John White (colonist and artist)
John White was a settler among those who sailed with Richard Grenville to present-day North Carolina in 1585, acting as artist and mapmaker to the expedition. During his time at Roanoke Island he made a number of watercolor sketches of the surrounding landscape and the native Algonkin peoples; these works are significant as they are the most informative illustrations of a Native American society of the Eastern seaboard. In 1587, White became governor of Sir Walter Raleigh's failed attempt at a permanent settlement on Roanoke Island, known to history as the "Lost Colony"; this was the earliest effort. White's granddaughter Virginia Dare was the first English child born in the Americas. After the failure of the colony, White retired to Raleigh's estates in Ireland, reflecting upon the "evils and unfortunate events" which had ruined his hopes in America, though never giving up hope that his daughter and granddaughter were still alive. John White's exact date of birth is unknown but it seems he was born sometime between 1549 and 1550.
There is a record dated 22 February 1539, of a christening in the Church of St Augustine, London, of a "John White" on that same day. White is known to have attended church in the parish of St. Martin Ludgate in London. In 1566 he married Tomasyn Cooper. Little is known of White's training as an artist but it is possible that he apprenticed as an illustrator under a London master. In the late sixteenth century efforts to establish an English colony in the New World began to gain momentum, White soon became an enthusiastic supporter. In 1585 White accompanied the expedition led by Sir Ralph Lane to attempt to found the first English colony in North America. White was sent by Sir Walter Raleigh as Sir Richard Grenville's artist-illustrator on his first voyage to the New World. In 1585 White had been commissioned to "draw to life" the inhabitants of the New World and their surroundings. During White's time at Roanoke Island, he completed numerous watercolor drawings of the surrounding landscape and native peoples.
These works are significant as they are the most informative illustrations of a Native American society of the Eastern seaboard, predate the first body of "discovery voyage art" created in the late 18th century by the artists who sailed with Captain James Cook. They represent the sole-surviving visual record of the native inhabitants of America encountered by England's first settlers. White's enthusiasm for watercolor was unusual – most contemporary painters preferred to use oil-based paints. White's watercolors would soon become a sensation in Europe. Through the medium of print, the illustrations became known and distributed. After Lane's colonists returned to England in 1586, Sir Walter Raleigh, who held the land patent for the proposed English colony of Virginia, tasked White with the job of organising a new settlement in the Chesapeake Bay area, one which would be self-sustaining and which would include women and children. During 1586 White was able to persuade 113 prospective colonists to join Raleigh's expedition, including his daughter Eleanor and his son-in-law Ananias Dare married at St Bride's Church in Fleet Street.
His efforts did not go unrewarded. White, with thirteen others, were incorporated under the name of "The Governor and Assistants of the Cities of Raleigh of Virginia". In May 1587 White's colonists sailed for Virgina in the Lion, they were guided by the Portuguese navigator Simon Fernandez, the same pilot who had led the 1585 expedition and, given by his fellow sailors the unhappy nickname of "the swine." The settlers' chosen destination was not Roanoke but the Chesapeake Bay. But, upon reaching Roanoke in late July, allowing the colonists to disembark, Fernandez refused to let White's men re-board ship. According to White's journal, Fernandez's deputy "called to the sailors in the pinesse, charging them not to bring any of the planters back againe, but leave them on the island." Faced with what amounted to a mutiny by his navigator, White appears to have backed down and acquiesced in this sudden change of plan. Despite the governor's protests, Fernandez held that "summer was farre spent, wherefore hee would land all the planters in no other place."This second colony at Roanoke set about repairing the structures left behind in 1585.
They searched for the fifteen men left behind by the previous expedition, but found only bones. From an early stage there were tensions with the local Algonkin Indians, though things went well. White made contact with friendly natives led by Chief Manteo, who explained to him that the lost fifteen had been killed by hostile Secotan and Dasamongueponke warriors, choosing a time and place of attack "of great advantage to the savages." On 8 August 1587, White led a dawn attack on the Dasamongueponkes. White and his soldiers entered the Dasamongueponke village in the morning "so early that it was yet dark," but mistakenly attacked a group of hitherto friendly Indians, killing one and wounding many. "We were deceaved," wrote White in his journal, "for the savages were our friendes." Henceforth
The Stubbs Earthworks was a massive Ohio Hopewell culture archaeological site located in Morrow in Warren County, Ohio. The site was a ceremonial center consisting of an earthen enclosure with circular and rectangular elements and a separate smaller circular enclosure that contained the remains of a timber circle. To the east of the main enclosure on a high terrace overlooking the site was a large W-shaped earthwork; this was once thought to be a snake effigy mound similar to the Great Serpent Mound in Adams County, Ohio. In September 2005 archaeologist Frank Cowan conducted excavations at the smaller circular enclosure. Carbon dating of charcoal found in post molds at the site have dated the structure to 200-300 CE. Although ignored by Edwin Hamilton Davis and E. G. Squier for inclusion in their seminal archaeological and anthrolopological work Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley in 1847. Since that time much of the site has been destroyed by farming, gravel quarrying, encroaching development.
The Little Miami High School was constructed over part of the earthworks in 2000. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. Moorehead Circle List of Hopewell sites The Stubbs Earthwork: Serpent Effigy or Simple Embankment
Sir Walter Raleigh spelled Ralegh, was an English landed gentleman, poet, politician, courtier and explorer. He was cousin to younger half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, he is well known for popularising tobacco in England. Raleigh was one of the most notable figures of the Elizabethan era. Raleigh was born to a Protestant family in Devon, the son of Walter Raleigh and Catherine Champernowne. Little is known of his early life, though in his late teens he spent some time in France taking part in the religious civil wars. In his 20s he took part in the suppression of rebellion in Ireland participating in the Siege of Smerwick, he became a landlord of property confiscated from the native Irish. He rose in the favour of Queen Elizabeth I and was knighted in 1585. Raleigh was instrumental in the English colonisation of North America and was granted a royal patent to explore Virginia, paving the way for future English settlements. In 1591, he secretly married Elizabeth Throckmorton, one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting, without the Queen's permission, for which he and his wife were sent to the Tower of London.
After his release, they retired to his estate at Dorset. In 1594, Raleigh heard of a "City of Gold" in South America and sailed to find it, publishing an exaggerated account of his experiences in a book that contributed to the legend of "El Dorado". After Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, Raleigh was again imprisoned in the Tower, this time for being involved in the Main Plot against King James I, not favourably disposed towards him. In 1616, he was released to lead a second expedition in search of El Dorado. During the expedition, men led by his top commander ransacked a Spanish outpost, in violation of both the terms of his pardon and the 1604 peace treaty with Spain. Raleigh returned to England and, to appease the Spanish, he was arrested and executed in 1618. Little is known about Raleigh's birth but he is believed to have been born on 22 January 1552, he grew up in the parish of East Budleigh in South Devon. He was the youngest of the five sons of Walter Raleigh of Fardel Manor in the parish of Cornwood, in South Devon.
His family is assumed to have been a junior branch of the de Raleigh family, 11th century lords of the manor of Raleigh, Pilton in North Devon, although the two branches are known to have borne dissimilar coats of arms, adopted at the start of the age of heraldry. His mother was Katherine Champernowne, his father's 3rd wife, the 4th daughter of Sir Philip Champernowne, lord of the manor of Modbury, Devon, by his wife Catherine Carew, a daughter of Sir Edmund Carew of Mohuns Ottery in the parish of Luppitt and widow of Otes Gilbert of Greenway in the parish of Brixham and of Compton Castle in the parish of Marldon, both in Devon. Katherine Champernowne's paternal aunt was Kat Ashley, governess of Queen Elizabeth I, who introduced the young men at court; the coat of arms of Otes Gilbert and Katherine Champernowne survives in a stained glass window in Churston Ferrers Church, near Greenway. Sir Walter's half-brothers John Gilbert, Humphrey Gilbert, Adrian Gilbert, his full brother Carew Raleigh were prominent during the reigns of Queen Elizabeth I and King James I.
Raleigh's family was Protestant in religious orientation and had a number of near escapes during the reign of Roman Catholic Queen Mary I of England. In the most notable of these, his father had to hide in a tower to avoid execution; as a result, Raleigh developed a hatred of Roman Catholicism during his childhood, proved himself quick to express it after Protestant Queen Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558. In matters of religion, Elizabeth was more moderate than her half sister Mary. In 1569, Raleigh left for France to serve with the Huguenots in the French religious civil wars. In 1572, Raleigh was registered as an undergraduate at Oriel College, but he left a year without a degree. Raleigh proceeded to finish his education in the Inns of Court. In 1575, he was registered at the Middle Temple. At his trial in 1603, he stated, his life is uncertain between 1569 and 1575, but in his History of the World he claimed to have been an eyewitness at the Battle of Moncontour in France. In 1575 or 1576, Raleigh returned to England.
Between 1579 and 1583, Raleigh took part in the suppression of the Desmond Rebellions. He was present at the Siege of Smerwick, where he led the party that beheaded some 600 Spanish and Italian soldiers. Raleigh received 40,000 acres upon the seizure and distribution of land following the attainders arising from the rebellion, including the coastal walled town of Youghal and, further up the Blackwater River, the village of Lismore; this made him one of the principal landowners in Munster, but he had limited success inducing English tenants to settle on his estates. Raleigh made the town of Youghal his occasional home during his 17 years as an Irish landlord being domiciled at Killua Castle, County Westmeath, he was mayor there from 1588 to 1589. His town mansion of Myrtle Grove is assumed to be the setting for the story that his servant doused him with a bucket of water after seeing clouds of smoke coming from Raleigh's pipe, in the belief that he had been set alight, but this story is told of other places associated with Raleigh: the Virginia Ash Inn in Henstridge near Sherborne, Sherborne Castle, South Wraxall Manor in Wiltshire, home of Raleigh's friend Sir Walter Long.
Amongst Raleigh's acquai
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
University of Louisiana at Monroe
The University of Louisiana at Monroe is a coeducational public university in Monroe, United States, part of the University of Louisiana System. ULM opened in 1931 as Ouachita Parish Junior College. Three years it became the Northeast Center of Louisiana State University. In 1936 and 1937, its dean was Stephen A. Caldwell, its name changed again to Northeast Junior College of Louisiana State University. A year it became an autonomous four-year institution as Northeast Louisiana State College. In 1969, it granted doctoral degrees for the first time and was elevated to university status as Northeast Louisiana University. Much growth occurred during the administration of president George T. Walker from 1958 to 1976. Under Walker, enrollment increased from 2,100 to 9,700. NLU became the largest university in North Louisiana in terms of enrollment and state appropriations. Among all of the universities under the Louisiana Higher Education Board of Trustees, Northeast had the greatest percent of faculty holding terminal degrees, more nationally accredited academic programs, offered the highest faculty salaries.
In 1999, NLU was renamed to its present name. A 2002 "Reclaim Our Campus" effort targeted recovery from financial and auditing difficulties. In 2010, James Erwin Cofer Sr. left the ULM presidency after eight years to head Missouri State University in Springfield, Missouri. He was succeeded by Nick Bruno as the eighth president of ULM. Kitty DeGree, a Monroe real estate developer, was the largest single donor to ULM in the last decade of her life; the school of nursing is named in her honor. The College of Business and Social Sciences seeks to prepare students for productive careers and responsible citizenship; the college benefits students and the community through research and service. ULM seeks excellence in business education by offering a student-centered learning environment that produces high-quality graduates and by engaging in research and service that benefits students and the community. ULM offers AACSB accredited undergraduate and graduate MBA degree programs. U. S. News & World Report has ranked ULM’s Master of Business Administration degree as the number 57 program in the nation – up 30 spots from the 2014 ranking of 87.
The English department publishes Turnrow, a bi-annual journal of short fiction, visual art, interviews. Master's in marriage and family therapy is accredited by both the Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education and The Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. A doctoral program in marriage and family therapy was approved by the Louisiana Board of Regents, June 1995. Established in 1956, the College of Pharmacy is accredited by the American Council on Pharmacy Education, including one of seven Toxicology programs in the U. S. In 2007, the College of Pharmacy moved from the main campus to the off-campus building. There are satellite campuses in Baton Rouge; the College of Pharmacy at ULM is Louisiana's only publicly supported comprehensive center for pharmaceutical education and service. The College includes several modern specialized instructional and health service facilities and numerous affiliated off-campus teaching hospitals and pharmacies throughout the state.
In 1999, Milburn E. Calhoun, a New Orleans physician and Pelican Books publisher endowed the million-dollar Mary E. and Darrell L. Calhoun Chair in Pharmacology, named for his late parents. ULM is home to the Emy-Lou Biedenharn Recital Hall, named for the opera singer and daughter of the Coca-Cola entrepreneur Joseph A. Biedenharn; the university's Natural History Museum is home to the 6-million-specimen Neil Douglas fish collection and the 500,000-specimen R. Dale Thomas plant collection. In March 2017, museum staff announced that they had been told the collections would have to be divested to enable an expansion of the university's stadium, that any specimens which had not been relocated to other institutions by July 2017 would be destroyed; the specimens were subsequently distributed to other institutions, with the plant collection going to the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, the herpetological collection to the University of Texas at Arlington, the entomological collection to Mississippi State University, the ichthyological collection to Tulane University.
U. S. News & World Report as of 2015 ranks University of Louisiana at Monroe as follows: Regional Universities – 81st Best Undergraduate Business Programs – 338th Top Public Schools – 39th Pharmacy School – 74th Speech Pathology – 181st Best Online Bachelor's Programs – 160th Best Online Graduate Business Programs – 87th Best Online Graduate Education Programs – 103rd Teams participate in NCAA Division I. ULM joined the Sun Belt Conference for all sports on July 1, 2006 after playing in the Southland Conference in all sports except football. ULM moved from Division I-AA to Division I-A in 1994 and played as a I-A independent 1994–2000, it became a football-only Sun Belt Conference member in 2001 and joined as a member in all sports in 2006. ULM shared the 2005 Sun Belt Conference football championship with Arkansas State University and the University of Louisiana–Lafayette. In 2012, ULM had their first winning season as an FBS school going, 8–5, a bid to the AdvoCare V100 Bowl in Shreveport vs. the Ohio Bobcats, but lost 45–14.
ULM basketball coaches have included Arnold R. Kilpatrick, Lenny Fant, Mike Vining. Fant was the first ULM coach to wi
British colonization of the Americas
British colonisation of the Americas began in 1607 in Jamestown and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas. The English, the British, were among the most important colonisers of the Americas, their American empire came to surpass the Spanish American colonies in military and economic might. Three types of colonies were established in the English overseas possessions in America of the 17th century and continued into the British Empire at the height of its power in the 17th century; these were charter colonies, proprietary colonies, royal colonies. A group of 13 British American colonies collectively broke from the British Empire in the 1770s through a successful revolution, establishing the modern United States. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the remaining British territories in North America were granted more responsible government. In 1838 the Durham Report recommended full responsible government for Canada, but this was not implemented for another decade.
With the Confederation of Canada, the Canadian colonies were granted significant autonomy and became a self-governing Dominion in 1867. Other colonies in the Americas followed at a much slower pace. In this way, two countries in North America, ten in the Caribbean, one in South America have received their independence from Great Britain or the United Kingdom. All of these, except the United States, are members of the Commonwealth of Nations and nine are Commonwealth realms; the eight current British overseas territories in the Americas have varying degrees of self-government. A number of English colonies were established under a system of Proprietary Governors, who were appointed under mercantile charters to English joint stock companies to found and run settlements. Between 1584 and 1589, the English attempt to establish Roanoke Colony failed, in 1590 the colony was found abandoned. In 1607, Virginia was founded by the London Company. In Newfoundland, a chartered company known as the Society of Merchant Venturers established a permanent settlement at Cuper's Cove, from 1610.
St. George's, Bermuda was founded by the Virginia Company, in 1612. In 1664, England took over the Dutch colony of New Netherland which England renamed the Province of New York. With New Netherland, the English came to control the former New Sweden, which the Dutch had conquered earlier; this became part of Pennsylvania after, established in 1680. The Kingdom of Scotland tried unsuccessfully to establish a colony at Darién, the Scottish colonisation of Nova Scotia lasted from 1629 to 1632. Thousands of Scotsmen participated in English colonization before the two countries were united in 1707; the Kingdom of Great Britain acquired the French colony of Acadia in 1713 and Canada and the Spanish colony of Florida in 1763. After being renamed the Province of Quebec, the former French Canada was divided into two Provinces, the Canadas, consisting of the old settled country of Lower Canada and the newly settled Upper Canada. In the north, the Hudson's Bay Company traded for fur with the indigenous peoples, had competed with French, Métis fur traders.
The company came to control the entire drainage basin of Hudson Bay, called Rupert's Land. The small part of the Hudson Bay drainage south of the 49th parallel went to the United States in the Anglo-American Convention of 1818. Thirteen of Great Britain's colonies rebelled in the American Revolutionary War, beginning in 1775 over representation, local laws and tax issues, established the United States of America, recognised internationally with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on 3 September 1783. Great Britain colonised the west coast of North America, indirectly via the Hudson's Bay Company licenses west of the Rocky Mountains: the Columbia District and New Caledonia fur district. Most of these were jointly claimed as the Oregon Country by the United States from 1818 until the 49th parallel was established as the international boundary west of the Rockies by the Oregon Treaty of 1846; the Colony of Vancouver Island, founded in 1849, the Colony of British Columbia, founded in 1858, were combined in 1866 under the name Colony of British Columbia, joined the Confederation in 1871.
British Columbia was expanded with the inclusion of the Stikine Territory in 1863. In 1867, the colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada combined to form a self-governing dominion, named Canada, within the British Empire. Quebec and Nova Scotia had been ceded to Britain by the French; the colonies of Prince Edward Island and British Columbia joined over the next six years, Newfoundland joined in 1949. Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory were ceded to Canada in 1870; this area now consists of the provinces of Manitoba and Alberta, as well as the Northwest Territories, the Yukon Territory, Nunavut. Roanoke Colony, founded 1586, abandoned the next year. Second attempt in 1587 disappeared. Cuttyhunk Islan
Mound 72 is a small ridgetop mound located 850 meters to the south of Monks Mound at Cahokia Mounds near Collinsville, Illinois. Early in the site's history, the location began as a circle of 48 large wooden posts known as a "woodhenge"; the woodhenge was dismantled and a series of mortuary houses, platform mounds, mass burials and the ridgetop mound erected in its place. The mound was the location of the "beaded burial", an elaborate burial of an elite personage thought to have been one of the rulers of Cahokia, accompanied by the graves of several hundred retainers and sacrificial victims. Early in the history of Cahokia the portion of the site containing Mounds 72 and 96 was the location of a "woodhenge", a ceremonial area with a 412 feet in diameter circle of 48 upright wooden posts. Archaeologists date the placement of at least one of the posts to 950 CE. Archaeological research has shown that four of the posts were at the cardinal locations of north, south and west, the eastern and western posts marking the position of the equinox sunrise and sunsets.
Four other posts in the circle were shown to be at the summer solstice sunrise and sunset and the winter solstice sunrise and sunset positions. This setup is nearly identical to the diameter and post positions of Woodhenge III, one of five successive woodhenges built in another location at Cahokia, differing only in that Woodhenge III was 2 feet smaller in diameter. Considering the size of the circle and the fact that the post holes themselves could be as much as 1 metre in diameter, this discrepancy is negligible; the placement of the two mounds at the location and the directions in which they are oriented correspond to several of the solstice marking posts. The post nearest the elite burial of the "Birdman" is the location that marked the summer solstice sunrise at the times of the site's use; the early stages of the mounds were constructed around the posts, although at a point the posts were removed. Besides their celestial marking functions, the woodhenges carried religious and ritual meaning, reflected in their stylized depiction as a Cross in Circle Motif on ceremonial beakers connected with black drink ceremonialism.
One prominent example has markers added to sunset positions. Mound 72 is a ridgetop mound, one of only six recorded at the Cahokia site. Unlike the other ridgetop mounds which are aligned east/west and north/south, Mound 72 is aligned 30 degrees off the east/west line; this alignment is the same as the summer solstice sunrise/winter solstice sunset line for this latitude. Near the end of the late Emergent Mississippian Edelhardt Phase or the beginning of the early Mississippian Lohmann Phase two small platform mounds were constructed around several of the woodhenge posts, one of them the position marking the summer solstice sunrise position; these mounds were expanded and merged and covered over, being reshaped in the process into the final Mound 72 ridge-top mound. The beginnings of the mounds were the interment of several elite personages oriented to the summer solstice sunrise post; this post is aligned with the north/south axis with a point on the southwest corner of Monks Mound. The post had been replaced several times, including at least one episode after the beginning of mound construction.
5 metres west of the post was the burial of a tall man in his 40s, now thought to have been an important early Cahokian ruler. The body was placed with his feet to the northwest on an elevated platform covered by a bed of more than 20,000 marine-shell disc beads arranged in the shape of a falcon, with the bird's head appearing beneath and beside the man's head, its wings and tail beneath his arms and legs; this burial is now known as the "Beaded burial" or the "Birdman burial". Below the birdman was another man, buried facing downward; the birdman was buried with several other retainers and elaborate grave goods, including mica and other exotic minerals, copper sheathes thought to be the remains of copper covered chunkey sticks, a cache of chunkey stones and hundreds of finely made arrowheads collected from throughout the Mississippian world caches from Tennessee, southern Illinois, Wisconsin and a batch from the faraway Caddoan Mississippian peoples in Oklahoma. The arrowheads indicated that Cahokia had extensive trade links in North America.
The falcon warrior or "birdman" is a common motif in Mississippian culture, is represented by other finds at Cahokia in the form of 2 small stone tablets with avian-human imagery. This burial had powerful iconographic significance to the peoples of Cahokia. After the burial the location was covered over with Mound 72sub1, a small platform mound oriented in an east/west axis with a ramp projecting to the east and another projecting west toward the summer solstice sunset post; the summer sunrise post was located in the center of the eastern side of the mound. This mound was constructed over the remains of a dismantled charnel house, thought to have been erected at the same time as the woodhenge post which it is next to. Interred in the mound were 2 deceased men and several bundled burials the previous residents of the charnel house who had waited for the elite personages to die in order to be interred with them. Over this first phase a 46 feet square platform with two levels and ramp on its eastern side was constructed.
The next episode of construction at this location involved a pit being dug into the mound and a cache of various grave goods being deposited in it. A large rectangular pit was dug into the southeast corner of the mound and a mass burial of 24 women was m