Geographic Names Information System
It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names, the database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited, variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier, the database never removes an entry, except in cases of obvious duplication. The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features, the general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals. The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail.
In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer, Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, Blue Highways, A Journey Into America, standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice, Vol.73, No. 170, page 51276 Report, Principles and Procedures, Domestic Geographic Names, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28, November 2000. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes
Ledbetter is a census-designated place in Livingston County, United States. The population was 1,683 at the 2010 census, down slightly from 1,700 in 2000 and it is part of the Paducah, KY-IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, laying directly across the Tennessee River from Paducah. Ledbetter is located at 37°2′55″N 88°29′54″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 5.3 square miles, of which 5.3 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,700 people,681 households, the population density was 322.4 people per square mile. There were 712 housing units at a density of 135. 0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 99. 06% White,0. 29% African American,0. 24% Native American or Alaska Native,0. 12% Asian, hispanics or Latinos of any race were 0. 53% of the population. 22. 6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6. 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.90.
The age distribution was 23. 8% under the age of 18,9. 1% from 18 to 24,30. 0% from 25 to 44,27. 5% from 45 to 64, the median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 100.9 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $34,830, males had a median income of $33,080 versus $18,224 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $16,196, about 7. 7% of families and 7. 7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8. 2% of those under age 18 and 7. 4% of those age 65 or over
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, land usage, housing, a big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas. Once a city expands far enough to another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. Damascus is arguably the oldest city in the world, in terms of population, the largest city proper is Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai. There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities, some theorists have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces. The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution, the Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who lived by agricultural production, the increased population density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities.
In his book and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form. According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a relatively large population. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example, Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, when the cost of transport is taken into account, the figure rises to 200,000 square kilometres. Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size of Great Britain, the urban theorist Jane Jacobs suggests that city formation preceded the birth of agriculture, but this view is not widely accepted. In his book City Economics, Brendan OFlaherty asserts Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages, OFlaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts usually associated with businesses.
Their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well, increasing returns to scale occurs when doubling all inputs more than doubles the output an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost. To offer an example of these concepts, OFlaherty makes use of one of the oldest reasons why cities were built, in this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. OFlaherty asks that we suppose the protected area is square, the advantage is expressed as, O = s 2, where O is the output and s stands for the length of a side. This equation shows that output is proportional to the square of the length of a side, the inputs depend on the length of the perimeter, I =4 s, where I stands for the quantity of inputs. So there are increasing returns to scale, O = I2 /16 and this equation shows that with twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the output
Grand Rivers, Kentucky
Grand Rivers is a home rule-class city in Livingston County, Kentucky, in the United States. The population was 382 at the 2010 census, up from 343 in 2000 and it is part of the Paducah micropolitan area. Grand Rivers is located at 37°0′17″N 88°13′54″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.9 square miles, of which 1.8 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. The town was located at the narrowest point between the Cumberland River and the Tennessee. Both were dammed and artificial lakes created by the Tennessee Valley Authority in the early 20th century, Grand Rivers may have originally been known as Narrows from its position between the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers. The local post office was established in 1879 as Otisville, changed its name in 1882 to Bernard, the settlement was formally incorporated by the state assembly in 1890 as Grand Rivers. This newly expanded community was part of local businessman Thomas W. Lawsons attempt to develop local iron deposits into a steel industry.
The name refers the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers which previously met near the site, the Tennessees confluence with the Ohio is located within 40 miles of the town as well. As of the census of 2000, there were 343 people,165 households, the population density was 186.1 people per square mile. There were 201 housing units at a density of 109.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97. 08% White,0. 29% Native American,0. 29% Pacific Islander,1. 17% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 17% of the population. 33. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 17. 6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.07 and the average family size was 2.63. In the city, the population was out with 16. 6% under the age of 18,5. 2% from 18 to 24,21. 3% from 25 to 44,35. 9% from 45 to 64. The median age was 50 years, for every 100 females there were 101.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.6 males, the median income for a household in the city was $33,250, and the median income for a family was $42,917.
Males had an income of $28,750 versus $15,521 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,642, about 8. 7% of families and 10. 1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14. 3% of those under age 18 and 9. 0% of those age 65 or over
Central Time Zone
The North American Central Time Zone is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, and part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Central Standard Time is six hours behind Coordinated Universal Time, during summer most of the zone uses daylight saving time, and changes to Central Daylight Time which is five hours behind UTC. The province of Manitoba is the province or territory in Canada that observes Central Time in all areas. Also, most of the province of Saskatchewan is on Central Standard Time year-round, major exceptions include Lloydminster, a city situated on the boundary between Alberta and Saskatchewan. The city charter stipulates that it shall observe Mountain Time and DST, putting the community on the time as all of Alberta, including the major cities of Calgary. As a result, during the summer, clocks in the province match those in Alberta. The Central Time Zone is the second most populous in the US after the Eastern Time Zone and Valley observe Eastern Time historically because they were textile mill towns and the original home office of their mills was in West Point, Georgia.
Some eastern counties observe Central Time because they are close to the border of the Middle Tennessee counties surrounding the Nashville metropolitan area. Louisiana Michigan, All of Michigan observes Eastern Time except the four Upper Peninsula counties that border Wisconsin, other westernmost counties from this area such as Ontonagon observe Eastern Time. South Dakota, Eastern half as divided by the Missouri river adjacent to the state capital, the metropolitan area of Pierre is Central, including Fort Pierre. Wisconsin Most of Mexico—roughly the eastern three-fourths—lies in the Central Time Zone, except for six northwestern states, the federal entities of Mexico that observe Central Time, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua all use Central Standard Time year-round. The Galápagos Islands in Ecuador uses Central Standard Time all year-round, Daylight saving time is in effect in much of the Central time zone between mid-March and early November. The modified time is called Central Daylight Time and is UTC−5, in Canada, Saskatchewan does not observe a time change.
One reason that Saskatchewan does not take part in a change is that, geographically. The province elected to move onto permanent daylight saving by being part of the Central Time Zone, Mexico decided not to go along with this change and observes their horario de verano from the first Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October. In December 2009, the Mexican Congress allowed ten border cities, eight of which are in states that observe Central Time, to adopt the U. S. daylight time schedule effective in 2010
Carrsville is a home rule-class city beside the Ohio River in Livingston County, Kentucky, in the United States. The population was 50 at the 2010 census, declining from 64 as of 2000 and it is part of the Paducah, KY-IL Micropolitan Statistical Area. It is situated just west of the junction of where Buck Creek empties into the Ohio River, carrsville is located at 37°23′53″N 88°22′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 0.2 square miles. Carrsville was named for Billy Karr, who laid out the town c. 1840, as of the census of 2000, there were 64 people,35 households, and 17 families residing in the city. The population density was 367.7 people per square mile, there were 51 housing units at an average density of 293.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96. 88% White,48. 6% of all households were made up of individuals and 20. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.83 and the family size was 2.53.
In the city, the population was out with 14. 1% under the age of 18,3. 1% from 18 to 24,28. 1% from 25 to 44,29. 7% from 45 to 64. The median age was 48 years, for every 100 females there were 146.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 129.2 males, the median income for a household in the city was $21,500, and the median income for a family was $26,250. Males had an income of $41,250 versus $13,750 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,289, there were 12. 5% of families and 9. 3% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 31. 3% of those over 64. List of cities and towns along the Ohio River
A U. S. state is a constituent political entity of the United States of America. There are 50 states, which are together in a union with each other. Each state holds administrative jurisdiction over a geographic territory. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders. States range in population from just under 600,000 to over 39 million, four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies widely by state, State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. All are grounded in principles, and each provides for a government.
States possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, Constitution has been amended, and the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the government playing a much larger role than it once did. There is a debate over states rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government. States and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a legislature consisting of the Senate. Each state is represented in the Senate by two senators, and is guaranteed at least one Representative in the House, members of the House are elected from single-member districts. Representatives are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census, the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50, alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959.
The Constitution is silent on the question of states have the power to secede from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U. S. Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, as a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they often vary greatly with regard to form and substance
Occasionally, municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, and services become the responsibility of a higher administration. In some countries, such as in Brazil, France or the United Kingdom, unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government immediately beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area often contains several towns and even entire cities, aside from very sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases, almost all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are often in locations, cover vast areas or have very small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in parts of Australia. Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory has no municipalities and is in some sense an unincorporated area, the territorial government is directly responsible for matters normally carried out by local government.
The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, a civil servant in the state capital manages such matters as are necessary. The second unincorporated area of state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory,1. 45% of the area and 4. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive services provided by a state agency. Firstly, the remote area that is unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands. Secondly, the unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to. In Canada, depending on the province, a settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs solely over the settlement. It is usually, but not always, part of a municipal government. This can range from hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries entirely, Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data.
In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction
Salem is a home rule-class city in Livingston County, Kentucky, in the United States. Salem is part of the Paducah micropolitan area, the population was 752 during the U. S. Census, down from 769 in 2000. It the largest city in Livingston County, although the community of Ledbetter has more than twice the population of Salem. The city is believed to have been settled c. 1800 by immigrants from Salem, North Carolina and it replaced Centerville as Livingston Co. s seat in 1809 but was replaced in turn by Smithland in 1842 after the removal of Crittenden Co. left it more centrally-located. Salem is located at 37°15′53″N 88°14′28″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.8 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 769 people,322 households, the population density was 987.6 people per square mile. There were 370 housing units at a density of 475.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99. 22% White,0. 26% African American,0. 13% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 65% of the population. 34. 2% of all households were made up of individuals and 23. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.72.
In the city, the population was out with 16. 9% under the age of 18,6. 6% from 18 to 24,19. 9% from 25 to 44,25. 1% from 45 to 64. The median age was 51 years, for every 100 females there were 80.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.5 males, the median income for a household in the city was $29,196, and the median income for a family was $37,857. Males had an income of $29,375 versus $20,000 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,156, about 7. 1% of families and 10. 7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14. 8% of those under age 18 and 12. 3% of those age 65 or over
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Romania, China, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function. In the United States, counties are the subdivisions of a state. Depending on the state, counties may provide services to the public, impose taxes. Some types of subdivisions, such as townships, may be incorporated or unincorporated. The city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county, a county seat is usually, but not always, an incorporated municipality. The exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, likewise, some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, in some of the colonial states, county seats include or formerly included Court House as part of their name.
Most counties have only one county seat, an example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats. The practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days when travel was difficult, there have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states, Coffee County, for example, the official county seat is Greensboro, but an additional courthouse has been located in nearby High Point since 1938. For example, Clearwater is the county seat of Pinellas County, Florida, in New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government. Historically, counties in this region have served mainly as dividing lines for the judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of government and thus no county seats, in Vermont and Maine the county seats are legally designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the shire town.
Bennington County has two towns, but the Sheriff is located in Bennington. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town governments. As such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county