture-mapped, 3D polygonal graphics. A year prior, Exact released the Sharp X68000 computer game Geograph Seal, a 3D polygonal first-person shooter that employed platform game mechanics and had most of the action take place in free-roaming outdoor environments rather than the corridor labyrinths of Wolfenstein 3D.
The following year, Exact released its successor for the PlayStation console, Jumping Flash!, which used the same game engine but adapted it to place more emphasis on the platforming rather than the shooting. The Jumping Flash! Series continued to use the same engine. Dark Forces, released in 1995 by LucasArts, has been regarded as one of the first "true 3-D" first-person shooter games, its engine, the Jedi Engine, was one of the first engines to support an environment in three dimensions: areas can exist next to each other in all three planes, including on top of each other. Though most of the objects in Dark Forces are sprites, the game does include support for textured 3D-rendered objects. Another game regarded as one of the first true 3D first-person shooter is Parallax Software's 1994 shooter Descent; the Quake engine used fewer animated sprites and used true 3D geometry and lighting, using elaborate techniques such as z-buffering to speed up the rendering. Quake was the first true-3D game to use a special map design system to preprocess and pre-render the 3D environment: the 3D environment in which the game took place was simplified d
The two-and-a-half-dimensional perspective is either 2D graphical projections and similar techniques used to cause images or scenes to simulate the appearance of being three-dimensional when in fact they are not, or gameplay in an otherwise three-dimensional video game, restricted to a two-dimensional plane with a limited access to the third dimension. By contrast, games using 3D computer graphics without such restrictions are said to use true 3D. Common in video games, these projections have been useful in geographic visualization to help understand visual-cognitive spatial representations or 3D visualization; the terms three-quarter perspective and three-quarter view trace their origins to the three-quarter profile in portraiture and facial recognition, which depicts a person's face, partway between a frontal view and a side view. In axonometric projection and oblique projection, two forms of parallel projection, the viewpoint is rotated to reveal other facets of the environment than what are visible in a top-down perspective or side view, thereby producing a three-dimensional effect.
An object is "considered to be in an inclined position resulting in foreshortening of all three axes", the image is a "representation on a single plane of a three-dimensional object placed at an angle to the plane of projection." Lines perpendicular to the plane become points, lines parallel to the plane have true length, lines inclined to the plane are foreshortened. They are popular camera perspectives among 2D video games, most those released for 16-bit or earlier and handheld consoles, as well as in strategy and role-playing video games; the advantage of these perspectives are that they combine the visibility and mobility of a top-down game with the character recognizability of a side-scrolling game. Thus the player can be presented an overview of the game world in the ability to see it from above, more or less, with additional details in artwork made possible by using an angle: Instead of showing a humanoid in top-down perspective, as a head and shoulders seen from above, the entire body can be drawn when using a slanted angle.
There are three main divisions of axonometric projection: isometric and trimetric. The most common of these drawing types in engineering drawing is isometric projection; this projection is tilted. The result is that all three axes are foreshortened. In video games, a form of dimetric projection with a 2:1 pixel ratio is more common due to the problems of anti-aliasing and square pixels found on most computer monitors. In oblique projection all three axes are shown unforeshortened. All lines parallel to the axes are drawn to scale, diagonals and curved lines are distorted. One tell-tale sign of oblique projection is that the face pointed toward the camera retains its right angles with respect to the image plane. Two examples of oblique projection are Ultima VII: Paperboy. Examples of axonometric projection include SimCity 2000, the role-playing games Diablo and Baldur's Gate. In three-dimensional scenes, the term billboarding is applied to a technique in which objects are sometimes represented by two-dimensional images applied to a single polygon, kept perpendicular to the line of sight.
The name refers to the fact. This technique was used in early 1990s video games when consoles did not have the hardware power to render 3D objects; this is known as a backdrop. This can be used to good effect for a significant performance boost when the geometry is sufficiently distant that it can be seamlessly replaced with a 2D sprite. In games, this technique is most applied to objects such as particles and low-detail vegetation. A pioneer in the use of this technique was the game Jurassic Park: Trespasser, it has since become mainstream, is found in many games such as Rome: Total War, where it is exploited to display thousands of individual soldiers on a battlefield. Other examples include early first-person shooters like Wolfenstein 3D, Doom and Duke Nukem 3D as well as racing games like Carmageddon and Super Mario Kart. Skyboxes and skydomes are methods used to create a background to make a game level look bigger than it is. If the level is enclosed in a cube, the sky, distant mountains, distant buildings, other unreachable objects are rendered onto the cube's faces using a technique called cube mapping, thus creating the illusion of distant three-dimensional surroundings.
A skydome uses a sphere or hemisphere instead of a cube. As a viewer moves through a 3D scene, it is common for the skybox or skydome to remain stationary with respect to the viewer; this technique gives the skybox the illusion of being far away since other objects in the scene appear to move, while the skybox does not. This imitates real life, where distant objects such as clouds and mountains appear to be stationary when the viewpoint is displaced by small distances. Everything in a skybox will always appear to be infinitely distant from the viewer; this consequence of skyboxes dictates that designers should be careful not to carelessly include images of discrete objects in the textures of a skybox since the viewer may be able to perceive the inconsistencies of those objects
Skybox (video games)
A skybox is a method of creating backgrounds to make a computer and video games level look bigger than it is. When a skybox is used, the level is enclosed in a cuboid; the sky, distant mountains, distant buildings, other unreachable objects are projected onto the cube's faces, thus creating the illusion of distant three-dimensional surroundings. A skydome uses either a sphere or a hemisphere instead of a cube. Processing of 3D graphics is computationally expensive in real-time games, poses multiple limits. Levels have to be processed at tremendous speeds, making it difficult to render vast skyscapes in real-time. Additionally, real-time graphics have depth buffers with limited bit-depth, which puts a limit on the amount of details that can be rendered at a distance. To compensate for these problems, games employ skyboxes. Traditionally, these are simple cubes with up to 6 different textures placed on the faces. By careful alignment, a viewer in the exact middle of the skybox will perceive the illusion of a real 3D world around it, made up of those 6 faces.
As a viewer moves through a 3D scene, it is common for the skybox to remain stationary with respect to the viewer. This technique gives the skybox the illusion of being far away, since other objects in the scene appear to move, while the skybox does not; this imitates real life, where distant objects such as clouds and mountains appear to be stationary when the viewpoint is displaced by small distances. Everything in a skybox will always appear to be infinitely distant from the viewer; this consequence of skyboxes dictates that designers should be careful not to carelessly include images of discrete objects in the textures of a skybox, since the viewer may be able to perceive the inconsistencies of those objects' sizes as the scene is traversed. The source of a skybox can be any form of texture, including photographs, hand-drawn images, or pre-rendered 3D geometry; these textures are created and aligned in 6 directions, with viewing angles of 90 degrees. As technology progressed, it became clear.
It could not be animated, all objects in it appeared to be infinitely distant if they were close-by. Starting in the late 1990s, some game designers built small amounts of 3D geometry to appear in the skybox to create a better illusion of depth, in addition to a traditional skybox for objects far away; this constructed skybox was placed in an unreachable location outside the bounds of the playable portion of the level, to prevent players from touching the skybox. In older versions of this technology, such as the ones presented in the game Unreal, this was limited to movements in the sky, such as the movements of clouds. Elements could be changed from level to level, such as the positions of stellar objects, or the color of the sky, giving the illusion of the gradual change from day to night; the skybox in this game would still appear to be infinitely far away, as the skybox, although containing 3D geometry, did not move the viewing point along with the player movement through the level. Newer engines, such as the Source engine, continue on this idea, allowing the skybox to move along with the player, although at a different speed.
Because depth is perceived on the compared movement of objects, making the skybox move slower than the level causes the skybox to appear far away, but not infinitely so. It is possible, but not required, to include 3D geometry which will surround the accessible playing environment, such as unreachable buildings or mountains, they are designed and modeled at a smaller scale 1/16th rendered by the engine to appear much larger. This results in fewer CPU requirements; the effect is referred to as a "3D skybox". In the game Half-Life 2, this effect was extensively used in showing The Citadel, a huge structure in the center of City 17. In the closing chapters of the game, the player travels through the city towards the Citadel, the skybox effect making it grow larger and larger progressively with the player movement appearing to be a part of the level; as the player reaches the base of the Citadel, it is broken into two pieces. A small lower section is a part of the main map; the two sections are seamlessly blended together to appear as a single structure.
Cube mapping Parallax scrolling Skybox Making a skybox in OpenGL 3.3
Video game graphics
A variety of computer graphic techniques have been used to display video game content throughout the history of video games. The predominance of individual techniques have evolved over time due to hardware advances and restrictions such as the processing power of central or graphics processing units; some of the earliest video games were text games or text-based games that used text characters instead of bitmapped or vector graphics. Examples include MUDs, where players could read or view depictions of rooms, other players, actions performed in the virtual world; some of the earliest text games were developed for computer systems which had no video display at all. Text games are easier to write and require less processing power than graphical games, thus were more common from 1970 to 1990. However, terminal emulators are still in use today, people continue to play MUDs and explore interactive fiction. Many beginning programmers still create these types of games to familiarize themselves with a programming language, contests are held today on who can finish programming a roguelike within a short time period, such as seven days.
Vector graphics refers to the use of geometrical primitives such as points and curves instead of resolution-dependent bitmap graphics to represent images in computer graphics. In video games this type of projection is somewhat rare, but has become more common in recent years in browser-based gaming with the advent of Flash and HTML5 Canvas, since these support vector graphics natively. An earlier example for the personal computer is Starglider. Vector game can refer to a video game that uses a vector graphics display capable of projecting images using an electron beam to draw images instead of with pixels, much like a laser show. Many early arcade games used such displays, as they were capable of displaying more detailed images than raster displays on the hardware available at that time. Many vector-based arcade games used full-color overlays to complement the otherwise monochrome vector images. Other uses of these overlays were detailed drawings of the static gaming environment, while the moving objects were drawn by the vector beam.
Games of this type were produced by Atari and Sega. Examples of vector games include Asteroids, Armor Attack, Lunar Lander, Space Fury, Space Wars, Star Trek, Tac/Scan and Zektor; the Vectrex home console used a vector display. After 1985, the use of vector graphics declined due to improvements to sprite technology. Full motion video games are video games that rely upon pre-recorded television- or movie-quality recordings and animations rather than sprites, vectors or 3D models to display action in the game. FMV-based games were popular during the early 1990s as CD-ROMs and Laserdiscs made their way into the living rooms, providing an alternative to the low-capacity ROM cartridges of most consoles at the time. Although FMV-based games did manage to look better than many contemporary sprite-based games, they occupied a niche market; as a result, the format became a well-known failure in video gaming, the popularity of FMV games declined after 1995 as more advanced consoles started to become available.
A number of different types of games utilized this format. Some resembled modern music/dance games, where the player timely presses buttons according to a screen instruction. Others included early rail shooters such as Surgical Strike and Sewer Shark. Full motion video was used in several interactive movie adventure games, such as The Beast Within: A Gabriel Knight Mystery and Phantasmagoria. Games utilizing parallel projection make use of two-dimensional bitmap graphics as opposed to 3D-rendered triangle-based geometry, allowing developers to create large, complex gameworlds efficiently and with few art assets by dividing the art into sprites or tiles and reusing them repeatedly. Top-down perspective sometimes referred to in a while as bird's-eye view, Godview, overhead view or helicopter view, when used in video games refers to a camera angle that shows the player and the area around them from above. While not exclusive to video games that utilise parallel projection, it was at one time common in 2D role playing video games and construction and management simulation games such as SimCity, Pokémon, Railroad Tycoon, as well as in action and action-adventure games such as the early The Legend of Zelda and Grand Theft Auto games.
A side-scrolling game or side-scroller is a video game in which the viewpoint is taken from the side, the onscreen characters can only move, to the left or right. Games of this type make use of scrolling computer display technology, sometimes parallax scrolling to suggest added depth. In many games the screen follows the player character such that the player character is always positioned near the center of the screen. In other games the position of the screen will change according to the player character's movement, such that the player character is off-center and more space is shown in front of the character than behind. Sometimes, the screen will scroll not onl