Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete or consecutively, with one winner; some sports allow a "tie" or "draw". A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Sport is recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports.
However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, draughts, Go and xiangqi, limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports. Sport is governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be crossing a line first, it can be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression. Records of performance are kept, for popular sports, this information may be announced or reported in sport news. Sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, reaching wider audiences through broadcasting.
Sport betting is in some cases regulated, in some cases is central to the sport. According to A. T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013; the world's most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is its most popular spectator sport. The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". Other meanings include. Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation; the singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept, with "sports" used to describe multiple activities. American English uses "sports" for both terms; the precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, the association for all the largest international sports federations, is therefore the de facto representative of international sport.
SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should: have an element of competition be in no way harmful to any living creature not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier not rely on any "luck" element designed into the sport. They recognise that sport can be physical mind, predominantly motorised co-ordination, or animal-supported; the inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports. Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports. There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games called esports due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not recognised by mainstream sports organisations. According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, "'Sport' means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels."
There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with all professional sport involving competition, governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee or SportAccord. Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Eu
The Denver Broncos are a professional American football franchise based in Denver, Colorado. The Broncos compete as a member club of the National Football League's American Football Conference West division, they began play in 1960 as a charter member of the American Football League and joined the NFL as part of the merger in 1970. The Broncos are owned by the Pat Bowlen trust and play home games at Broncos Stadium at Mile High. Prior to that, they played at Mile High Stadium from 1960 to 2000; the Broncos were competitive during their 10-year run in the AFL and their first seven years in the NFL. They did not complete a winning season until 1973. In 1977, four years they qualified for the playoffs for the first time in franchise history and advanced to Super Bowl XII. Since 1975, the Broncos have become one of the NFL's most successful teams, having suffered only seven losing seasons, they have won eight AFC Championships, three Super Bowl championships, share the NFL record for most Super Bowl losses.
They have ten players in the Pro Football Hall of Fame: John Elway, Floyd Little, Shannon Sharpe, Gary Zimmerman, Willie Brown, Tony Dorsett, Terrell Davis, Brian Dawkins, Ty Law and Champ Bailey. The Denver Broncos were founded on August 14, 1959, when Minor League Baseball owner Bob Howsam was awarded an American Football League charter franchise; the Broncos won the first-ever AFL game over the Boston Patriots 13–10, on September 9, 1960. On August 5, 1967, they became the first-ever AFL team to defeat an NFL team, with a 13–7 win over the Detroit Lions in a preseason game. However, the Broncos were not successful in the 1960s. Denver came close to losing its franchise in 1965, until a local ownership group took control and rebuilt the team; the team's first superstar, "Franchise" Floyd Little, was instrumental in keeping the team in Denver, due to his signing in 1967 as well as his Pro Bowl efforts on and off the field. The Broncos were the only original AFL team that never played in the title game, as well as the only original AFL team never to have a winning season while a member of the AFL during the upstart league's 10-year history.
In 1972, the Broncos hired former Stanford University coach John Ralston as their head coach. In 1973, he was the UPI's AFC Coach of the Year, after Denver achieved its first winning season at 7–5–2. In five seasons with the Broncos, Ralston guided the team to winning seasons three times. Though Ralston finished the 1976 season with a 9–5 record, the team, as was the case in Ralston's previous winning seasons, still missed the playoffs. Following the season, several prominent players publicly voiced their discontent with Ralston, which soon led to his resignation. Red Miller, a long-time assistant coach was hired and along with the Orange Crush Defense and aging quarterback Craig Morton, took the Broncos to what was a record-setting 12–2 regular season record and their first playoff appearance in 1977, first Super Bowl, in which they were defeated by the Dallas Cowboys, 27–10. In 1981, Broncos' owner Gerald Phipps, who had purchased the team in May 1961 from the original owner Bob Howsam, sold the team to Canadian financier Edgar Kaiser Jr. grandson of shipbuilding industrialist Henry J. Kaiser.
In 1984, the team was purchased by Pat Bowlen, who placed team ownership into a family trust sometime before 2004 and remained in day-to-day control until his battle with Alzheimer's disease forced him to cede the team to Joe Ellis in 2014. Dan Reeves became the youngest head coach in the NFL when he joined the Broncos in 1981 as vice president and head coach. Quarterback John Elway, who played college football at Stanford, arrived in 1983 via a trade. Drafted by the Baltimore Colts as the first pick of the draft, Elway proclaimed that he would shun football in favor of baseball, unless he was traded to a selected list of other teams, which included the Broncos. Prior to Elway, the Broncos had over 24 different starting quarterbacks in its 23 seasons to that point. Reeves and Elway guided the Broncos to six post-season appearances, five AFC West divisional titles, three AFC championships and three Super Bowl appearances during their 12-year span together; the Broncos lost Super Bowl XXI to the New York Giants, 39–20.
The last year of the Reeves-Elway era were marked by feuding, due to Reeves taking on play-calling duties after ousting Elway's favorite offensive coordinator Mike Shanahan after the 1991 season, as well as Reeves drafting quarterback Tommy Maddox out of UCLA instead of going with a wide receiver to help Elway. Reeves was fired after the 1992 season and replaced by his protégé and friend Wade Phillips, serving as the Broncos' defensive coordinator. Phillips was fired after a mediocre 1994 season, in which management felt he lost control of the team. In 1995, Mike Shanahan, who had served under Reeves as the Broncos' offensive coordinator, returned as head coach. Shanahan drafted rookie running back Terrell Davis. In 1996, the Broncos were the top seed in the AFC with a 13–3 record, dominating most of the teams that year; the fift
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa
Wake Forest Demon Deacons football
The Wake Forest Demon Deacons football team represents Wake Forest University in the sport of American football. The Demon Deacons compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Atlantic Division of the Atlantic Coast Conference. Wake Forest plays its home football games at BB&T Field and is coached by Dave Clawson. Wake Forest struggled in football for much of the second half of the 20th century; the university is the sixth-smallest school in FBS in terms of undergraduate enrollment. It is the smallest school playing in a Power Five conference. However, since the start of the 21st century, the Deacons have been competitive; the Deacons won the Military Bowl in 2016, the Belk Bowl in 2017, the Birmingham Bowl in 2018. Wake Forest first fielded a football team in 1888; the team was coached by W. C. Dowd and W. C. Riddick; that team played only one game, went 1–0, a victory against North Carolina in the first-ever collegiate football game played in the state of North Carolina.
From 1891 to 1893, under head coach E. Walter Sikes, Wake Forest posted a 6–2–1 record. Harry Rabenhorst coached Wake Forest for two seasons. Hank Garrity served as head football coach from 1923–1924, he compiled a 19–7–1 record in those two seasons. His.704 winning percentage is the highest in Wake Forest football history. F. S. Miller served as Wake Forest's head football coach for four seasons, posting a record of 18–15–4, his first two seasons were winning seasons, 6–5–1 and 5–3–1, respectively. Jim Weaver, who would become the ACC's first commissioner, coached the Demon Deacons football team for four seasons, his final record is 10–23–1. Peahead Walker came to the Demon Deacons from Elon and was Wake Forest's head football coach for fourteen seasons, compiling a record of 77–51–6, he is tied with Jim Grobe as the winningest head football coach in Demon Deacon football history. Walker led the Deacons to two bowl games, a win over South Carolina in the inaugural Gator Bowl in 1946 and a loss to Baylor in the 1949 Dixie Bowl.
He resigned after the 1950 season and was inducted into the Wake Forest Athletics Hall of Fame in 1971. Tom Rogers led the Demon Deacons from 1951–1955, succeeding Walker. Rogers yearly records at Wake Forest were 6–4, 5–4–1, 3–6–1, 4–7–1 and 5–4–1. In 1951, the Demon Deacons compiled a 6–4 record and finished in a tie for seventh place in the Southern Conference. End Jack Lewis and linebacker Bill George were selected by the Associated Press as first-team players on the 1951 All-Southern Conference football team. In their second season under Rogers, the Demon Deacons compiled a 5–4–1 record and finished in a tie for second place in the Southern Conference with a 5–1 record against conference opponents. End Jack Lewis was selected by the United Press as a first-team player on the 1952 All-Southern Conference football team; this was followed by a 3–6–1 campaign in 1953 that saw Wake Forest finish in a three-way tie for third place in the Atlantic Coast Conference with a 2–3 record against conference opponents.
In 1954, the Demon Deacons compiled a 3–6–1 record and finished in sixth place in the Atlantic Coast Conference with a 1–4–1 record against conference opponents. End Ed Stowers and tackle Bob Bartholomew were selected by the Associated Press as first-team players on the 1954 All-Atlantic Coast Conference football team. Bartholomew was the only unanimous selection by all 43 voters. In 1955, their fifth season under Rogers, the Demon Deacons compiled a 5–4–1 record and finished in fourth place in the Atlantic Coast Conference with a 3–3–1 record against conference opponents. Tackle Bob Bartholomew was selected by both the Associated Press and the United Press International as a first-team player on the 1955 All-Atlantic Coast Conference football team. Rogers was replaced as Wake Forest head coach after five seasons. Paul Amen, who succeeded Rogers, came to Wake Forest from his post as an assistant at Army and struggled but managed to go 6–4 in his final season, his only winning record, he coached the Demon Deacons from 1956–1959.
In their first season under Amen, the Demon Deacons compiled a 2–5–3 record and finished in seventh place in the Atlantic Coast Conference with a 1–5–1 record against conference opponents. Halfback Billy Ray Barnes rushed for over 1,000 yards and was selected by the Associated Press as a first-team player on the 1956 All-Atlantic Coast Conference football team. Amen's 1957 team posted a winless 0–10 record; this was followed by a 3–7 season in 1958. In 1958, the Demon Deacons compiled a 6–4 record and finished in a tie for fourth place in the Atlantic Coast Conference. Quarterback Norm Snead and end Pete Manning were selected by the Associated Press and United Press International as first-team players on the 1959 All-Atlantic Coast Conference football team. Snead played 16 seasons in the NFL and was a four-time All-Pro selection. Guard Nick Patella was selected to the All-ACC team by the UPI. Amen was selected in 1956 and 1959 as ACC Coach of the Year, Amen retired after four seasons. Billy Hildebrand was promoted from defensive line coach to head coach following Amen's retirement.
Hildebrand, like his predecessors, struggled to find much success. His best season came in 1961. In its first season under Hildebrand, the Demon Deacons compiled a 2–8 record and finished in seventh place in the Atlantic Coast Conference. Quarterback Norm Snead was selected by the United Press International as a first-team player on the 1960 All-Atlantic Coast Conference football team. Snead played 16 seasons in the NFL and was a four-time All-Pro selection. In 1961, its second season under head coach Hildebrand, t
A linebacker is a playing position in American football and Canadian football. Linebackers are members of the defensive team, line up three to five yards behind the line of scrimmage, behind the defensive linemen, therefore "back up the line". Linebackers align themselves before the ball is snapped by standing upright in a "two-point stance"; the goal of the linebacker is to provide either extra run protection or extra pass protection based on the particular defensive play being executed. Another key play of the linebacker position is blitzing. A blitz occurs; when a blitz is called by the defense, it is to sack or hurry the opposing offense's quarterback. Linebackers are regarded as the most important position in defense, due to their versatility in providing hard hits on running plays or an additional layer of pass protection, when required. Similar to the "free safety" position, linebackers are required to use their judgment on every snap, to determine their role during that particular play.
Before the advent of the two-platoon system with separate units for offense and defense, the player, the team's center on offense was though not always, the team's linebacker on defense. Hence today one sees four defensive linemen to the offense's five or more. Most sources claim coach Fielding H. Yost and center Germany Schulz of the University of Michigan invented the position. Schulz was Yost's first linebacker in 1904. Yost came to see the wisdom in Schulz's innovation. William Dunn of Penn St. was another Western linebacker soon after Schulz. However, there are various historical claims tied to the linebacker position, including some before 1904. For example, Percy Given of Georgetown is another center with a claim to the title "first linebacker," standing up behind the line well before Schulz in a game against Navy in 1902. Despite Given, most sources have the first linebacker in the South as Frank Juhan of Sewanee. In the East, Ernest Cozens of Penn was "one of the first of the roving centers," another, archaic term for the position coined by Hank Ketcham of Yale.
Walter E. Bachman of Lafayette was said to be "the developer of the "roving center" concept". Edgar Garbisch of Army was credited with developing the "roving center method" of playing defensive football in 1921. In professional football, Cal Hubbard is credited with pioneering the linebacker position, he starred as a tackle and end, playing off the line in a style similar to that of a modern linebacker. The middle or inside linebacker, sometimes called the "Mike" or "Mack", is referred to as the "quarterback of the defense", it is the middle linebacker who receives the defensive play calls from the sideline and relays that play to the rest of the team, in the NFL he is the defensive player with the electronic sideline communicator. A jack-of-all-trades, the middle linebacker can be asked to blitz, spy the quarterback, or have a deep middle-of-the-field responsibility in the Tampa 2 defense. In standard defenses, middle linebackers lead the team in tackles; the terms middle and inside linebacker are used interchangeably.
In a 3–4 defense, the larger, more run-stopping-oriented linebacker is still called "Mike", while the smaller, more pass protection/route coverage-oriented player is called "Will". "Mikes" line up towards the strong side or on the side the offense is more to run on while "Wills" may line up on the other side or a little farther back between the defensive line and the secondary. The outside linebacker, sometimes called the "Buck and Rebel" is responsible for outside containment; this includes the weakside designations below. They are responsible for blitzing the quarterback. Only is the OLB responsible for outside containment and blitzing the Quarter Back they have pass coverage in the flats sometimes call A drop. Outside linebackers pass; the "flats" are the edge of the field closest to the sideline, from the line of scrimmage down about ten yards. The strongside linebacker is nicknamed the "Sam" for purposes of calling a blitz. Since the strong side of the offensive team, is the side on which the tight end lines up, or whichever side contains the most personnel, the strongside linebacker lines up across from the tight end.
The strongside linebacker will be called upon to tackle the running back on a play because the back will be following the tight end's block. He is most the strongest linebacker; the linebacker should have strong safety abilities in pass situation to cover the tight end in man on man situations. He should have considerable quickness to read and get into coverage in zone situations; the strongside linebacker is commonly known as the left outside linebacker. The weakside linebacker, or the "Will" in 4–3 Defense, sometimes called the backside linebacker, or "Buck", as well as other names like Jack or Bandit, must be the fastest of the three, because he
Michael Edward Shanahan is an American football coach, the head coach for the Los Angeles Raiders, Denver Broncos, Washington Redskins of the National Football League for a total of 20 seasons. During his 14 seasons with the Broncos, he led the team to consecutive Super Bowl victories in XXXII and XXXIII, which were the franchise's first two NFL titles. Shanahan played high school football at East Leyden High School, Franklin Park, where he played wishbone quarterback for legendary Eagles coach Jack Leese's 1968 and 1969 teams. Shanahan held the single-game rushing record of 260 yards on 15 carries until it was broken in 1976 by Dennis Cascio, he graduated from high school in June 1970. He was a quarterback at Eastern Illinois University. In 1972, a piercingly hard hit on the practice field ruptured one of his kidneys, which caused his heart to stop for thirty seconds and nearly killed him. A priest was summoned to administer the last rites to a devout Roman Catholic. With his playing career abruptly ended, Shanahan entered coaching.
After graduation, he served as an assistant coach at Northern Arizona University and the University of Oklahoma. He returned to his alma mater as offensive coordinator and helped his school win the Division II football championship. Shanahan worked as the offensive coordinator for the University of Minnesota for a single season, before accepting the same position at the University of Florida under head coach Charley Pell in 1980. Shanahan stayed with the Gators through 1983. Shanahan first served as a receivers coach and offensive coordinator for the Broncos under Dan Reeves in the 1980s, it was his skill as an offensive mind that garnered Shanahan the attention of maverick Los Angeles Raiders owner Al Davis. After Shanahan and the Raiders parted ways in 1989, Shanahan returned to the Broncos as an assistant, he was fired several years by Reeves after finding himself in the middle of a growing feud between Reeves and quarterback John Elway. Shanahan was hired by the Raiders in 1988 to replace longtime Raiders coach Tom Flores.
He was the Raiders' first head coach hired from outside the organization since Davis himself 23 years earlier. Shanahan and the micromanaging Davis clashed immediately, this was only exacerbated after the Raiders finished a disappointing 7–9, losing four of their last five games. Tensions increased towards the end of the season when wide receivers coach and Shanahan loyalist Nick Nicolau got into a heated argument with assistant coach Art Shell in which Nicolau accused Shell of only having a job by virtue of his friendship with Davis; when Shell went to Davis to ask if this was true, Davis' response was to fire Nicolau. Shanahan responded by firing running backs coach Joe Scannella and offensive coordinator Tom Walsh, but Davis ordered them both back to work. At the end of the season, Shanahan fired defensive assistants Charlie Sumner. An enraged Davis re-hired Brown to a different position in the organization; when the Raiders began 1 -- 3 in 1989, Shanahan himself was replaced by Shell. Shanahan's final Raiders record was 8–12 in less than two seasons, going 2–7 after a 6–5 start.
In 1992, Shanahan was hired as offensive coordinator for the San Francisco 49ers under Head Coach George Seifert, capping his rise with a victory in Super Bowl XXIX after the 1994 season. His years under Seifert placed him in the Bill Walsh coaching tree. In 1994 while coaching for the 49ers, Shanahan added to the ongoing feud between him and Raiders owner Al Davis when he had QB Elvis Grbac throw a football at Davis' head, which missed by a few inches as Davis was able to dodge it just in time, afterwards Davis responded with an obscene gesture. Shanahan's success with the 49ers earned him a head coaching spot once more, this time back in Denver with the Broncos beginning in 1995, he led the Broncos to back-to-back Super Bowl championships in the 1997 and 1998 seasons, during which time the Broncos set a then-record for victories in two seasons. Between 1996–1998, the Broncos set the NFL record for victories by going 46–10 over a three-year span; the 1998 Broncos won their first 13 games on their way to a 14–2 mark.
Shanahan, taking his cue from West Coast offense guru Bill Walsh, was well known for scripting the first 15 offensive plays of the game, helped the 1998 Broncos set an NFL record for first quarter points scored in a season. In 2005, he passed Dan Reeves as the winningest coach in franchise history. Shanahan is known for a run-heavy variation of the West Coast offense he coached in San Francisco, he has found unheralded running backs from rounds of the annual NFL Draft and turned them into league-leading rushers behind small-but-powerful offensive lines. Examples of this phenomenon are Terrell Davis, Mike Anderson, Olandis Gary, Clinton Portis, Reuben Droughns and Tatum Bell, all of whom have had at least one 1,000-yard season in a Denver uniform during Shanahan's tenure. In 1999, with the assistance of writer Adam Schefter, Shanahan penned Think Like a Champion, a motivational book about leadership, it was published by Harper Collins. In 2006, he cooperated with Stefan Fatsis's endeavor to spend a year as a Broncos place-kicker, much of the resulting book A Few Seconds of Panic covers Shanahan's coaching from the player's point of view.
After Elway's retirement and Davis' career-ending injuries, Shanahan went seven years without a playoff win, a drought which caused criticism from fans. The playo
Down (gridiron football)
A down is a period in which a play transpires in American and Canadian football. The down is a distinguishing characteristic of the game compared to other codes of football, but is synonymous with a "tackle" in rugby league; the team in possession of the football has a limited number of downs to advance ten yards or more towards their opponent's goal line. If they fail to advance that far, possession of the ball is turned over to the other team. In most situations, if a team reaches their final down they will punt to their opponent, which forces them to begin their drive from further down the field. A down begins with a snap or free kick, ends when the ball or the player in possession of it is declared down by an official, a team scores, or the ball or player in possession of it leaves the field of play; the player with possession of the ball after he has been tackled or is otherwise unable to advance the ball further on account of the play having ended is down. Down may refer to the ball after it is made dead in one manner or another.
The line of scrimmage for the next play will be determined by the position of the ball when it is down. Each possession begins with first down; the line to gain is marked 10 yards downfield from the start of this possession, the situation is described as "1st and 10". If the offensive team moves the ball past the line to gain, they make a new first down. If they fail to do this after a specified number of downs, the team is said to turn the ball over on downs, possession of the ball reverts to the opposing team at the spot where the ball was downed at the end of the last down. If a penalty against the defensive team moves the ball past the line to gain, the offensive team gets a new first down; some defensive penalties give the offense an automatic first down regardless of the distance. When the offensive team has not yet made a first down before reaching the final down, the team faces a last down situation, where the team is forced to decide whether to either scrimmage the ball in an attempt to pick up the first down, or alternatively to kick the ball.
Though statistical analysis of games suggests playing more aggressively is the better option, kicking the ball is seen as the safer solution. Downing the player with possession of the ball is one way to end a play. A player is made down when he is tackled by the defense. In the NFL, if the offensive player is touching the ground with some part of his body other than his hands or feet he is down if any defensive player touches him. In the NCAA, an offensive player touching the ground in the same manner is down, regardless of whether a defensive player touches him. If recovering the ball in one's opponent's end zone, a player may down the ball by dropping to one knee. A player in possession of the ball will down the ball. If a quarterback is running with the ball during his initial possession of the same play following the snap, he may down the ball by voluntarily sliding from his feet to a sitting or recumbent position - this is to protect the quarterback from injury. In the NFL, the quarterback is the only player for whom falling down in this way automatically stops play.
The situation at a down can be described succinctly in a short phrase of the form 1st/2nd/3rd/4th & X. The first part describes which down of the set of four the offense is on, the X is a number of yards between the current line of scrimmage and the line at which the offense would gain another set of downs. Thus, offenses will begin on 1st & 10. If they were to gain 5 yards on the play, the subsequent situation would be described as 2nd & 5. If the distance to the target line is small, the number of yards may be replaced by & inches. Colloquially, when the target line is far from the line of scrimmage, the term "& long" may be used; when an offence has a first down within 10 yards of the goal line, the goal line becomes the line to gain as they cannot make another first down without scoring. In these situations the number of yards is replaced with i.e. 1st & goal. Other downs-related terminology is as follows: First down: The term "first down" can be used both as the first down in a series of downs, for the statistical achievement of gaining the required ten yards to be awarded a new first down.
When a team begins a new possession--for example following a kickoff by their opponents--their first play in the ensuing series of downs will be "first down". However, it would not be recorded as a first down for statistical purposes as the offense didn't do anything to achieve the first down. Statistically they are only credited with a first down if they gain the required ten yards to be awarded a new series of downs. Down by contact: When a player with possession of