Kali known as Kālikā or Shyāmā, is a Hindu goddess. Kali is one of a list which combines Sakta and Buddhist goddesses. Kali's earliest appearance is that of a destroyer of evil forces, she is the goddess of one of the four subcategories of a category of tantric Saivism. Over time, she has been worshipped by devotional movements and tantric sects variously as the Divine Mother, Mother of the Universe, Adi Shakti, or Adi Parashakti. Shakta Hindu and Tantric sects additionally worship her as Brahman, she is seen as divine protector and the one who bestows moksha, or liberation. Kali is portrayed standing or dancing on her consort, the Hindu god Shiva, who lies calm and prostrate beneath her. Kali is worshipped by Hindus throughout India in West Bengal. Kālī is the feminine form of "time" or "the fullness of time" with the masculine noun "kāla"—and by extension, time as "changing aspect of nature that bring things to life or death." Other names include Kālarātri, Kālikā. The homonymous kāla, "appointed time," is distinct from kāla "deep blue," but became associated through popular etymology.
The association is seen in a passage from the Mahābhārata, depicting a female figure who carries away the spirits of slain warriors and animals. She is called kālarātri and kālī. Kālī is the feminine form of Kāla, an epithet of Shiva, thus the consort of Shiva. Hugh Urban notes that although the word Kālī appears as early as the Atharva Veda, the first use of it as a proper name is in the Kathaka Grhya Sutra. Kali appears in the Mundaka Upanishad not explicitly as a goddess, but as the dark blue tongue of the seven flickering tongues of Agni, the Hindu god of fire. According to David Kinsley, Kāli is first mentioned in Hindu tradition as a distinct goddess around 600 AD, these texts "usually place her on the periphery of Hindu society or on the battlefield." She is regarded as the Shakti of Shiva, is associated with him in various Puranas. Her most well known appearance on the battlefield is in the sixth century Devi Mahatmyam; the deity of the first chapter of Devi Mahatmyam is Mahakali, who appears from the body of sleeping Vishnu as goddess Yoga Nidra to wake him up in order to protect Brahma and the World from two demons Madhu and Kaitabha.
When Vishnu woke up he started a war against the two demons. After a long battle with lord Vishnu when the two demons were undefeated Mahakali took the form of Mahamaya to enchant the two asuras; when Madhu and Kaitabha were enchanted by Mahakali, Vishnu killed them. In chapters the story of two demons can be found who were destroyed by Kali. Chanda and Munda attack the goddess Durga. Durga responds with such anger, causing her face to turn dark resulting in Kali appearing out of her forehead. Kali's appearance is dark blue, gaunt with sunken eyes, wearing a tiger skin and a garland of human heads, she defeats the two demons. In the same battle, the demon Raktabija is undefeated because of his ability to reproduce himself from every drop of his blood that reaches the ground. Countless Raktabija clones appear on the battlefield. Kali defeats him by sucking his blood before it can reach the ground, eating the numerous clones. Kinsley writes that Kali represents "Durga's personified wrath, her embodied fury."Other origin stories involve Parvati and Shiva.
Parvati is portrayed as a benign and friendly goddess. The Linga Purana describes Shiva asking Parvati to defeat the demon Daruka, who received a boon that would only allow a female to kill him. Parvati merges with Shiva's body, reappearing as Kali to defeat his armies, her bloodlust gets out of control. The Vamana Purana has a different version of Kali's relationship with Parvati; when Shiva addresses Parvati as Kali, "the dark blue one," she is offended. Parvati becomes Gauri, the golden one, her dark sheath becomes. Regarding the relationship between Kali and Shiva, Kinsley writes that: In relation to Shiva, she appears to play the opposite role from that of Parvati. Parvati calms Shiva, counterbalancing his destructive tendencies. Kali is Shiva's "other wife," as it were, provoking him and encouraging him in his mad, disruptive habits, it is never Shiva who must calm Kali. Kāli appears in the Death of the Mahabharata, she is called Kālarātri and appears to the Pandava soldiers in dreams, until she appears amidst the fighting during an attack by Drona's son Ashwatthama.
Another story involving Kali is her escapade with a band of thieves. The thieves wanted to make a human sacrifice to Kali, unwisely chose a saintly Brahmin monk as their victim; the radiance of the young monk was so much that it burned the image of Kali, who took living form and killed the entire band of thieves, decapitating them and drinking their blood. In Kāli's most famous legend and her assistants, the Matrikas, wound the demon Raktabija, in various ways and with a variety of weapons in an attempt to destroy him, they soon find that they have worsened the situation for with every drop of blood that is
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus is the god of beginnings, transitions, duality, doorways and endings. He is depicted as having two faces, since he looks to the future and to the past, it is conventionally thought that the month of January is named for Janus, but according to ancient Roman farmers' almanacs Juno was the tutelary deity of the month. Janus presided over the beginning and ending of conflict, hence war and peace; the gates of a building in Rome named after him were opened in time of war, closed to mark the arrival of peace. As a god of transitions, he had functions pertaining to birth and to journeys and exchange, in his association with Portunus, a similar harbor and gateway god, he was concerned with travelling and shipping. Janus had no flamen or specialised priest assigned to him, but the King of the Sacred Rites himself carried out his ceremonies. Janus had an ubiquitous presence in religious ceremonies throughout the year; as such, Janus was ritually invoked at the beginning of each ceremony, regardless of the main deity honored on any particular occasion.
The ancient Greeks had no equivalent to Janus. Three etymologies were proposed by ancient erudites, each of them bearing implications about the nature of the god; the first one is based on the definition of Chaos given by Paul the Deacon: hiantem, hiare, be open, from which word Ianus would derive by loss of the initial aspirate. In this etymology, the notion of Chaos would define the primordial nature of the god. Another etymology proposed by Nigidius Figulus is related by Macrobius: Ianus would be Apollo and Diana Iana, by the addition of a D for the sake of euphony; this explanation has been accepted by A. B. Cook and J. G. Frazer, it supports all the assimilations of Janus to the sun and the moon. It supposes a former *Dianus, formed on *dia- < *dy-eð2 from Indo-European root *dey- shine represented in Latin by dies day and Iuppiter. However the form Dianus postulated by Nigidius is not attested. A third etymology indicated by Cicero and Macrobius, which explains the name as Latin, deriving it from the verb ire is based on the interpretation of Janus as the god of beginnings and transitions.
Modern scholars have conjectured that it derives from the Indo-European root meaning transitional movement. Iānus would be an action name expressing the idea of going, formed on the root *yā- < *y-eð2- theme II of the root *ey- go from which eō, ειμι. Other modern scholars object to an Indo-European etymology either from Dianus or from root *yā-. From Ianus derived ianua, hence the English word "janitor". While the fundamental nature of Janus is debated, in most modern scholars' view the god's functions may be seen as being organized around a single principle: presiding over all beginnings and transitions, whether abstract or concrete, sacred or profane. Interpretations concerning the god's fundamental nature either limit it to this general function or emphasize a concrete or particular aspect of it or else see in the god a sort of cosmological principle, interpreting him as a uranic deity. All of these modern explanations were formulated by the ancients, his function as god of beginnings has been expressed in numerous ancient sources, among them most notably Cicero and Varro.
As a god of motion, Janus looks after passages, causes actions to start and presides over all beginnings. Since movement and change are interconnected, he has a double nature, symbolised in his two headed image, he has under his tutelage the stepping in and out of the door of homes, the ianua, which took its name from him, not vice versa. His tutelage extends to the covered passages named iani and foremost to the gates of the city, including the cultic gate of the Argiletum, named Ianus Geminus or Porta Ianualis from which he protects Rome against the Sabines, he is present at the Sororium Tigillum, where he guards the terminus of the ways into Rome from Latium. He has an altar a temple near the Porta Carmentalis, where the road leading to Veii ended, as well as being present on the Janiculum, a gateway from Rome out to Etruria; the connection of the notions of beginning, movement and thence time was expressed by Cicero. In general, Janus is at the origin of time as the guardian of the gates of Heaven: Jupiter himself can move forth and back because of Janus's working.
In one of his temples that of Forum Holitorium, the hands of his statue were positioned to signify the number 355 365, symbolically expressing his mastership over time. He presides over the concrete and abstract beginnings of the world, such as religion and the gods themselves, he too holds the access to Heaven and to other gods: this is the reason why men must invoke him first, regardless of the god they want to pray to or placate, he is the initiator of human life, of new historical ages, financial enterprises: according to myth he was the first to mint coins and the as, first coin of the liberal series, bears his effigy on one face. Janus symbolized change and transitions such as the progress of past to future, from one condition to another, from one vision to another, young people's growth to adulthood, he represented time, because he could see in
Batara Kala is the god of the underworld in traditional Javanese and Balinese mythology, ruling over it in a cave along with Setesuyara. Batara Kala is named the creator of light and the earth, he is the god of time and destruction, who devours unlucky people. He is related to time. In mythology, he causes eclipses by trying to eat the Moon. According to legend, Batara Kala is the son of Batara Guru. Batara Guru has a beautiful wife named Dewi Uma. One day Batara Guru, in a fit of uncontrolled lust, forced himself on Dewi Uma, they had sexual intercourse on top of a divine cow. This behavior ashamed Uma, who cursed both of them so they appeared as ugly ogres; this fierce form of Dewi Uma is known in Hinduism as Durga. From this relationship, Batara Kala was born with the appearance of an ogre. Another origin story is. Batara Kala is described as having an insatiable appetite and being rude, he was sent by the devas to Earth to punish humans for their evil habits. However, Batara Kala was interested only in devouring humans to satisfy his appetite.
Alarmed, the devas recalled Batara Kala from the Earth. He became ruler of the underworld, together with the goddess Setesuyara. Traditionally, Javanese people try to obtain his favor, as the god of time and destruction, to prevent misfortune to children. Exorcism ceremonies, called ruwatan, are held for children born under "unlucky" circumstances, such as being born feet-first; this is to prevent such children from being devoured by Batara Kala. This ceremony includes a wayang performance and a selamatan feast. In Javanese mythology, Batara Kala is the cause of the solar and lunar eclipses; as the god of darkness and the underworld, Batara Kala is the sworn enemy of the god of the Moon, Batara Candra and god of the Sun, Batara Surya. Sometimes he will try to devour the Moon, causing an eclipse; when this eclipse happens, Javanese villagers will try to save the Sun or Moon by offering sacrifices and banging lesung or slit drums, to cause noise and make Batara Kala vomit. This is thought to stop the eclipse.
Simon Monbaron notes that Batara Kala symbolizes the negative effects of having sexual relations in a fit of passion. Batara Kala's negative aspects are described as a warning against the fate of all children born out of wedlock. Batara Kala's function as a Kirtimukha, has been considered similar to Bhoma in Indian and Balinese Hinduism
Zurvanism is an extinct branch of Zoroastrianism in which the divinity Zurvan is a First Principle who engendered equal-but-opposite twins, Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu. Zurvanism is known as "Zurvanite Zoroastrianism", may be contrasted with Mazdaism. In Zurvanism, Zurvan was aka. Zurvan was portrayed as a transcendental and neutral god, without passion, one for whom there was no distinction between good or evil; the name'Zurvan' is a normalized rendition of the word, which in Middle Persian appears as either Zurvān, Zruvān or Zarvān. The Middle Persian name derives from Avestan zruvan-, "time", grammatically without gender. Although the details of the origin and development of Zurvanism remain murky, it is accepted that Zurvanism was a branch of greater Zoroastrianism. Zurvanism enjoyed royal sanction during the Sassanid era but no traces of it remain beyond the 10th century. Although Sassanid era Zurvanism was influenced by Hellenic philosophy, the relationship between it and the Greek divinity of Time has not been conclusively established.
Non-Zoroastrian accounts of Zurvanite beliefs were the first traces of Zoroastrianism to reach the west, leading European scholars to conclude that Zoroastrianism was a monist religion, an issue of controversy among both scholars and contemporary practitioners of the faith. The Avestan word zruvan is etymologically related to the late Sanskrit word sarva, meaning "all, entire", which carries a similar semantic field in signifying a monist quality; the earliest evidence of the cult of Zurvan is found in the History of Theology, attributed to Eudemus of Rhodes. As cited in Damascius's Difficulties and Solutions of First Principles, Eudemus describes a sect of the Medes that considered Space/Time to be the primordial "father" of the rivals Oromasdes "of light" and Arimanius "of darkness"; the principal evidence for Zurvanite doctrine occurs in the polemical Christian tracts of Armenian and Syriac writers of the Sassanid period. Indigenous sources of information from the same period are the 3rd century Kartir inscription at Ka'ba-i Zartosht and the early 4th century edict of Mihr-Narse, the latter being the only native evidence from the Sassanid period, frankly Zurvanite.
The post-Sassanid Zoroastrian Middle Persian commentaries are Mazdean and with only one exception do not mention Zurvan at all. Of the remaining so-called Pahlavi texts only two, the Mēnōg-i Khrad and the Selections of Zatspram reveal a Zurvanite tendency; the latter, in which the priest Zatspram chastises his brother’s un-Mazdaean ideas, is the last text in Middle Persian that provides any evidence of the cult of Zurvan. The 13th century Zoroastrian Ulema-i Islam, a New Persian apologetic text, is unambiguously Zurvanite and is the last direct evidence of Zurvan as a First Principle. There is no hint of any worship of Zurvan in any of the texts of the Avesta though the texts are the result of a Sassanid era redaction. Zaehner proposes that this is because the individual Sassanid monarchs were not always Zurvanite and that Mazdean Zoroastrianism just happened to have the upper hand during the crucial period that the canon was written down. In the texts composed prior to the Sassanid period, Zurvan appears twice, as both an abstract concept and as a minor divinity, but there is no evidence of a cult.
In Yasna 72.10 Zurvan is invoked in the company of Space and Air and in Yasht 13.56, the plants grow in the manner Time has ordained according to the will of Ahura Mazda and the Amesha Spentas. Two other references to Zurvan are present in the Vendidad, but although these are late additions to the canon, they again do not establish any evidence of a cult. Zurvan does not appear in any listing of the Yazatas; the origins of the cult of Zurvan remain debated. One view considers Zurvanism to have developed out of Zoroastrianism as a reaction to the liberalization of the late Achaemenid era form of the faith. Another view proposes that Zurvan existed as a pre-Zoroastrian divinity, incorporated into Zoroastrianism; the third view is that Zurvanism is the product of the contact between Zoroastrianism and Babylonian-Akkadian religions. Certain however is that by the Sassanid era, the divinity "Infinite Time" was well established, and—as inferred from a Manichaean text presented to Shapur I, in which the name'Zurvan' was adopted for Manichaeism's primordial "Father of Greatness"—enjoyed royal patronage.
It was during the reign of Sassanid Emperor Shapur I that Zurvanism appears to have developed as a cult and it was in this period that Greek and Indic concepts were introduced to Zurvanite Zoroastrianism. It is however not known whether Sassanid era Zurvanism and Mazdais
Shiva known as Mahadeva is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the supreme being within one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism. Shiva is known as "The Destroyer" within the Trimurti, the Hindu trinity that includes Brahma and Vishnu. In Shaivism tradition, Shiva is the supreme being who creates and transforms the universe. In the tradition of Hinduism called Shaktism, the Goddess, or Devi, is described as supreme, yet Shiva is revered along with Vishnu and Brahma. A goddess is stated to be the energy and creative power of each, with Parvati the equal complementary partner of Shiva, he is one of the five equivalent deities in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta tradition of Hinduism. According to the Shaivism sect, the highest form of Shiva is formless, limitless and unchanging absolute Brahman, the primal Atman of the universe. There are many both fearsome depictions of Shiva. In benevolent aspects, he is depicted as an omniscient Yogi who lives an ascetic life on Mount Kailash as well as a householder with wife Parvati and his two children and Kartikeya.
In his fierce aspects, he is depicted slaying demons. Shiva is known as Adiyogi Shiva, regarded as the patron god of yoga and arts; the iconographical attributes of Shiva are the serpent around his neck, the adorning crescent moon, the holy river Ganga flowing from his matted hair, the third eye on his forehead, the trishula or trident, as his weapon, the damaru drum. He is worshipped in the aniconic form of Lingam. Shiva is a pan-Hindu deity, revered by Hindus, in India and Sri Lanka. Shiva is called as Bhramhan which can be said as Parabhramhan. Shiva means nothingness; the word shivoham means the consciousness of one individual, lord says that he is omnipotent, omnipresent, as he is present in the form of one's consciousness. In Tamil, he was called by different names other than Sivan. Nataraaja Rudra and Dhakshinamoorthy. Nataraja is the only form of Shiva worshipped in a human figure format. Elsewhere he is worshipped in Lingam figure. Pancha bootha temples are located in south India. Pancha Bhoota Stalam.
Tamil literature is enriched by Shiva devotees called 63 Nayanmars The Sanskrit word "Śiva" means, states Monier Monier-Williams, "auspicious, gracious, kind, friendly". The roots of Śiva in folk etymology are śī which means "in whom all things lie, pervasiveness" and va which means "embodiment of grace"; the word Shiva is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda, as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities, including Rudra. The term Shiva connotes "liberation, final emancipation" and "the auspicious one", this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature; the term evolved from the Vedic Rudra-Shiva to the noun Shiva in the Epics and the Puranas, as an auspicious deity, the "creator and dissolver". Sharva, sharabha presents another etymology with the Sanskrit root śarv-, which means "to injure" or "to kill", interprets the name to connote "one who can kill the forces of darkness"; the Sanskrit word śaiva means "relating to the god Shiva", this term is the Sanskrit name both for one of the principal sects of Hinduism and for a member of that sect.
It is used as an adjective to characterize certain practices, such as Shaivism. Some authors associate the name with the Tamil word śivappu meaning "red", noting that Shiva is linked to the Sun and that Rudra is called Babhru in the Rigveda; the Vishnu sahasranama interprets Shiva to have multiple meanings: "The Pure One", "the One, not affected by three Guṇas of Prakṛti". Shiva is known by many names such as Viswanatha, Mahandeo, Mahesha, Shankara, Rudra, Trilochana, Neelakanta, Subhankara and Ghrneshwar; the highest reverence for Shiva in Shaivism is reflected in his epithets Mahādeva, Maheśvara, Parameśvara. Sahasranama are medieval Indian texts that list a thousand names derived from aspects and epithets of a deity. There are at least eight different versions of the Shiva Sahasranama, devotional hymns listing many names of Shiva; the version appearing in Book 13 of the Mahabharata provides one such list. Shiva has Dasha-Sahasranamas that are found in the Mahanyasa; the Shri Rudram Chamakam known as the Śatarudriya, is a devotional hymn to Shiva hailing him by many names.
The Shiva-related tradition is a major part of Hinduism, found all over India, Sri Lanka, Bali. Scholars have interpreted early prehistoric paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters, carbon dated to be from pre-10,000 BCE period, as Shiva dancing, Shiva's trident, his mount Nandi. Rock paintings from Bhimbetka, depicting a figure with a trishul, have been described as Nataraja by Erwin Neumayer, who dates them to the mesolithic. Of several Indus valley seals that show animals, one seal that has attracted attention shows a large central figure, either horned or wearing a horned headdress and ithyphallic, seated in a posture reminiscent of the Lotus position, surrounded by animals; this figure was named by early excavators of Mohenjo-daro as Pashupati (Lord of Animals, Sansk
In ancient Roman religion and myth, the Parcae were the female personifications of destiny who directed the lives of humans and gods. They are called the Fates in English, their Greek equivalent were the Moirai; the Parcae controlled the metaphorical thread of life of every mortal and immortal from birth to death. The gods feared them, by some sources Jupiter was subject to their power; the names of the three Parcae are: Nona, who spun the thread of life from her distaff onto her spindle. The earliest extant documents referencing these deities are three small stelae found near ancient Lavinium shortly after World War II, they bear the inscription: Neuna fata, Neuna dono, Parca Maurtia dono The names of two of the three Roman Parcae are recorded and connected to the concept of fata. Nona was supposed to determine a person's lifespan on the dies lustricus, that is, the day on which the name of the child was chosen, which occurred on the ninth day from birth for a male and the eighth for a female.
The recurrence of the nundinae was considered a dies festus and as such nefas by some Roman scholars as Julius Caesar and Cornelius Labeo, because on it the flaminica dialis offered the sacrifice of a goat to Jupiter in the Regia. One of the sources for the Parcae is Metamorphoses by Ovid, II 654, V 532, VIII 452, XV 781. Another source is Aeneid by Virgil, in the opening of Book I. In mythology the Parcae were located on a higher hierarchical level than the highest gods: "The power of the Parcae was great and extend; some suppose. Jupiter himself can not interfere to save his son Sarpedon." Fates Norns, equivalent of the Fates in Norse mythology List of Roman birth and childhood deities Thomas Blisniewski: Kinder der dunkelen Nacht. Die Ikonographie der Parzen vom späten Mittelalter bis zum späten XVIII. Jahrhundert. Thesis. Cologne 1992. Berlin 1992 Media related to Moirae at Wikimedia Commons
Chronos is the personification of time in pre-Socratic philosophy and literature. Chronos was confused with, or consciously identified with, the Titan Cronus in antiquity due to the similarity in names; the identification became more widespread during the Renaissance, giving rise to the allegory of "Father Time" wielding the harvesting scythe. He was depicted in Greco-Roman mosaics as a man turning the Zodiac Wheel. Chronos might be contrasted with the deity Aion as cyclical Time. Chronos is portrayed as an old, wise man with a long, grey beard, similar to Father Time. In some Greek sources, Kairos is mentioned as a brother of Chronos. However, other sources point out. During antiquity, Chronos was interpreted as Cronus. According to Plutarch, the Greeks believed. In addition to the name, the story of Cronus eating his children was interpreted as an allegory to a specific aspect of time held within Cronus' sphere of influence; as the theory went, Cronus represented the destructive ravages of time which consumed all things, a concept, expressed when the Titan king devoured the Olympian gods — the past consuming the future, the older generation suppressing the next generation.
During the Renaissance, the identification of Cronus and Chronos gave rise to "Father Time" wielding the harvesting scythe. The original meaning and etymology of the word chronos are uncertain. English words derived from it include chronology, chronic and chronicle. In the Orphic tradition, the unaging Chronos was "engendered" by "earth and water", produced Aether and Chaos, an egg, it produced the hermaphroditic god Phanes who gave birth to the first generation of gods and is the ultimate creator of the cosmos. Pherecydes of Syros in his lost Heptamychos, around 6th century BC, claimed that there were three eternal principles: Chronos and Chthonie; the semen of Chronos was produced the first generation of gods. Kirk, G. S. J. E. Raven, M. Schofield; the Presocratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selection of Texts. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521274559. Plutarch, Volume V: Isis and Osiris; the E at Delphi. The Oracles at Delphi No Longer Given in Verse; the Obsolescence of Oracles. Translated by Frank Cole Babbitt.
Loeb Classical Library No. 306. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1936. ISBN 978-0-674-99337-2. Online version at Harvard University Press. West, M. L; the Orphic Poems, Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-814854-8