Joachim Patinir called Patenier, was a Flemish Renaissance painter of history and landscape subjects. He was Flemish, from the area of modern Wallonia, but worked in Antwerp the centre of the art market in the Low Countries. Patinir was a pioneer of landscape as an independent genre and he was the first Flemish painter to regard himself as a landscape painter, he invented the world landscape, a distinct style of panoramic northern Renaissance landscapes, Patinir's important contribution to Western art. There are only five paintings signed by Patinir, but many other works have been attributed to him or his workshop with varying degrees of probability; the ones that are signed read: Joachim D. Patinier, the "D" in his signature signifying Dionantensis, reflecting his place of origin; the 2007 exhibition at the Museo del Prado in Madrid contained 21 pictures listed as by Patinir or his workshop, catalogued a further eight which were not in the exhibition. Patinir was the friend of not only Dürer, but with Quentin Metsys as well, with whom he collaborated.
The Temptation of St Anthony was done in collaboration with Metsys, who added the figures to Patinir's landscape. His career was nearly contemporary with that of the other major pioneer of paintings dominated by landscape, Albrecht Altdorfer, who worked in a different style, he was the uncle of Herri met de Bles, his follower in establishing the world landscape. From Dinant or Bouvignes in present-day Belgium, Patinir became registered as a member of Antwerp's painters' guild Guild of Saint Luke in 1515, where he spent the rest of his life, he may have studied with Gerard David at Bruges, registered as a guild member in the same year as Patinir. In 1511, Patinir is believed to have travelled to Genoa with Adrien Ysenbrandt. In 1521, Patinir's friend Albrecht Dürer painted his portrait. Dürer called Patinir "der gute Landschaftsmaler", thus creating a neologism translated into the French. Patinir let his landscapes dwarf his figures, which are of variable quality; the larger ones were at least sometimes painted by other artists.
Such specialisation had become common in the Low Countries at the time. Many of his works are unusually large for Netherlandish panel paintings of the time, as are those of Hieronymus Bosch, another painter of large landscapes, from a generation earlier. Patinir's immense vistas combine observation of naturalistic detail with lyrical fantasy; the steep outcrops of rocks in his landscapes are more spectacular versions of the group of individual formations just around his native Dinant. His landscapes use a high viewpoint with a high horizon, but his grasp of aerial perspective is far from complete, he uses a consistent and effective colour scheme in his landscapes, influential on landscape painting. The foreground is dominated by brownish shades, while "the middle ground a bluish green and the background a pale blue", creating an effective sense of recession into the distance. There is a triptych attributed to him called The Penitence of St. Jerome. Patinir died in Antwerp in 1524, Quentin Metsys became the guardian of his children.
Early Renaissance painting Renaissance in the Netherlands "Grove": Hans Devisscher. "Patinir, Joachim." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 17 Feb. 2017. Subscription requiredKoch, Robert A. Joachim Patinir. Battistini, Matilde. Symbols & Allegories in Art: The Hereafter. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2005. 210, 212–13. Falkenburg, Reindert. Joachim Patinir: Landscape as an Image of the Pilgrimage of Life. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1988. Ball-Krückmann, Landschaft zur Andacht: die Weltlandschaften Joachim Pateniers. Munich 1977 Pioch, Nicolas. "The Northern Renaissance." WebMuseum. 14 October 2002. 28 March 2006. Smith Chipps, Jeffery; the Northern Renaissance. Phaidon. Arts & Ideas, 2004. 321. Voigt, Joachim Patinir and Landscape Painting in the Low Countries Hand: 57. PDF article WGA Gallery Agence photographique de la réunion des Musées nationaux
Pierre Coustain was a painter and sculptor at the Court of Philip the Good. His name occurs in the records of the brotherhood of St. Luke at Bruges in the year 1450 as Painter Royal; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Michael. "Coustain, Pierre". In Graves, Robert Edmund. Bryan's Dictionary of Engravers. I. London: George Bell & Sons
Jan Gossaert was a French-speaking painter from the Low Countries known as Jan Mabuse or Jennyn van Hennegouwe, as he called himself when he matriculated in the Guild of Saint Luke, at Antwerp, in 1503. He was one of the first painters of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting to visit Italy and Rome, which he did in 1508–09, a leader of the style known as Romanism, which brought elements of Italian Renaissance painting to the north, sometimes with a rather awkward effect, he achieved fame across at least northern Europe, painted religious subjects, including large altarpieces, but portraits and mythological subjects, including some nudity. From at least 1508 he was continuous employed, or at least retained, by quasi-royal patrons members of the extended Habsburg family, heirs to the Valois Duchy of Burgundy; these were Philip of Burgundy, Adolf of Burgundy, Christian II of Denmark when in exile, Mencía de Mendoza, Countess of Nassau, third wife of Henry III of Nassau-Breda. He was a contemporary of Albrecht Dürer and the rather younger Lucas van Leyden, whom he knew, but he has tended to be less regarded in modern times than they were.
Unlike them, he was not a printmaker, though his surviving drawings are fine, are preferred by some to his paintings. His name was in fact "Jan Gossart", he was so known in his lifetime. Little is known of his early life. One of his earliest biographers, Karel van Mander, claimed he was from a small town in Artois or Henegouwen called Maubeuge or Maubuse. Other scholars have determined he was the son of a bookbinder who received his training at Maubeuge Abbey, while the RKD mentions there is evidence to support a claim that he was born in Duurstede Castle, he is registered in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1503. In 1508-9 he travelled to Rome, either in the company of, or sent by, Philip of Burgundy, an illegitimate son of Duke Philip the Good, sent as ambassador to Pope Julius II by Philip the Handsome. Philip's party likely including Gossaert, left the Netherlands in October 1508, arrived in Rome on 14 January 1509, was back at The Hague by 28 June 1509. Although the details are unclear, it seems that Gossaert remained in Philip's employment until he died in 1524, by Bishop of Utrecht.
However, throughout this time he was able to work for other patrons friends of Philip. In 1509–17 Gossaert was registered as a resident of Middelburg. According to Van Mander he was one of the first Flemish artists to bring back the Italian manner of painting with lots of nudity in historical allegories. From 1517 to 1524 he is registered at Duurstede Castle where according to the RKD, he had Jan van Scorel as pupil. From 1524 onwards he returned to Middelburg as court painter to Adolf of Burgundy, another Habsburg relative. Jan Mertens, he was a contemporary of Lucas van Leyden, was influenced by artists who came before him, such as Rogier van der Weyden, the great master of Tournai and Brussels and, like him, his compositions were framed in architectural backgrounds. Gossaert shows Antwerp influence in the large altar-pieces located at Castle Howard and Scawby; the bright and decided contrasts of pigment in colored reliefs are like Hans Memling, the cornered and packed drapery are like Van der Weyden, while the bold but Socratic cast of face are like the works of Quentin Matsys.
At Scawby he illustrates the legend of the count of Toulouse, who parted with his worldly goods to assume the frock of a hermit. His altarpiece of the Descent from the Cross with heavy double doors in Middelburg was admired by Albrecht Dürer before the church itself was hit by lightning; this is the work now in the Hermitage, though Van Mander stated the lightning destroyed it and describes another Descent of the Cross in the possession of Mr. Magnus of Delft in 1604. At Castle Howard, the Earl of Carlisle had obtained The Adoration of the Kings created for the Grandmontines, which throws together some thirty figures on an architectural background, varied in detail, massive in shape and fanciful in ornament; this painting is now on display at the National Gallery, which bought it in 1911. Gossaert surprises the viewer with pompous costume and flaring contrasts of tone, his figures, like pieces on a chess-board, are rigid and conventional. The landscape which shows through the colonnades is adorned with towers and steeples in the minute fashion of Van der Weyden.
After a residence of a few years at Antwerp, Gossaert took service with Philip of Burgundy, bastard of Philip the Good, at that time lord of Somerdyk and admiral of Zeeland. One of his pictures had become celebrated: a Descent from the Cross, on the high altar of Tongerlo Abbey. Philip of Burgundy ordered Gossaert to execute a replica for the church of Middelburg, the value, set on the picture is apparent from the fact that Dürer came expressly to Middelburg to see it. In 1568 the altarpiece perished by fire. In 1508 Gossaert accompanied Philip of Burgundy on his Italian mission to the pope, by this accident an important revolution was effected in the art of the Netherlands. Gossaert appears to have chiefly studied in Italy the polished works of the Leonardesques, he not only brought home a new style, but he introduced the fashion of travelling to Italy. The Flemings grafted Italian mannerisms on their own stock, the cross turned out so unfortunatel
Melchior Broederlam was one of the earliest Early Netherlandish painters to whom surviving works can be confidently attributed. He worked for Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, is documented from 1381 to 1409. Although only a single large pair of panel paintings can confidently be attributed to him, no history of Western painting can neglect his contribution, his early career included a lengthy stay in Italy, where he adopted a sense of space and use of modelling influenced by Trecento painting. From 1381 he was court painter to Louis de Mâle, Duke of Brabant, from Louis's death in 1384 worked for his son-in-law and successor, Philip the Bold, although he remained based in Ypres, doing much work decorative, at Philip's now vanished chateau at Hesdin, full of elaborate mechanical devices, of what we might today call a fairground nature, which needed painting. Like many court artists, including Jan van Eyck, he was appointed valet de chambre to the Duke, in 1391 promoted to court painter, he continued to work for Philip's successor John the Fearless, but last appears in the Ducal accounts in 1409.
His only surviving paintings are the two outsides of the wings for a well-documented carved altarpiece by Jacques de Baerze commissioned by Philip for the charterhouse of Champmol near Dijon, which Broederlam completed in 1399 gilding and painting the wood carvings inside. This is now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, as is another altarpiece from the same commission, for which he gilded and painted the carved figures. Guild rules mandated that carving and painting were performed by members of different guilds. Broederlam's use of oil paint had a strong impact on the painters of the following generation, including Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck. Both panels include two scenes, with an extensive landscape, look into pavilion-like buildings in a manner derived from Italy. Although the perspective is far from developed and shadow are used to create a sense of depth in a advanced fashion, the realistic depiction of Saint Joseph was to become characteristic of Netherlandish painting. Although the skies are painted in gold in the Dijon panels, a flying hawk in one shows they are intended as real space.
The buildings in the Annunciation combine Romanesque and Gothic areas intended to contrast the Old and New Testaments, in a visual metaphor, to become characteristic of Eyckian painting. The panels contain much of the contemporary International Gothic but "announce a new world of naturalism and disguised symbolism that will be further refined in the works of his successors in the Netherlands." Some other works have been attributed to him or his workshop, but without being accepted. In particular six scenes from an altarpiece from Champmol, now divided between Antwerp and Baltimore, have been attributed to him, although iconographic and stylistic details suggest a Mosan origin. Anne Hagopian van Buren, "Broederlam, Melchior," Grove Art Online, Oxford University Press Snyder, James.
Hugo van der Goes
Hugo van der Goes was one of the most significant and original Flemish painters of the late 15th century. Van der Goes was an important painter of altarpieces as well as portraits, he introduced important innovations in painting through his monumental style, use of a specific colour range and individualistic manner of portraiture. The presence of his masterpiece, the Portinari Triptych in Florence, from 1483 onwards played a role in the development of realism and the use of colour in Italian Renaissance art. Hugo van der Goes was born in Ghent or in the vicinity of Ghent around the year 1440. Nothing is known with certainty about the artist's life prior to 1467, the year in which he became a master in the painters' guild of Ghent; the sponsors for his membership of the guild were Joos van Wassenhove, master painter in Ghent from 1464, Daneel Ruthaert. It is that he had trained elsewhere before he became a master in Ghent; some historians have suggested that Dieric Bouts was the master of van der Goes but there is no independent evidence for this.
In 1468 the artist was commissioned by the city of Ghent to execute some works in connection with the grant of the Great Indulgence of the city. More commissions from the city in the following years required van der Goes to create decorations for events such as papal blazons. In 1468 he was in the town of Bruges making decorations to celebrate the marriage between Charles the Bold and Margaret of York. Hugo van der Goes is recorded again on 18 October 1468 when he and other members of Ghent's painter's guild hosted painters from nearby Tournai at the guild's assembly in Ghent to celebrate St. Luke's day together. St. Luke was the patron saint of painters. In 1469 Hugo van der Goes and Joos van Wassenhove vouched for Alexander Bening for his entry as a master in the painter's guild of Ghent. Alexander Bening married Catherina van der Goes, a cousin of Hugo van der Goes, in 1480; the artist and his workshop worked on commissions of the city of Ghent to provide heraldic decorations for Charles the Bold's Joyous Entry in Ghent in 1469 and in 1472.
When in 1470 Joos van Wassenhove left Ghent for Italy to become the court painter of Federico da Montefeltro, the Duke of Urbino, van der Goes became the leading painter in Ghent. In 1473 the Burgundian court paid van der Goes for creating the blazons used at Charles the Good's funeral; the painter was elected as deacon of the painter's guild of Ghent and served as its deacon from 1474 to 1476. It was during this period that Hugo van der Goes painted the Adoration of the Magi and worked on the commission of Tommaso Portinari for the Portinari Altarpiece, which arrived at its destination in Florence only in 1483, when the artist had died. Van der Goes achieved considerable success and secured important commissions from the Burgundian court, church institutions, affluent Flemish bourgeoisie and associations of Italian business people based in the Burgundian Netherlands; when he had reached the peak of his career in 1477 van der Goes decided to close down his workshop in Ghent to become a frater conversus at the monastic community of the Rood Klooster near Auderghem.
The Rood Klooster was part of the monastic wing of the Modern Devotion movement and belonged to the Windesheim Congregation. At the monastery he enjoyed certain privileges, he was allowed to drink wine. According to the chronicle written up in Latin some time between 1509-1513 by Gaspar Ofhuys, a fellow monk in the Rood Klooster, van der Goes received visits by eminent persons including Archduke Maximillian. During his time at the cloister he received in 1482 a request from the counsel of the City of Leuven to value the works for the Leuven city hall that Dieric Bouts had left unfinished at the time of his death; as a reward for this service van der Goes received a jug of Rhine wine from the city authorities. It is believed that it was van der Goes who completed Bouts' unfinished Triptych for Hyppolite Berthoz, his contribution was the painting on the left panel of the portraits of the couple who had paid for the tryptych. In 1482 the monastery sent van der Goes to Cologne together with his half-brother Nicolaes, who had taken religious vows, another brother of the monastery.
On the return leg of this trip the artist suffered an acute depression and declared himself to be damned. He made an unsuccessful suicide attempt, his companions brought him back to Brussels and to the Rood Klooster. After a brief recovery, he died not long thereafter in the Rood Klooster. There is speculation that anxiety about his artistic achievements may have contributed to his madness, for'he was troubled by the thought of how he would finish the works of art he had to paint, it was said that nine years would scarcely suffice'. A report by a German physician, Hieronymus Münzer, from 1495, according to which a painter from Ghent was driven to melancholy by the attempt to equal the Ghent Altarpiece, may refer to Hugo van der Goes; the mental breakdown of Hugo van der Goes was only rediscovered in 1863, when the Belgian historian Alphonse Wauters published the information, which he had found in Ofhuys' newly discovered chronicle. Wauters' publication inspired the late Romantic Belgian painter Emile Wauters to create his 1872 painting Portrait of Hugo van der Goes.
This painting depicts Hugo van der Goes during his period of madness and was so successful that it was awarded a Grand Medal at the Paris salon. In 1873 the Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh mentioned W
Justus van Gent
Justus van Gent or Joos van Wassenhove was an Early Netherlandish painter who after training and working in Flanders moved to Italy where he worked for the duke of Urbino. The artist is known for his religious compositions executed in the early Netherlandish idiom and a series of portraits of famous men, which show the influence of early Italian Renaissance painting. Little is known about the early life of Joos van Wassenhove, it is believed that the artist referred to by Vasari and Guicciardini as'Giusto da Guanto' is the painter Joos van Wassenhove, who became a member of the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke in 1460 and a freemaster in the Ghent painters' guild in 1464. While in Ghent, he vouched for Hugo van der Goes, Sanders Bening and Agnes van den Bossche when they entered the local painters' guild. Van Wassenhove seems to have enjoyed an international reputation as in 1467-68 he received payment for the production of 40 coats of arms of the Pope. Van Wassenhove travelled to Rome around 1470.
Between 1473 and 1475 he is documented in Urbino. He was one of the court painters of duke Federico da Montefeltro, a leading politician and art patron of the Italian Renaissance. Da Montefeltro gave him the commission for the Communion of the Apostles painted for the brotherhood of the Corpus Domini in Urbino between 1472 and 1474. A portrait of da Montefeltro in the company of Caterino Zeno, a Persian envoy to the court of Urbino, is included in the picture. Van Wassenhove participated in the decoration of the ducal residences in Gubbio; this included a commission for a portrait series of'uomini famosi' for the study of da Montefeltro. He died around 1480. Two works from the time before he left for Italy have been preserved: the monumental Crucifixion Altarpiece or Calvary Triptych and the Devotion of the Kings; the latter painting was commissioned for a convent near Burgos in Spain. For this reason the picture was painted on canvas; the stage-like space and arrangement of the main figures in two parallel diagonal lines seem to suggest an inspiration by theatre reenactments of the story of the Epiphany.
Both these early paintings are characterized by monumentality. The facial features of the figures and colour spectrum are related to the oeuvre of Hugo van der Goes; the two masters worked together before van Wassenhove left for Rome. There is a relationship with the work of Dieric Bouts; the Communion of the Apostles for the Confraternity of Corpus Domini in Urbino shows some adaptations from the characteristically Netherlandish high viewpoint and decoratively organized surface of the Calvary Triptych. Van Wassenhove increased the size of the figures relative to the picture space; the work cites Dieric Bouts' Martyrdom of St Erasmus in the figure of the Persian envoy. All other works attributed to Joos van Wassenhove were painted on commission by Federico da Montefeltro. In the enlarged version of Communion of the Apostles it can be seen that Jesus Christ is depicted with light rays originating from his head, surrounded by a circular aureola both of which constitute a halo. A series of 28 portraits of Famous men, which are still in existence and part of the collections of the Louvre and the Galleria Nazionale delle Marche in Urbino, have been attributed to Joos van Wassenhove.
There are many arguments for such attribution. The paintings appear to be made by a painter grounded in Netherlandish technique who had become influenced by Italian painting. In addition, in his biography of Federico da Montefeltro, his former librarian, Vespasiano da Bisticci, attests that van Wassenhove made the series of 28 portraits of Famous men. Technological examination of the Famous men has revealed similarities of these works with the other important earlier commission that van Wassenhove completed for the duke in Urbino, i.e. the Communion of the Apostles. The underdrawing showed; the examination disclosed a number of changes in composition and execution, which may point to a reworking by another artist. The attribution to van Wassenhove of some or all of the works in the Famous men series has not received unanimous support. Various other artists have been proposed as the author of the Famous men series, of whom the Spanish painter Pedro Berruguete has received the strongest support.
The case for Berruguete rests on various arguments including the mention of a'Pietro Spagnuolo pittore' in Urbino in 1477, a reference to the Famous men by Pablo de Cespedes dating from 1604, which could be regarded as an attribution to Berruguete, the depiction of a Spanish-language book in a painting in the series and stylistic similarities with works of Berruguete. Although the matter of attribution is still unresolved the known pictures of this Spanish artist are inferior in style and technique to those in the Famous men series and are unlikely the work of the same artist. Another hypothesis is that the work was a collaborative effort by the studio of van Wassenhove in Urbino, in which Berruguete may have worked as a collaborator. Further attributed to Joos van Wassenhove are two paintings from a series on the liberal arts: Music and Rhetoric. Two other paintings from this series were destr
Aert van den Bossche
Aert van den Bossche or the Master of the Crispinus and Crispinianus-Legend was an Early Netherlandish painter of altarpieces, active in Brussels and Bruges in the late 15th century. There is still doubt as to whether he should be identified with the Master of the legend of St. Barbara or was only one of the artists active in a workshop responsible for the works of that master. Little is known about the life of Aert van den Bossche, it is believed. He was originally from Bruges although he or his ancestors may have come from the town of's-Hertogenbosch; this can be concluded from the fact that in Brussels where he was active from the 1490s he was recorded in 1499 as'Aert van Panhedel alias van den Bossche, schilder'. The town of's-Hertogenbosch is colloquially referred to as Den Bosch and his name could therefore indicate he was from there; this assumption is further confirmed by the fact that when he registered in the Bruges Guild of Saint Luke he signed with the name'Harnoult van den Boske'.
It is known that Aert's father, the painter Yanne van den Bossche, had received some orders from the Brussels shoe-makers' guild as well. Aert van den Bossche had a son Gielis, a.k.a. Gielis Panhedel, who signed Gilken van den Booeske and was an accomplished painter. Aert van den Bossche became a city councillor of Brussels. There is speculation that he may have been a assistant of Hugo van der Goes. There is uncertainty; the famous Virgin and Child in a Landscape, c. 1492-1498 on view at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts is attributed to:'artist unknown Master of the Madonna Grog or Aert van den Bossche Master of the Embroidered Foliage'. The St Augustine sacrificing to an idol of the Manichaeans is now attributed to the Master of the legend of St. Barbara; the name'Master of the legend of St. Barbara' was created by the German art historian Max Jakob Friedländer to denote an anonymous painter or a group of painters who worked out of Bruges and Brussels; the only written proof that a specific artwork had been commissioned from him is a receipt of 1490 for the remuneration paid by the Brussels shoemakers' guild for the triptych of the Martyrdom of the Saints Crispin and Crispinian.
The triptych was intended for the guild's altar in the St Nicholas Church. The discovery of this receipt led to the identification of an extant painting depicting the saints in question, to the identification of its artist earlier referred to as the'Master of the Legend of St. Barbara' with Aert van den Bossche. Since this discovery the triptych has been removed from the oeuvre of the Master of the Legend of St. Barbara. There is yet no unanimous view as to Aert van den Bossche's exact relationship with the Master of the Legend of St. Barbara and whether Aert van den Bossche formed part of the workshop of the Master of the Legend of St. Barbara. On stylistic grounds it is believed that Aert van den Bossche painted the right wing of the Triptych with the Miracles of Christ; some specialists have claimed that he collaborated with the Master of the Legend of St. Barbara: for example, in the panel of the Scenes of the Legend of Henry II, the figures in the section on the left could be the work of van den Bossche.
The subject of the painting is the martyrdom of Crispinian. According to the Christian legend the two saints were twin brothers born to a noble Roman family in the 3rd century AD, they were persecuted and put to death for their faith by Rictus Varus in Belgic Gaul. They became the patron saints of cobblers and leather workers, the church honoured them with a feast day celebrated on 25 October; the martyrdom triptych has not survived in its original form, as the central part of the triptych has been separated from the wings. In the early 19th century, the central part was purchased in St. Petersburg from a private owner by Count Stanisław Potocki, Master of the Horse at the court of the Russian Tsar during the foreign Partitions of Poland, it was put on display at his Wilanów Palace. Unlike other Polish nobles at the time, Potocki did not take part in the November Uprising against Russia. For over a hundred years after its last verified purchase, nobody knew what subject matter was depicted in the composition.
Speculation included the Ten thousand martyrs and other themes known from Dürer. The subject matter was discovered by Jan Białostocki from the Polish Academy of Sciences, professor of Warsaw University and one-time curator at the National Muzeum in Warsaw, he identified some 13 plants in most of them used in leather tanning. The shoemakers' guild was a "connective tissue" in his subject-matter analysis; the written record confirms that the masterpiece was donated by the guild as an altarpiece for the St. Nicholas Church, located next to the Bourse, in Brussels to secure their own prosperity; the subject matter relates to the shoemaker trade. The painting depicts the legendary martyrdom of Saints Crispinian, they had their bones broken, toenails extracted, skin ripped off of their backs in long narrow strips. The central panel of the painting is on display at the National Museum in Warsaw, on deposit from the collection of the Palace Mus