Roy Williams (safety)
Roy Lee Williams, is a former American college and professional football player, a safety in the National Football League for nine seasons. He played college football for the University of Oklahoma, was recognized as a unanimous All-American, he was drafted by the Dallas Cowboys eighth overall in the 2002 NFL Draft, played professionally for the Cowboys and Cincinnati Bengals. He earned five straight Pro Bowl selections from 2003 to 2007. Williams is a sideline reporter for Oklahoma football games. Williams was born in California, he graduated from James Logan High School in Union City, where he played quarterback, wide receiver and defensive back for the Logan Colts high school football. Williams attended the University of Oklahoma, played for coach Bob Stoops's Oklahoma Sooners football team from 1999 to 2001, he was a starter on the undefeated 2000 Oklahoma Sooners team that won the BCS National Championship, setting a school record for tackles for a loss by a defensive back with 12. In 2001, his junior season at Oklahoma, he won the Bronko Nagurski Trophy as the nation's top overall defensive player and won the Jim Thorpe Award as the nation's top defensive back, while leading the team to a 10-2 record and a win over the Arkansas Razorbacks in the Cotton Bowl Classic.
He was named Big 12 Defensive Player of the Year and a first-team Big 12 selection, recognized as a unanimous first-team All-American. Williams decided to forgo his final year of eligibility to enter the NFL draft. Nicknamed "Superman" while at Oklahoma, Williams is remembered at OU for his actions in the 2001 Red River Shootout; the Sooners led 7–3 with only minutes remaining as the Longhorns offense took the field, hoping to execute a game-winning drive. With Texas forced to begin their drive inside their own 5-yard line, the Sooners prepared to pressure UT quarterback Chris Simms. Williams timed the snap perfectly. Simms had time to pull back from center when Williams came flying in from the blindside over the top of a Longhorn running back who had time to rise out of his stance; the jarring and unexpected hit knocked the ball loose and into the hands of linebacker Teddy Lehman, who stepped into the endzone for a touchdown and sealed the game for Oklahoma. This play has been immortalized on a mural plaque at the Roy Williams Strength and Speed Complex at the University of Oklahoma.
The complex is named for Williams both for his athletic achievements and for his donation of $100,000 towards its construction. Williams was selected by the Dallas Cowboys with the eighth overall pick of the 2002 NFL Draft after a trade with the Kansas City Chiefs, he was known throughout the league for his hard hitting and his tackling skills during running plays. With the arrival of Ken Hamlin from Seattle, Williams had the luxury to move closer to the line of scrimmage to blitz and cover short passes during nickel or dime situations; as a rookie in 2002, he was moved to free safety in order to play alongside strong safety Darren Woodson. However, the Cowboys defensive scheme that year allowed both players to interchange positions so as to confuse opposing offenses. Williams was the runner-up for Defensive Rookie of the Year. In 2003, Williams with the mentoring of Woodson, enjoyed a stellar season and his first trip to the Pro Bowl as he was part of the Cowboys' number one ranked defense and helped lead the team to its first playoff game since 1999.
In 2004, Woodson was forced to sit on the sidelines. Williams' struggles were more apparent as he was forced to play more coverage due to the inexperience and inconsistency of the Dallas cornerback position. After the season, the horse-collar tackle was banned; this action is now referred to as the "Roy Williams Rule", as the rule was introduced the 2004 season, during which Williams used the technique on plays that resulted in three significant injuries. Williams is referred to by fans as "Biscuit", in reference to a statement in a 2003 press conference by former head coach Bill Parcells who, noting Williams' weight, said that he was "a biscuit short of a linebacker". With the right cornerback position stabilized by the free agent signing of Anthony Henry in 2005, Williams was once again able to play to his best strength by roaming closer to the line of scrimmage. At the end of the 2005 NFL regular season, Williams had three interceptions, he remained a dominant force for the Dallas defense.
In early August 2006 the Dallas Cowboys signed Williams to a four-year contract extension worth $25.2 million to keep him with the team through the 2010 season. On December 17, 2007, Williams was issued a one-game suspension without pay from Commissioner Roger Goodell, he received it for a repeat offense violating the league's horse-collar tackle rule. During the season, Cowboys teammates Terrell Owens and Patrick Crayton criticized him for his continued use of the horse-collar tackle. After the 2007 season, Williams was named to the Pro Bowl on January 3, 2008 for the fifth straight time, this time as a replacement for the late Sean Taylor. Williams announced that he would be wearing No. 38 at the start of the 2008 season because, the number he wore in college and "8" in the Bible signifies a new beginning. Teammate Greg Ellis, speaking on Sirius NFL Radio, said that Williams told him he felt like he did not fit in head coach Wade Phillips' defensive scheme. Ellis added he was bothered by the way Williams had been isolating himself from other Cowboys, Williams "just doesn't fit what's going on here in Dallas right now."
The Cowboys hired new DBs coach Dave Campo, hoping
2006 NFL season
The 2006 NFL season was the 87th regular season of the National Football League. Regular season play was held from September 7 to December 31, 2006; the NFL title was won by the Indianapolis Colts, when they defeated the Chicago Bears 29–17 in Super Bowl XLI at Dolphin Stadium at Miami Gardens, Florida on February 4. End zone celebrations became more restricted. Players can not do any act in which they are on the ground. Players may still spike, or, dunk it over the goal posts. Dancing in the end zone is permitted as long as it is not a prolonged or group celebration; the Lambeau Leap, though, is still legal. Defenders were prohibited from hitting a passer in the knee or below unless they are blocked into him; this rule was enacted in response to the previous season's injuries to Cincinnati Bengals quarterback Carson Palmer, Pittsburgh Steelers' Ben Roethlisberger, Tampa Bay Buccaneers' Brian Griese. Down-by-contact calls could now be reviewed by instant replay to determine if a player fumbled the ball before he was down, who recovered it.
These plays could not be reversed once officials blew the whistle. The "horse-collar tackle" rule enacted during the previous 2005 season was expanded. Players are now prohibited from tackling a ball carrier from the rear by tugging inside his jersey, it was only illegal if the tackler's hand got inside the player's shoulder pads. To reduce injuries, defensive players cannot line up directly over the long snapper during field goal and extra point attempts; the 2006 season marked the debut of new officiating uniforms which are supposed to be more comfortable for officials to wear in extreme weather over the old polyester uniforms. The uniforms were designed by Reebok using a proprietary material technology to keep officials both warm and dry during the winter months of the season. On the shirt, the position and number are removed from the front pocket and the lettering and numbers on the back side were black-on-white and are smaller print and the sleeve shows the uniform number. Officials wore full-length black pants with white stripe during the winter months to stay warm, criticized by media.
This was the first major design overhaul since 1979, when the position name was added to the shirt, but abbreviated in 1982. Bernie Kukar and Tom White retired. Jerome Boger and Gene Steratore were promoted to referee. For the first time since Super Bowl IV at the conclusion of the 1969 season, the official NFL game ball was known as "The Duke" in honor of Wellington Mara, whose family owns the New York Giants. Son John is the current CEO of the team; the NFL first used "The Duke" ball in honor of Mara in 1941 after then-Chicago Bears owner George Halas and then-Giants owner Tim Mara made a deal with Wilson Sporting Goods to become the league's official supplier of game balls, a relationship that continued into its sixty-fifth year in 2006.“The Duke” ball was discontinued after the 1970 AFL-NFL Merger, the merged league began using a different standardized ball made by Wilson. The only other time that "The Duke" ball name was used was during the two "Thanksgiving Classic" games in 2004. One side of the new 2006 "Duke" football featured the NFL shield logo in gold, the words "The Duke", the NFL commissioner’s signature.
The obverse side has a small NFL logo above the needle bladder hole, the conference names between the hole, the words "National Football League" in gold. As per the custom, specially branded balls were used for the first week of the 2006 season as well as for the Thanksgiving Day, conference championships, Super Bowl XLI and Pro Bowl games. Through week 11 of the season, all NFL games had been sold out, for the 24th time, all blackout restrictions had been lifted; the streak was ended by the Jacksonville at Buffalo game in Week 12. This was the first season that NBC held the rights to televise Sunday Night Football, becoming the beneficiaries by negotiating the new flexible-scheduling system. ESPN became the new home of Monday Night Football, replacing sister network American Broadcasting Company, who chose to opt out of broadcasting league games. Meanwhile, CBS and Fox renewed their television contracts to the American Football Conference and the National Football Conference packages, respectively.
This was the first season that the NFL used a “flexible-scheduling” for the last few weeks of the season, allowing the league flexibility in selecting games to air on Sunday night, in order to feature the current hottest, streaking teams. This was implemented to prevent games featuring losing teams from airing during primetime late in the season, while at the same time allowing NBC to rake in more money off of the higher ratings from surprise, playoff-potential teams that more fans would enjoy watching. Under the flexible-scheduling system, all Sunday games in the affected weeks tentatively had the start times of 1 p.m. ET/10 a.m. PT, except those played in the Pacific or Mountain time zones, which will have a tentative start time of 4 p.m. ET/1 p.m. PT. On the Tuesday 12 days before the games, the league moved one game to the primetime slot, one or more 1 p.m. slotted games to the 4 p.m. slots. During the last week of the season, the league could re-schedule games as late as six days before the contests so that all of the television networks will be able to broadcast a game that has playoff implications.
Starting September 18, fans were able to download highlights of their teams' games through Apple's iTunes Store. Each video costs US$1.99 each but fans have the chance of buying a "Follow Your
Jonathan Michael Hayes is a former professional American football tight end, current coach, in the National Football League. Hayes played for the Pittsburgh Steelers, he is the tight ends coach for the Cincinnati Bengals, a position he has held since the 2003 season. In January 2018, Hayes was the head coach of the East team in the 2018 East–West Shrine Game. Laine, Jenna. "Football is family for coaches Jay and Jonathan Hayes". ESPN. Career stats at pro-football-reference.com Bankruptcy stats at ibankruptcyattorneys.com
The World League of American Football renamed the NFL Europe League and NFL Europa, was a professional American football league which operated between 1991 and 2007. It was backed by the largest league in the United States; each season culminated with the World Bowl. The World League of American Football was founded in 1989 to serve as a type of spring league. Seven of the ten teams were based in North America, the other three in Europe; this format lasted for two seasons, with no league in 1993–94. The WLAF returned in 1995 with six teams, all in Europe, in 1998 the league was rebranded as the NFL Europe League or NFL Europe, until 2006. For the league's last season, 2007, it changed its name to NFL Europa; the league's squads were predominantly assigned by NFL teams, who wanted these younger, developmental players to get additional game experience and coaching. The NFL assumed the expenses of coaches living in Europe; the European six-team format was maintained for 12 seasons, from 1995 to 2008, but by 2008 five teams were based in Germany.
Making a reported $30 million loss per season, with teams such as the inaugural league champion London Monarchs having gone defunct, on 29 June 2008, the NFL announced the end of NFL Europa. A previous proposed league in the 1970s, the Intercontinental Football League, had contained many elements of the eventual all-European league. West German entrepreneur Adalbert Wetzel and sports coach Bob Kap secured the release of several NFL players to the IFL for a planned 1975 season; the IFL would have involved teams in Barcelona, West Berlin, Munich and Istanbul, but was cancelled due to economic and political problems. The World League of American Football was formed in 1989, by a unanimous vote of NFL owners, as a spring developmental league, the "brainchild" of commissioner Paul Tagliabue; this came after the NFL had played popular American Bowls in London's Wembley Stadium and elsewhere since 1986. Of the 28 NFL teams, 26 paid $50,000 each in start-up costs for the WLAF. Team payrolls and budgets were controlled by the WLAF office but not all teams were owned by the league.
The WLAF was set up as a professional American football league for North America and Europe: six teams from the United States, three European teams, one Canadian team. In 1991 parties in Moscow and Japan expressed an interest in additional franchises. Teams were aligned in three divisions: North American West: Birmingham Fire, Sacramento Surge, San Antonio Riders North American East: Montreal Machine, New York/New Jersey Knights, Orlando Thunder, Raleigh–Durham Skyhawks European: Barcelona Dragons, Frankfurt Galaxy, London MonarchsThe WLAF played two seasons in the spring of 1991 and 1992, with 10 teams playing a 10-game regular season with the World Bowl championship game. Rules unique to WLAF included assigning increasing point value to field goals based on distance, a requirement that at least one player of non-US nationality participate in at least every other series of downs. New ideas were tested, like using the two-point conversion rule on the professional field before adopting it in the NFL in 1994.
Other minor tweaks in gameplay, such as a shorter kickoff tee, were first used in the WLAF. Several technical innovations, such as helmet mounted cameras and one-way radios, enabling coaches to tell plays directly to quarterbacks, were developed; the average game attendance for the first season was 25,361, 24,216 in the second season. The original WLAF was noticed in the United States, having a "minor-league or developmental image" and low TV ratings. In the non-U. S. Cities of London, Barcelona and Montreal, crowds surpassed early expectations; the Monarchs' home attendance led the league, the 1991 World Bowl played at Wembley Stadium was attended by 61,108. In May 1991, the Los Angeles Times's Chris Dufresne said American fans were less than Europeans to "shell out hard-earned dollars for games featuring roster-cut leftovers" and suggested there was a post-USFL backlash in Orlando and San Antonio; the WLAF lost $7 million in 1991. The playoff format consisted of four teams: the three divisional champions, plus a wild card with the best overall non-division winning record.
The two teams emerging from the WLAF semi-final playoffs met at the end of the season in the World Bowl. The first two World Bowl locations were predetermined before the season; the average WLAF salary for 10 games plus playoffs was $40,000, but some of the top players made close to $100,000. Operations of the WLAF were suspended after the 1992 season as the league lost money and the involved NFL owners were not willing to invest more. However, the NFL still needed another pro football league to help their cause in the antitrust and free agency lawsuit with the National Football League Players' Association; the three Europe-based teams dominated in 1991, with a combined 24–6 record, while no North American team managed better than 5–5. The London Monarchs won the World Bowl; the Raleigh-Durham Skyhawks lost all 10 games and their franchise, moved to Ohio for 1992. The WLAF's second season was confirmed to go ahead on 23 October 1991, six months before it kicked off. In 1992, fortunes changed and none of the European teams had winning seasons.
Despite this, the European fans remained loyal, but the NFL owners suspended the WLAF after the season. Paul Tagliabue mentioned plans to bring it back with only European teams in 1994. British sports writer Matt Tench cited "an amb
Mark Thomas Mangino is a former American football coach, who most served as offensive coordinator and tight ends coach at Iowa State University. Mangino served as the head football coach at the University of Kansas from 2002 to 2009. In 2007, Mangino received several national coach of the year honors after leading the Jayhawks to their first 12-win season in school history and an Orange Bowl victory. However, he resigned as coach at Kansas two seasons following allegations of mistreatment of players. While at Kansas, Mangino coached in four bowl games with a 3–1 record. Additionally, in five of his eight seasons at Kansas, the Jayhawks were Bowl eligible, they were only bowl eligible five times in the previous thirty seasons. Mangino was raised in New Castle, Pennsylvania. After high school, he was offered a football scholarship at Youngstown State. Mangino played semi-pro baseball in western Pennsylvania until he became an EMT. In his late 20s he returned to Youngstown State to earn his degree.
Mangino graduated from Youngstown State University in 1987, serving as an assistant coach there in his last two years under then-head coach Jim Tressel. He coached at Lincoln High School in Ellwood City, Pennsylvania and at Geneva College, before being hired as an assistant coach at Kansas State University in 1991. Prior to the 1999 season, Mangino left Kansas State to take an assistant position at the University of Oklahoma. While there, he served as the offensive coordinator for the Oklahoma team that beat the defending national champion Florida State Seminoles in the 2000 national championship. Following that season, he was awarded the Frank Broyles Award as the nation's top assistant coach. Mangino was hired as Kansas head football coach in December 2001; the program had not posted a winning season in any of the 6 seasons prior to his arrival. In 2003, his second season at KU, Mangino led the Jayhawks to an appearance in the 2003 Tangerine Bowl; this was the first bowl appearance for Kansas since 1995.
In 2005, his fourth season at KU, the team finished the regular season 6–5, to post its first winning record under Mangino, went on to the Fort Worth Bowl, its second bowl game in three seasons. Among the Jayhawks' wins was a 40–15 victory over Nebraska, breaking a losing streak against the Cornhuskers that had begun in 1969, the second-longest such streak of consecutive losses in NCAA history; the same year Mangino built a defense that ranked 11th nationally and featured third-team All-American and Big 12 Conference Defensive Player of the Year linebacker Nick Reid. The 2005 team ranked 6th nationally in total punts. In 2007, Mangino coached the Jayhawks to a 12 -- a win in the 2008 Orange Bowl. Mangino's defense was ranked 12th in the nation, 4th in scoring defense. On the other side of the ball, the Jayhawks finished 2nd in scoring offense. Following the win against the Iowa State Cyclones, Mark Mangino became the first KU football coach with a winning career record since Jack Mitchell in 1966.
While at Kansas, Mangino led the Jayhawks to 19 consecutive weeks ranked in the AP and/or USA Today polls, 20 wins in a 2-year period for the first time in school history, set home attendance average records in each of the last 4 seasons, led KU to its first appearance in national polls since 1996 and to the school’s highest ranking at #2, produced the top 3 total offense seasons in school history, the top two passing seasons and two of the top three scoring seasons and won three Bowl games—the same number they had won in their 102-year history combined prior to his arrival. With 50 victories, Mangino has the second-most victories in Kansas coaching history. For his accomplishments in 2007, he was named the 2007 National Coach of the Year by the Associated Press, ESPN/ABC, The Sporting News, Football Writers Association, Walter Camp Football Foundation, National Sportscasters and Sportswriters Association, American Football Coaches Association, the Maxwell Football Club, he has been named the Woody Hayes National Coach of the Year.
He was named the Big 12 Coach of the Year by the Big 12 Coaches and Big 12 Co-Coach of the Year by the Associated Press. Upon winning these Coach of the Year awards, he became the only NCAA coach in history to win both the Frank Broyles Award as the nation's top assistant coach and all the major National Coach of the Year awards. On March 1, 2013, Mangino was hired at his alma mater, Youngstown State as the teams Assistant Head Coach and Tight Ends Coach. On January 6, 2014, Mangino was hired at Iowa State to be the team's Offensive Coordinator and Tight Ends coach. In his first season as coach, Mangino returned to Lawrence to face Kansas for the first time since his resignation following the 2009 season. On November 8, 2014, Kansas defeated Iowa State by the score of 34–14. After disagreements about the direction of the offense with head coach Paul Rhoads, Mangino was relieved of his position on October 26, 2015. Rhoads himself was fired less than a month later. Mangino retired from coaching in 2016.
After Mangino went 1–9 in his first season as the head coach of Lincoln High School in Ellwood City, Pennsylvania, a group of parents went to the school board and demanded his firing because of his "language, harsh approach to people". The board elected not to fire Mangino, but he left the school after only one year and did not complete the year as a teacher. On September 21, 2002, Mangino yelled at the officiating crew assigned to the Lawrence High School–Olathe East football game in which Mangino's son, was playing. Mangino became angry after referees failed to ca
The Arizona Cardinals are a professional American football franchise based in the Phoenix metropolitan area. The Cardinals compete in the National Football League as a member of the league's National Football Conference West division; the Cardinals were founded as the Morgan Athletic Club in 1898, are the oldest continuously run professional football team in the United States. The Cardinals play their home games at State Farm Stadium, which opened in 2006 and is located in the northwestern suburb of Glendale; the team was established in Chicago in 1898 as an amateur football team and joined the NFL as a charter member on September 17, 1920. Along with the Chicago Bears, the club is one of two NFL charter member franchises still in operation since the league's founding; the club moved to St. Louis in 1960 and played in that city through 1987. Before the 1988 season, the team moved west to Tempe, Arizona, a college suburb east of Phoenix, played their home games for the next 18 seasons at Sun Devil Stadium on the campus of Arizona State University.
In 2006, the club moved to their current home field in Glendale, although the team's executive offices and training facility remain in Tempe. The franchise has won two NFL championships, both; the first occurred in 1925, but is the subject of controversy, with supporters of the Pottsville Maroons believing that Pottsville should have won the title. Their second title, the first to be won in a championship game, came in 1947, nearly two decades before the first Super Bowl, they returned to the title game to defend in 1948, but lost the rematch 7–0 in a snowstorm in Philadelphia. Since winning the championship in 1947, the team suffered many losing seasons, holds the longest active championship drought of North American sports at 70 consecutive seasons after Major League Baseball's Chicago Cubs ended their 108 year drought in 2016. In 2012 the Cardinals became the first NFL franchise to lose 700 games since its inception; the franchise's all-time win-loss record at the conclusion of the 2018 season is 560–762–40.
They have been to the playoffs ten times and have won seven playoff games, three of which were victories during their run in the 2008–09 NFL playoffs. During that season, they won their only NFC Championship Game since the 1970 AFL–NFL merger, reached Super Bowl XLIII; the team has won five division titles since their 1947–48 NFL championship game appearances. The Cardinals are the only NFL team who have never lost a playoff game at home, with a 5–0 record: the 1947 NFL Championship Game, two postseason victories during the aforementioned 2008–09 NFL playoffs, one during the 2009–10 playoffs, one during the 2015–16 playoffs. From 1988 through 2012, the Cardinals conducted their annual summer training camp at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff; the Cardinals moved their training camp to State Farm Stadium in 2013. The stadium was the site of the 2015 Pro Bowl, unlike in past years, where it was held at Aloha Stadium in Honolulu, Hawaii; the stadium played host to Super Bowls XLII and XLIX, will host Super Bowl LVII in 2023.
The franchise's inception dates back to 1898, when a neighborhood group gathered to play in the Chicago South Side, calling themselves Morgan Athletic Club. Chicago painting and building contractor Chris O'Brien acquired the team, which he relocated to Normal Field on Racine Avenue; the team was known as Racine Normals until 1901, when O'Brien bought used jerseys from the University of Chicago. He described the faded maroon clothing as "Cardinal red" and the team became the Racine Street Cardinals; the team became in 1920 a charter member of the American Professional Football Association, which two years was rechristened to National Football League. The team entered the league as the Racine Cardinals, however the name was changed in 1922 to Chicago Cardinals to avoid confusion with the Horlick-Racine Legion, who entered the league the same year. Except for 1925, when they were awarded the championship after the Pottsville Maroons were suspended, the Cardinals experienced only minimal success on the playing field during their first 26 seasons in the league.
During the post-World War II years, the team reached two straight NFL finals against the Philadelphia Eagles, winning in 1947 – eight months after Charles Bidwill's death – and losing the following year. After years of bad seasons and losing fans to the cross-town rivals Chicago Bears, by the late 1950s the Cardinals were bankrupt, owner Violet Bidwill Wolfner became interested in a relocation. Due to the formation of the rival American Football League, the NFL allowed Bidwill to relocate the team to St. Louis, where they became the St. Louis Cardinals. During the Cardinals' 28-year stay in St. Louis, they advanced to the playoffs just three times, never hosting or winning in any appearance; the overall mediocrity of the Cardinals, combined with a then-21-year-old stadium, caused game attendance to dwindle, owner Bill Bidwill decided to move the team to Arizona. Not long after the 1987 NFL season, Bidwill agreed to move to Arizona on a handshake deal with state and
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro