Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ
In baseball, a home run is scored when the ball is hit in such a way that the batter is able to circle the bases and reach home safely in one play without any errors being committed by the defensive team in the process. In modern baseball, the feat is achieved by hitting the ball over the outfield fence between the foul poles without first touching the ground, resulting in an automatic home run. There is the "inside-the-park" home run where the batter reaches home safely while the baseball is in play on the field; when a home run is scored, the batter is credited with a hit and a run scored, an RBI for each runner that scores, including himself. The pitcher is recorded as having given up a hit, a run for each runner that scores including the batter. Home runs are among the most popular aspects of baseball and, as a result, prolific home run hitters are the most popular among fans and the highest paid by teams—hence the old saying, "Home run hitters drive Cadillacs, singles hitters drive Fords.
In modern times a home run is most scored when the ball is hit over the outfield wall between the foul poles before it touches the ground, without being caught or deflected back onto the field by a fielder. A batted ball is a home run if it touches either foul pole or its attached screen before touching the ground, as the foul poles are by definition in fair territory. Additionally, many major-league ballparks have ground rules stating that a batted ball in flight that strikes a specified location or fixed object is a home run. In professional baseball, a batted ball that goes over the outfield wall after touching the ground becomes an automatic double; this is colloquially referred to as a "ground rule double" because the rule is not written into the rules of baseball, but is rather a rule of the field being used. A fielder is allowed to reach over the wall to attempt to catch the ball as long as his feet are on or over the field during the attempt, if the fielder catches the ball while it is in flight the batter is out if the ball had passed the vertical plane of the wall.
However, since the fielder is not part of the field, a ball that bounces off a fielder and over the wall without touching the ground is still a home run. A fielder may not deliberately throw his glove, cap, or any other equipment or apparel to stop or deflect a fair ball, an umpire may award a home run to the batter if a fielder does so on a ball that, in the umpire's judgment, would have otherwise been a home run. A home run accomplished in any of the above manners is an automatic home run; the ball is dead if it rebounds back onto the field, the batter and any preceding runners cannot be put out at any time while running the bases. However, if one or more runners fail to touch a base or one runner passes another before reaching home plate, that runner or runners can be called out on appeal, though in the case of not touching a base a runner can go back and touch it if doing so won't cause them to be passed by another preceding runner and they have not yet touched the next base; this stipulation is in Approved Ruling of Rule 7.10.
An inside-the-park home run occurs when a batter hits the ball into play and is able to circle the bases before the fielders can put him out. Unlike with an outside-the-park home run, the batter-runner and all preceding runners are liable to be put out by the defensive team at any time while running the bases; this can only happen. In the early days of baseball, outfields were much more spacious, reducing the likelihood of an over-the-fence home run, while increasing the likelihood of an inside-the-park home run, as a ball getting past an outfielder had more distance that it could roll before a fielder could track it down. Modern outfields are much less spacious and more uniformly designed than in the game's early days, therefore inside-the-park home runs are now a rarity, they occur when a fast runner hits the ball deep into the outfield and the ball bounces in an unexpected direction away from the nearest outfielder, or an outfielder misjudges the flight of the ball in a way that he cannot recover from the mistake.
The speed of the runner is crucial as triples are rare in most modern ballparks. If any defensive play on an inside-the-park home run is labeled an error by the official scorer, a home run is not scored. All runs scored on such a play, still count. An example of an unexpected bounce occurred during the 2007 Major League Baseball All-Star Game at AT&T Park in San Francisco on July 10, 2007. Ichiro Suzuki of the American League team hit a fly ball that caromed off the right-center field wall in the opposite direction from where National League right fielder Ken Griffey, Jr. was expecting it to go. By the time the ball was relayed, Ichiro had crossed the plate standing up; this was the first inside-the-park home run in All-Star Game history, led to Suzu
Oswaldo José Guillén Barrios is a Venezuelan former professional baseball player and manager. He played in Major League Baseball as a shortstop for 16 seasons with the Chicago White Sox, from 1985 to 2000, he managed the White Sox from 2004 to 2011 and the Miami Marlins in 2012. As a player, Guillén was respected for his passion, hustle and defensive abilities and his ebullient love for the game. In 2005, Guillen became the first Latino manager in major league history to win a World Series. Guillén was a light-hitting, quick-handed shortstop, emerging from a line of Venezuelan shortstops that included Chico Carrasquel, Luis Aparicio, Dave Concepción, Omar Vizquel, he was signed as a free agent by the San Diego Padres in 1980. In December 1984, he was traded to the Chicago White Sox as part of an eight-player trade, with Tim Lollar, Bill Long and Luis Salazar in exchange for LaMarr Hoyt. In 1985, Guillén received both the American League Rookie of the Year and The Sporting News Rookie of the Year awards, becoming only the third rookie shortstop in major league history to win a fielding title.
He became known for his daring, aggressive style of play, as was demonstrated on August 2, 1985 in a game against the New York Yankees. With the game tied 5–5 in the 11th inning, Guillén hit a two-out single and proceeded to steal second base; when the next batter hit an infield single, Guillén never hesitated as he rounded third base, catching the Yankees defense off guard and scored the game-winning run. In 1989, Guillén was the victim of a hidden ball trick twice. First on June 23 when Greg Brock tagged him out when Guillén, the runner at first base, took his lead, had to dive back to the base on a pick off throw from the pitcher. Brock held the ball instead of throwing it back to the pitcher, when Guillén took his hand off the base to stand up, Brock tagged him out. On August 5, Dave Bergman made the same play. Guillén again dove to the base to beat the throw, when he took his hand off the base to stand up, Bergman tagged him on top of the batting helmet without looking at him. On April 21, 1992, Guillén suffered a severe knee injury in a collision with outfielder Tim Raines.
The injury caused him to miss the entire season, subsequently diminished his defensive range as well as his stolen base output for the remainder of his career. Guillén recovered in 1993 with his most productive season offensively, posting a.280 batting average, career highs with 4 home runs and 50 runs batted in, as the White Sox won the American League Western Division title. He hit.273 and scored 4 runs in a losing effort, as the White Sox were defeated by the Toronto Blue Jays in the 1993 American League Championship Series. In October 1997, after 13 seasons with the White Sox, Guillén was granted free agency status and signed a contract to play for the Baltimore Orioles. In May 1998, the Orioles released he signed with the Atlanta Braves as a utility infielder, he helped the Braves win the 1999 National League Championship Series against the New York Mets with a 10th inning, pinch hit single in Game 6 of the series that tied the score at nine runs apiece, as the Braves went on to win the game and the series.
The Braves would lose to the New York Yankees in Guillén's only World Series appearance as a player. After playing one year with the Tampa Bay Devil Rays in 2000, he retired as a player at the end of the season at the age of 36. In a sixteen-year major league career, Guillén played in 1,993 games, accumulating 1,764 hits in 6,686 at bats for a.264 career batting average along with 28 home runs, 619 runs batted in, an on-base percentage of.287. Guillén was an All-Star in 1988, 1990–1991, won the Gold Glove Award in 1990, he led American League shortstops twice in range factor, once in assists and once in fielding percentage. Guillén's.974 career fielding percentage ranks him 40th overall among major league shortstops, ahead of both Luis Aparicio and Dave Concepcion. While he was considered one of the best fielding shortstops in the American League, Guillén was overlooked in post-season awards because his playing career coincided with that of Cal Ripken, Jr. Guillén ranks among the White Sox all-time leaders in games played, at-bats.
As a hitter, he was known as a free swinger, posting one of the highest at bats per walk ratios in major league history. Guillén played his entire Venezuelan Winter League career with Tiburones de La Guaira. Following his playing career, Guillén coached for the Montreal Expos in 2001 and 2002 and the World Champion Florida Marlins in 2003 before he was hired in the offseason to replace Jerry Manuel as the White Sox manager, he received a standing ovation from the crowd of 37,706 Chicagoans when introduced before his first game as a manager at U. S. Cellular Field on April 13, 2004. On May 30, 2005, the White Sox extended Guillén's contract, making the move while the team had the best record in the majors. In 2005, he led the White Sox to their first American League pennant since 1959, their first World Series win since 1917 with a 4-game sweep of the Houston Astros. Guillén claimed that he might retire after the 2005 season should the White Sox win the World Series, but at the parade celebrating the World Champions he received cheers from the fans when he announced he would indeed return to manage the next season.
The White Sox picked up the 2006 option on his contract, added two more years and included an option for the 2009 season. In November, Guillén was voted the 2005 American League Manager of the Year Award by the
San Francisco Giants
The San Francisco Giants are an American professional baseball team based in San Francisco, California. Founded in 1883 as the New York Gothams, renamed three years the New York Giants, the team moved to San Francisco in 1958; the Giants compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League West division. As one of the longest-established and most successful professional baseball teams, the franchise has won the most games of any team in the history of American baseball; the team was the first major league team based in New York City, most memorably playing at the legendary Polo Grounds. They have won 23 NL pennants and have played in 20 World Series competitions – both NL records; the Giants' eight World Series championships rank fifth overall. The Giants have played in the World Series 20 times – 14 times in New York, six in San Francisco – but boycotted the event in 1904. Playing as the New York Giants, they won 14 pennants and five World Series championships behind managers such as John McGraw and Bill Terry and players such as Christy Mathewson, Carl Hubbell, Mel Ott, Bobby Thomson, Willie Mays.
The Giants' franchise has the most Hall of Fame players in all of professional baseball. The Giants' rivalry with the Dodgers is one of the longest-standing and biggest rivalries in American sports; the teams began their rivalry as the New York Giants and Brooklyn Dodgers before both franchises moved west for the 1958 season. The Giants have won six pennants and three World Series championships since arriving in San Francisco; those three championships have come in 2010, 2012, most in 2014, having defeated the Kansas City Royals four games to three during the 2014 World Series. The Giants are the only major professional sports team based in the City and County of San Francisco, following the San Francisco 49ers' relocation to Santa Clara in 2014, they will be joined by the Golden State Warriors once they move to the Chase Center in 2019. The Giants began as the second baseball club founded by millionaire tobacconist John B. Day and veteran amateur baseball player Jim Mutrie; the Gothams, as the Giants were known, entered the National League in 1883, while their other club, the Metropolitans played in the American Association.
Nearly half of the original Gotham players were members of the disbanded Troy Trojans, whose place in the National League the Gothams inherited. While the Metropolitans were the more successful club and Mutrie began moving star players to the Gothams, in 1888 the team won its first National League pennant, as well as a victory over the St. Louis Browns in a pre-modern-era World Series, they repeated as champions the next year with a pennant and Championship victory over the Brooklyn "Bridegrooms". A contemporaneous account claims that after one satisfying victory over the Philadelphia Phillies, the team's manager, strode into the dressing room and exclaimed, "My big fellows! My giants!" From on, the club was known as the Giants. The Giants' original home stadium, the Polo Grounds, dates from this early era, it was located north of Central Park adjacent to 5th and 6th Avenues and 110th and 112th Streets, in Harlem in upper Manhattan. After their eviction from that first incarnation of the Polo Grounds after the 1888 season, they moved further uptown to various fields they named the Polo Grounds located between 155th and 159th Streets in Harlem and Washington Heights, playing in the Washington Heights Polo Grounds until the end of the 1957 season, when they moved to San Francisco.
The Giants were a powerhouse in the late 1880s, winning their first two National League Pennants and World Championships in 1888 and 1889. But nearly all of the Giants' stars jumped to the upstart Players' League, whose New York franchise was named the Giants, in 1890; the new team built a stadium next door to the Polo Grounds. With a decimated roster, the National League Giants finished a distant sixth. Attendance took a nosedive, the financial strain affected Day's tobacco business as well; the Players' League dissolved after the season, Day sold a minority interest in his NL Giants to the defunct PL Giants' principal backer, Edward Talcott. As a condition of the sale, Day had to fire Mutrie as manager. Although the Giants rebounded to third in 1891, Day was forced to sell a controlling interest to Talcott at the end of the season. Four years Talcott sold the Giants to Andrew Freedman, a real estate developer with ties to the Tammany Hall political machine running New York City. Freedman was one of the most detested owners in baseball history, getting into heated disputes with other owners and his own players, most famously with star pitcher Amos Rusie, author of the first Giants no-hitter.
When Freedman offered Rusie only $2,500 to play in 1896, the disgruntled hurler sat out the entire season. Attendance fell off throughout the league without Rusie, prompting the other owners to chip in $50,000 to get him to return for 1897. Freedman hired former owner Day as manager for part of 1899. In 1902, after a series of disastrous moves that left the Giants 53½ games behind, Freedman signed John McGraw as player-manager, convincing him to jump in mid-season from the Baltimore Orioles of the fledgling American League and bring with him several of his teammates. McGraw went on to manage the Giants for three decades until 1932, one of the longest and most successful tenures in professional sports. Hiring "Mr. McGraw", as his players referred to him, was one of Freedman's last significant moves as
Batting average (baseball)
In baseball, the batting average is defined by the number of hits divided by at bats. It is reported to three decimal places and read without the decimal: A player with a batting average of.300 is "batting three-hundred." If necessary to break ties, batting averages could be taken beyond the.001 measurement. In this context, a.001 is considered a "point," such that a.235 batter is 5 points higher than a.230 batter. Henry Chadwick, an English statistician raised on cricket, was an influential figure in the early history of baseball. In the late 19th century he adapted the concept behind the cricket batting average to devise a similar statistic for baseball. Rather than copy cricket's formulation of runs scored divided by outs, he realized that hits divided by at bats would provide a better measure of individual batting ability; this is because while in cricket, scoring runs is entirely dependent on one's own batting skill, in baseball it is dependent on having other good hitters on one's team.
Chadwick noted that hits are independent of teammates' skills, so used this as the basis for the baseball batting average. His reason for using at bats rather than outs is less obvious, but it leads to the intuitive idea of the batting average being a percentage reflecting how a batter gets on base, whereas hits divided by outs is not as simple to interpret in real terms. In modern times, a season batting average higher than.300 is considered to be excellent, an average higher than.400 a nearly unachievable goal. The last player to do so, with enough plate appearances to qualify for the batting championship, was Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox, who hit.406 in 1941, though the best modern players either threaten to or do achieve it if only for brief periods of time. There have been numerous attempts to explain the disappearance of the.400 hitter, with one of the more rigorous discussions of this question appearing in Stephen Jay Gould's 1996 book Full House. Ty Cobb holds the record for highest career batting average with.366, 9 points higher than Rogers Hornsby who has the second highest average in history at.358.
The record for lowest career batting average for a player with more than 2,500 at-bats belongs to Bill Bergen, a catcher who played from 1901 to 1911 and recorded a.170 average in 3,028 career at-bats. The modern-era record for highest batting average for a season is held by Nap Lajoie, who hit.426 in 1901, the first year of play for the American League. The modern-era record for lowest batting average for a player that qualified for the batting title is held by Chris Davis, who hit.168 in 2018. While finishing six plate appearances short of qualifying for the batting title, Adam Dunn of the Chicago White Sox hit.159 for the 2011 season, nine points lower than the record. The highest batting average for a rookie was.408 in 1911 by Shoeless Joe Jackson. For non-pitchers, a batting average below.230 is considered poor, one below.200 is unacceptable. This latter level is sometimes referred to as "The Mendoza Line", named for Mario Mendoza, a stellar defensive shortstop whose defensive capabilities just made up for his offensive shortcomings.
The league batting average in Major League Baseball for 2016 was.255, the all-time league average is between.260 and.275. In rare instances, MLB players have concluded their careers with a perfect batting average of 1.000. John Paciorek had three hits in all three of his turns at bat. Esteban Yan went two-for-two, including a home run. Hal Deviney's two hits in his only plate appearances included a triple, while Steve Biras, Mike Hopkins, Chet Kehn, Jason Roach and Fred Schemanske went two-for-two. A few dozen others have hit safely in their one and only career at-bat. Sabermetrics, the study of baseball statistics, considers batting average a weak measure of performance because it does not correlate as well as other measures to runs scored, thereby causing it to have little predictive value. Batting average does not take into account walks or power, whereas other statistics such as on-base percentage and slugging percentage have been designed to measure such concepts. Adding these statistics together form a player's On-base plus slugging or "OPS".
This is seen as a much better, though not perfect, indicator of a player's overall batting ability as it is a measure of hitting for average, hitting for power and drawing bases on balls. In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits; this skyrocketed batting averages, including some near.500, the experiment was abandoned the following season. The Major League Baseball batting averages championships is awarded annually to the player in each league who has the highest batting average. Ty Cobb holds the MLB record for most batting titles winning 11 in his pro career; the National League record of 8 batting titles is shared by Tony Gwynn. Most of Cobb's career and all of Wagner's career took place in what is known as the Dead-Ball Era, characterized by higher batting averages and much less power, whereas Gwynn's career took place in the Live-Ball Era. To determine which players are eligible to win the batting title, the following conditions have been used over the sport's history: Pre-1920 – A player is required to appear in at least 100 or more games when the schedule was 154 games, 90 games when the schedule was 140 games.
An exception to the rule was made for Ty Cobb in 1914, who appeared in 98 games but had a big lead and was a favorite of League President Ban Johnson. 1920–1949 – A player had to appear in 100 games to qualify in the National League.
In baseball statistics, an error is an act, in the judgment of the official scorer, of a fielder misplaying a ball in a manner that allows a batter or baserunner to advance one or more bases or allows an at bat to continue after the batter should have been put out. The term error can refer to the play during which an error was committed. An error does not count as a hit but still counts as an at bat for the batter unless, in the scorer's judgment, the batter would have reached first base safely but one or more of the additional base reached was the result of the fielder's mistake. In that case, the play will be scored both as an error. However, if a batter is judged to have reached base because of a fielder's mistake, it is scored as a "hit on error," and treated the same as if the batter had been put out, hence lowering his batting average. A batter does not receive credit for a run batted in when runs score on an error, unless the scorer rules that a run would have scored if the fielder had not made a mistake.
For example, if a batter hits a ball to the outfield for what should be a sacrifice fly and the outfielder drops the ball for an error, the batter will still receive credit for the sacrifice fly and the run batted in. If a play should have resulted in a fielder's choice with a runner being put out and the batter reaching base safely but the runner is safe due to an error, the play will be scored as a fielder's choice, with no hit being awarded to the batter and an error charged against the fielder. Passed balls and wild pitches are not scored as errors. If a batted ball were hit on the fly into foul territory, with the batting team having no runner on base, a fielder misplayed such ball for an error, it is possible for a team on the winning side of a perfect game to commit at least one error, yet still qualify as a perfect game. There is a curious loophole in the rules on errors for catchers. If a catcher makes a "wild throw" in an attempt to prevent a stolen base and the runner is safe, the catcher is not charged with an error if it could be argued that the runner would have been put out with "ordinary effort."
There is therefore a "no fault" condition for the catcher attempting to prevent a steal. However, when considering that the majority of stolen base attempts are successful, this "no fault rule" is understandable due to the difficulty of throwing out runners. If the runner takes an additional base due to the wild throw, an error is charged for that advance. However, if the catcher's glove is hit by the bat, it is counted as a catcher's interference and the catcher is given an error unless the batter gets a hit off the play. If a run scores by the end of the inning that would not have scored in the absence of the error, the run is categorized as unearned, meaning that it is not treated in the statistics as having been the responsibility of the pitcher. Traditionally, the number of errors was a statistic used to quantify the skill of a fielder. Research has shown that the error rate is higher when the quality of fielding is suspect, e.g. the performance of an expansion team in its first year, or the fielding done by replacement players during World War II, is lower when playing conditions are better, e.g. on artificial turf and during night games.
However and analysts have questioned the usefulness and significance of errors as a metric for fielding skill. Notably, mental misjudgments, such as failure to cover a base or attempting a force out when such a play is not available, are not considered errors. A more subtle, though more significant objection to the error, as sabermetricians have noted, is more conceptual. In order for a fielder to be charged with an error, he must have done something right by being in the correct place to be able to attempt the play. A poor fielder may "avoid" many errors by being unable to reach batted or thrown balls that a better fielder could reach. Thus, it is possible that a poor fielder will have fewer errors than any fielder with higher expectancies. In recent times, official scorers have made some attempt to take a fielder's supposed "extraordinary" effort or positioning into account when judging whether the play should have been successful given ordinary effort. However, this still leaves statistics, such as fielding percentage, that are based on errors as a way to compare the defensive abilities of players.
Errors hold significance in calculating the earned run average of a pitcher. Runs scored due to an error are unearned, do not count toward a pitcher's ERA. In Major League Baseball, Herman Long holds the Major League records with 1096 errors in his career between 1889 and 1904. Bill Dahlen, Deacon White and Germany Smith are the only other players to make 1,000 errors during their MLB careers. All of these players played at least one season before 1900; the 20th century record is held by Rabbit Maranville with 711 errors. Among active players, Adrián Beltré leads with 304 errors over 2711 career games through the end of the 2017 season; the major league record for errors by a pitcher in a career is held with 64 errors. That is the National League record; the American career mark is held by Ed Walsh. The most errors made by a pitcher in a season is 28 by Jim Whitney, the National League record; the American League record of 15 is held by three pitchers, Jack Chesbro, Rube Waddell, Ed Walsh. The record for most errors made by a pitcher in one inning is three, first set by Cy Seymour in 1898.
The record was tied by Tommy John in 1988, Jaime Navarro in 1996 and Mike Sirotka in 1999. Ivey Wingo holds the major league and National League records for most
New York Yankees
The New York Yankees are an American professional baseball team based in the New York City borough of the Bronx. The Yankees compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division, they are one of two major league clubs based in New York City, the other being the New York Mets of the National League. In the 1901 season, the club began play in the AL as the Baltimore Orioles. Frank Farrell and Bill Devery purchased the franchise and moved it to New York City, renaming the club the New York Highlanders; the Highlanders were renamed the Yankees in 1913. The team is owned by Yankee Global Enterprises, an LLC controlled by the family of the late George Steinbrenner, who purchased the team in 1973. Brian Cashman is the team's general manager, Aaron Boone is the team's field manager; the team's home games were played at the original Yankee Stadium from 1923 to 1973 and from 1976 to 2008. In 1974 and 1975, the Yankees shared Shea Stadium with the Mets, in addition to the New York Jets, New York Giants.
In 2009, they moved into a new ballpark of the same name after the previous facility was closed and demolished. The team is perennially among the leaders in MLB attendance; as arguably the most successful sports club in the United States, the Yankees have won 40 AL pennants, 27 World Series championships, all of which are MLB records. The Yankees have won more titles than any other franchise in the four major North American sports leagues. Forty-four Yankees players and eleven Yankees managers have been inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame, including Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Joe DiMaggio, Mickey Mantle, Yogi Berra, Whitey Ford. In pursuit of winning championships, the franchise has used a large payroll to attract talent during the Steinbrenner era. According to Forbes, the Yankees are the second highest valued sports franchise in the United States and the fifth in the world, with an estimated value of $4 billion; the Yankees have garnered enormous popularity and a dedicated fanbase, as well as widespread enmity from fans of other MLB teams.
The team's rivalry with the Boston Red Sox is one of the most well-known rivalries in U. S. sports. From 1903-2018, the Yankees overall win-loss record is 10275-7781. In 1900, Ban Johnson, the president of a minor league known as the Western League, changed the Western League name to the American League and asked the National League to classify it as a major league. Johnson held that his league would operate in friendly terms with the National league, but the National league ridiculed the plan. Johnson declared official major league status for his league in 1901. Plans to add a team in New York City were blocked by the NL's New York Giants. A team was instead placed in Baltimore, Maryland in 1901. Between 1901 and 1903, many players and coaches on the Orioles roster jumped to the Giants. In January 1903, a "peace conference" was held between the two leagues to settle disputes and try to coexist. At the conference, Johnson requested that an AL team be put in New York, to play alongside the NL's Giants.
It was put to a vote, 15 of the 16 major league owners agreed on it. The Orioles' new owners, Frank J. Farrell and William S. Devery moved the team to New York in 1903; the team's new ballpark, Hilltop Park, was constructed in one of Upper Manhattan's highest points—between 165th and 168th Streets. The team was named the New York Highlanders. Fans believed the name was chosen because of the team's elevated location in Upper Manhattan, or as a nod to team president Joseph Gordon's Scottish-Irish heritage; the team was referred to as the New York Americans. The team was referred to as the "Invaders" in the Evening Journal. New York Press Sports Editor Jim Price coined the unofficial nickname Yankees for the club as early as 1904, because it was easier to fit in headlines; the Highlanders finished second in the AL in 1904, 1906, 1910. In 1904, they lost the deciding game to the Boston Americans, who became the Boston Red Sox; that year, Highlander pitcher Jack Chesbro set the single-season wins record at 41.
At this time there was no formal World Series agreement wherein the AL and NL winners would play each other. The original Polo Grounds burned down in 1911 and the Highlanders shared Hilltop Park with the Giants during a two-month renovation period. From 1913 to 1922, the Highlanders shared the Polo Grounds with the Giants. While playing at the Polo Grounds, the name "Highlanders" fell into disuse among the press. In 1913 the team became known as the New York Yankees. By the middle of the decade, Yankees owners Farrell and Devery had become estranged and in need of money. At the start of 1915, they sold the team to Colonel Jacob Ruppert, a brewer, Captain Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston, a contractor-engineer. All the games of the 1921 and 1922 World Series were played in the Polo Grounds, when the Yankees squared off against their intracity rivals, the Giants. In the years around 1920, the Yankees, the Red Sox, the Chicago White Sox had a détente; the trades between the three ballclubs antagonized Ban Johnson and garnered the teams the nickname "The Insurrectos".
This détente paid off well for the Yankees. Most new players who contributed to the team's success came from the Red Sox, whose owner, Harry Frazee, was trading them for large sums of money to finance his theatrical productions. Pitcher-turned-outfielder Babe Ruth was the most talented of all the acquisition