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Time signature

The time signature is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are contained in each measure, which note value is equivalent to a beat. In a music score, the time signature appears at the beginning as a time symbol or stacked numerals, such as or 34 following the key signature. A mid-score time signature immediately following a barline, indicates a change of meter. There are various types of time signatures, depending on whether the music follows regular beat patterns, including simple, compound. Simple time signatures consist of two numerals, one stacked above the other: The lower numeral indicates the note value that represents one beat; this number is a power of 2. The upper numeral indicates. For instance, 24 means two quarter-note beats per bar, while 38 means three eighth-note beats per bar; the most common simple time signatures are 24, 34, 44. By convention, two special symbols are sometimes used for 44 and 22: The symbol is sometimes used for 44 time called common time or imperfect time.

The symbol is derived from a broken circle used in music notation from the 14th through 16th centuries, where a full circle represented what today would be written in 32 or 34 time, was called tempus perfectum. See Mensural time signatures below; the symbol is a carry-over from the notational practice of late-Medieval and Renaissance music, where it signified tempus imperfectum diminutum —more a doubling of the speed, or proportio dupla, in duple meter. In modern notation, it is used in place of 22 and is called alla breve or, cut time or cut common time. In compound meter, subdivisions of the beat are in three equal parts, so that a dotted note becomes the beat; the upper numeral of compound time signatures is 3, 6, 9, or 12. The lower number is most an 8: as in 98 or 128. In the examples below, bold denotes a more-stressed beat, italics denotes a less-stressed beat. Simple: 34 is a simple triple meter time signature that represents three quarter notes, it is felt as 34: one and two and three and...

Compound: In principle, 68 comprises not three groups of two eighth notes but two groups of three eighth-note subdivisions. It is felt as 68: one two three four five six... These examples assume, for simplicity; the rhythm of actual music is not as regular. Time signatures indicating two beats per bar are called duple meter, while those with three beats to the bar are triple meter. Terms such as quadruple, so on, are occasionally used. To the ear, a bar may seem. For example, a fast waltz, notated in 34 time, may be described as being one in a bar. Correspondingly, at slow tempos, the beat indicated by the time signature could in actual performance be divided into smaller units. On a formal mathematical level, the time signatures of, e.g. 34 and 38 are interchangeable. In a sense, all simple triple time signatures, such as 38, 34, 32, etc.—and all compound duple times, such as 68, 616 and so on, are equivalent. A piece in 34 can be rewritten in 38 by halving the length of the notes. Other time signature rewritings are possible: most a simple time signature with triplets translates into a compound meter.

Though formally interchangeable, for a composer or performing musician, by convention, different time signatures have different connotations. First, a smaller note value in the beat unit implies a more complex notation, which can affect ease of performance. Second, beaming affects the choice of actual beat divisions, it is, for example, more natural to use the quarter note/crotchet as a beat unit in 64 or 22 than the eight/quaver in 68 or 24. Third, time signatures are traditionally associated with different music styles—it might seem strange to notate a rock tune in 48 or 42; the table below shows the characteristics of the most frequently-used time signatures. Signatures that do not fit the usual duple or triple categories are called complex, irregular, unusual, or odd—though these are broad terms, a more specific description is appropriate; the term odd meter, sometimes describes time signatures in which the upper number is odd rather than including 34 and 98. The irregular meters are common in some non-Western music, but appeared in formal written Western music until the 19th century.

Early anomalous examples appeared in Spain between 1516 and 1520, but the Delphic Hymns to Apollo, carved on the exterior walls of the Athenian Treasury at Delphi in 128 BC are in the common cretic meter, with five beats to a foot. The third movement of Frédéric Chopin's Piano Sonata No. 1 is an early, but by no means the earliest, example of 54 time in solo piano music. Anton Reicha's Fugue No. 20 from his Thirty-six Fugues

2008 Tandridge District Council election

The 2008 Tandridge District Council election took place on 1 May 2008 to elect members of Tandridge District Council in Surrey, England. One third of the council was up for election and the Conservative party stayed in overall control of the council. After the election, the composition of the council was Conservative 33 Liberal Democrat 8 Independent 1 Before the election the Conservatives controlled the council with 31 seats, while the Liberal Democrats were the main opposition with 9 councillors; this was after Liberal Democrat councillor Sakina Bradbury of Whyteleafe ward defected to the Conservatives in February 2008. 14 of the 42 seats on the council were being contested by a total of 45 candidates, with 3 of the sitting councillors not defending seats. The Conservatives contested all 14 seats, compared to 13 Liberal Democrat candidates, 9 Labour party, 6 UK Independence Party and 1 for the Green Party. Issues at the election included housing, with Labour calling for more affordable housing, while both the UK Independence Party and Green Party had concerns over the number of houses being built.

Other issues included recycling, with the Conservatives pointing to the weekly refuse collection that the council ran, council tax and leisure facilities. The Conservative party retained control of the council and made a net gain of 2 seats to have 42 councillors; the Conservatives gained Queens Park and Warlingham East and Farleigh from the Liberal Democrats and Valley from independent Peter Longhurst. The leader of the council, Conservative Gordon Keymer, said that it had been "a good night for us"; however the Conservatives did lose Westway to the Liberal Democrats by 88 votes, which left the Liberal Democrats with 8 seats and there was 1 independent councillor. Overall turnout at the election was 42.3%. A by-election was held in Whyteleafe on 2 February 2010 after Liberal Democrat councillor Jeffrey Gray resigned from the council when he moved away from Tandridge; the seat was held for the Liberal Democrats by David Lee with 57% of the vote


Ofloxacin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. When taken by mouth or injection into a vein, these include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, prostatitis and certain types of infectious diarrhea. Other uses, along with other medications, include treating multidrug resistant tuberculosis. An eye drop may be used for a superficial bacterial infection of the eye and an ear drop may be used for otitis media when a hole in the ear drum is present; when taken by mouth, common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea and rash. Other serious side effect include tendon rupture, numbness due to nerve damage and psychosis. Use in pregnancy is not recommended. Ofloxacin is in the fluoroquinolone family of medications, it works by interfering with the bacterium's DNA. Ofloxacin was patented in 1980 and approved for medical use in 1985, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.

Ofloxacin is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$3.27 per month. In the United States, a course of treatment costs about $50–100. In 2016, it was the 299th-most prescribed medication in the United States with more than a million prescriptions. Ofloxacin is used in the treatment of bacterial infections such as: Acute bacterial exacerbations of COPD Community-acquired pneumonia Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections Nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis Epididymitis Mixed Infections of the urethra and cervix Acute pelvic inflammatory disease Uncomplicated cystitis Complicated urinary tract infections Prostatitis Acute, uncomplicated urethral and cervical gonorrheaOfloxacin has not been shown to be effective in the treatment of syphilis. Ofloxacin is no longer considered a first-line treatment for gonorrhea, because of bacterial resistance. According to the product package insert, ofloxacin is effective against these microorganisms:Aerobic Gram-positive microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pyogenesAerobic Gram-negative microorganisms Citrobacter koseri Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Haemophilus influenzae Klebsiella pneumoniae Neisseria gonorrhoeae Proteus mirabilis Pseudomonas aeruginosaOther microorganisms: Chlamydia trachomatis In general, fluoroquinolones are well tolerated, with most side effects being mild to moderate.

On occasion, serious adverse effects occur. Common side effects include gastrointestinal effects such as nausea and diarrhea, as well as headache and insomnia; the overall rate of adverse events in patients treated with fluoroquinolones is similar to that seen in patients treated with other antibiotic classes. A U. S. Centers for Disease Control study found patients treated with fluoroquinolones experienced adverse events severe enough to lead to an emergency department visit more than those treated with cephalosporins or macrolides, but less than those treated with penicillins, sulfonamides, or vancomycin. Postmarketing surveillance has revealed a variety of rare but serious adverse effects associated with all members of the fluoroquinolone antibacterial class. Among these, tendon problems and exacerbation of the symptoms of the neurological disorder myasthenia gravis are the subject of "black box" warnings in the United States; the most severe form of tendonopathy associated with fluoroquinolone administration is tendon rupture, which in the great majority of cases involves the Achilles tendon.

Younger people experience good recovery, but permanent disability is possible, is more in older patients. The overall frequency of fluoroquinolone-associated Achilles tendon rupture in patients treated with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin has been estimated at 17 per 100,000 treatments. Risk is elevated in the elderly and in those with recent exposure to topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy. Simultaneous use of corticosteroids is present in one-third of quinolone-associated tendon rupture. Tendon damage may manifest up to a year after fluoroquinolone therapy has been completed. Fluoroquinolones prolong the QT interval by blocking voltage-gated potassium channels. Prolongation of the QT interval can lead to torsades de pointes, a life-threatening arrhythmia, but in practice, this appears uncommon in part because the most prescribed fluoroquinolones only minimally prolong the QT interval. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea may occur in connection with the use of any antibacterial drug those with a broad spectrum of activity such as clindamycin and fluoroquinolones.

Fluoroquinoline treatment is associated with risk similar to or less than that associated with broad spectrum cephalosporins. Fluoroquinoline administration may be associated with the acquisition and outgrowth of a virulent Clostridium strain; the U. S. prescribing information contains a warning regarding uncommon cases of peripheral neuropathy, which can be permanent. Other nervous system effects include insomnia and seizure, psychosis Other rare and serious adverse events have been observed with varying degrees of evidence for causation. Events that may occur in acute overdose are rare, include kidney failure and seizure. Susceptible groups of patients, such as children and the elderly, are at greater risk of adverse reactions during therapeutic use. Ofloxacin, like some other fluoroquinolones, may inhibit drug-metabolizing enzymes, thereby increase blood levels of other drugs such as cyclosporine, theophyllin

Fathom (comics)

Fathom is a comic book created by Michael Turner and published by Top Cow Productions. It was Michael Turner's first creator-owned comic book series. Fathom is published by Turner's own company, Aspen MLT. Fathom was created by Michael Turner, who said that he found the inspiration from an issue of National Geographic; the first series began in 1998 and was abruptly halted in 2002 when it was discovered that Turner had been diagnosed with cancer. During the period of inactivity on the main series, comic book artist Talent Caldwell drew a miniseries titled Fathom: Killian's Tide. After Turner's cancer went into remission, he left Top Cow and launched his own company, Aspen MLT Inc. During this period there was a legal conflict between Turner and Top Cow as to who owned the rights to Fathom. In 2004, Turner restarted the Fathom series and had a preview of its premiere in his company's first comic, Michael Turner Presents: Aspen. After that, a Fathom miniseries titled Fathom: Dawn of War was produced and, shortly after that, the series Fathom: Cannon Hawke was started.

The second volume in the Fathom series was drawn by artist Koi Turnbull. The third Fathom series was inked by Sal Regla. In 2017, Fathom got a sixth volume, this time written by Blake Northcott, pencilled by Marco Renna and inked by Mark Roslan. Dynamite Entertainment did a'Fathom: Prelude' one-shot, co-published with Aspen MLT. Fathom's popularity and originality led to it getting a green light in 2002 as a feature film; the film was to be made by director James Cameron and his production company Lightstorm Entertainment. In the past, Fathom had been considered as an animated film by Top Cow Productions and Fox Studios, but that fell through. There has been conflict with NBC's Surface television show; the TV show was named "Fathom" but due to copyright infringement on the comic book name, the producers changed it at the last minute to the title "Surface". Fathom begins as the cruise ship Paradise arrives in San Diego 10 years after it was reported to have disappeared. A military quarantine is established to cross-examine passengers.

Compounding the mystery was a girl discovered by the crew while the Paradise was still at sea. The girl could only remember. Aspen is taken from the ship by a vacationing naval officer, Captain Matthews, who adopts her and raises her as his own. Aspen has a strange attraction to water, spends much of her youth swimming making the US Olympic team for the 1988 Seoul games, she wins the gold, but has her medal taken away and receives a permanent ban after she fails a rigged drug test. Afterwards, Aspen receives a degree in Marine Biology, she is invited to study at a top-secret underwater science facility known as the DMD, or Deep Marine Discovery. The DMD is a joint project between the United States and Japan; the facility was built over a strange underwater craft of unknown origin which both nations study to determine its origin. However, the Americans and Japanese no longer trust each other and rely on an intermediary named Cannon Hawke to share research data. Aspen is introduced to a mysterious man who somehow entered the DMD and requested to be placed into a tube filled with water.

He requires no air. A US Navy test pilot named Chance Calloway is testing an experimental amphibious fighter plane for Admiral Maylander, who heads Naval Intelligence. Maylander is the man who oversaw the quarantine of the Paradise. Chance's wingman is killed by a craft resembling the one at the DMD. Violating orders, Chance pursues the craft, first in the air and underwater. Again disobeying orders, he fires a torpedo at the craft only to have it dissolve into the water before the torpedo reaches its target. Without a target, the torpedo locks onto the generator at the DMD and destroys it damaging the facility. Before she drowns, Aspen is rescued by the man in the tube who springs to life and attempts to take her with him, he begins to dissolve into the water, just like the alien craft, Aspen begins to dissolve as well. Naval rescue teams arrive and the man flees: Aspen is rescued, but not before Calloway sees her in a half-dissolved form, he goes AWOL to try to figure out what he saw. He finds Aspen, who cannot explain her abilities.

Before she can find out any more, she is abducted by government personnel and brought to Killian, held in the DMD. He tells Aspen that she is a member of a race of aquatic humanoids called the Blue who possess the ability to control water. Aspen enters the world of the Blue with Killian training. Aspen has unique powers for the Blue, Killian tricks her into helping him create an enormous weapon; this weapon called the "Blue Sun", is a huge ball of energy out in space powered by three underwater stations on Earth. Killian intends to use this weapon to drill a hole in the Earth's crust at a place known to the Blue as Chanarnay, or the "Valley of Stairs"; this hole would drain much of the world's oceans although the purpose is not known except to Killian. Before Killian can accomplish this, Aspen is convinced by her new friend Kyla to leave Killian and escape with Cannon Hawke, a member of the Blue himself, following Aspen for years to prevent Killian from using her to activate the Blue Sun. Kyla is an agent of Cannon's, placed into Killian's group to collect intelligence on him.

Killian nonetheless manages to get his plan in motion but not before Kyla reveals herself to Killian and helps Aspen escape, dying in the process. Aspen, C

Warfield Church

Warfield Parish Church is a Grade II* listed building. It is located on Church Lane, Warfield, in Berkshire, England, ¾ of a mile north-east of the modern centre of the village, it is dedicated to the archangel Michael. The area around the church has been designated a conservation area since 1974 to protect the character and nature of this historical building. Pevsner commented that "Warfield is one of the most rewarding churches around"; the building charts its origins back to 1016 when Queen Emma, the wife of King Æthelred the Unready decided to give "the vill and chapel" of Warfield to the See of Winchester. Although it is that the location where Warfield Church now stands has been a place of worship from 800AD when it was little more than a clearing in the middle of the Windsor Great Forest. "Warfelt" is mentioned in the Doomsday Book of 1086. In 1087 under the reign of William II, The Priory of Hurley was given patronage of Warfield, i.e. the right to appoint the Vicar. This patronage continued until 1535.

The first stone church was constructed in Warfield c. 1135 under King Stephen. The church building would have been a simple timber construction before that. In 1156 Henry II signed an official charter giving the lands and church of Warfield to the Monks of Hurley. In 1272 in the reign of Edward I a new chancel was built on the site of the present day St Katherine's chapel and glass started to be used in windows. At this date the Eucharist was only taken three times a year and all services were in Latin. In 1349 the Black Death hit Warfield; until that point the village of Warfield was in close proximity to the church. The Black Death caused people to relocate further afield; this explains the church's isolated location today. At the end of the 14th century the monks of Hurley moved to Warfield because the Thames flooded their priory in Hurley; the 14th century monks were formidable. They took over the Parish Church using the Chancel, today's St Katherine's Chapel, as their Chapter House, they built a fine Chapel as a scaled version of that at Hurley, the chalk having been brought from the Hurley chalk pits.

The monks gathered for corporate worship six times a day. Following the repair of Hurley in 1401 the monks began to return to their home besides the Thames. Several decades after the monks returned to their Priory on the Thames, the major part of the building at Warfield was constructed out of what the monks left behind; the Tower was built in the mid 15th century and the present bell tower was completed. In the 1500s the picture of the Church would have been one of priest with his helpers in the chancel, dressed in colourful robes, speaking hardly audible tones in Latin. Across the entrance to the Chancel was a large wooden screen with statutes on it. A restored version using some of the original carving is across the entrance to St Katherine's Chapel today; the walls were painted with pictures and texts. In 1523 Robert Geyn was appointed Vicar of Warfield. At the Bishop's visitation of 1550 the people complained that Geyn was not performing his duties, had employed an untrained curate to care for the church, was using the vicarage to care for horses and pigs.

In 1570 the Warfield Parish Rooms were built. It was known as the Wake House. People used to meet annually on the feast of the dedication of the church to St Michael; the building is on the site of an older monastic building. There is always some item of background controversy however, in 1674 the Warfield Wardens state that the present vicar had given up teaching and had become a farmer. In 1677 there was a yearlong lawsuit between John Brakes and the Warfield Church Wardens as to the ownership of the pew by the pulpit; the 16th and 17th centuries saw vast changes. Henry VIII's break with Rome led to the destruction of the priories. Local churches like Warfield were cleansed of all things that could lead to ritual and superstition; the walls were whitewashed and screens and statues would have been removed. The stone altar was removed and replaced by a simple wooden table. There was a large two decker pulpit. There are many memorials adorning the walls of St Michaels covering many centuries; the one shown to the left dates from the mid 18th century and is a memorial to a wife, husband and a child who died in infancy.

It was only during the excavation work for the new floor in the 21st century that the nature of this memorial was realised. Directly beneath the memorial were found the coffins of two adults and a child, they remain unmoved - the new floor placed on top. The 1700s saw the building filled with private pews but this did not lead to high attendance. In the 1780s according to the parish records the average at Communion was less than 15 with just over double that at festivals. By the early 19th century there was a Sunday School owing much to the model created by Robert Raikes the editor of the Gloucester Journal. In 1843 the Vicarage was burnt down, the Vicar emigrated with the funds for the new vicarage. In 1851 Warfield parish changed for the first time on record to create a Parish of Bracknell with its own church, Holy Trinity. In 1860 William Cocks wrote an account of Warfield church, he describes box pews, whitewashed ceiling, a gallery across the back with a barrel organ given by Lady Jane Walsh.

There was a two-deck pulpit, the farm workers sat at the back on benches. The west gallery to be known as the "Ormathwaite gallery" was entered by a stairway from inside the church, where his Lordship sat with his servant. Many were concerned that the Church of England had lost its way and in the 19th century two movements arose to remedy this. One of these was the Oxford Movement with i

Inglewood Stadium (Western Australia)

Inglewood Stadium known as Walter Road Reserve, is a sporting facility in Inglewood, Western Australia used for soccer. It is known as the Perth Plasterboard Centre Stadium under a sponsorship arrangement, it has been known as Inglewood Oval, Kiev Sports Park and, under former sponsorship arrangements, National Stadium, Clipsal Stadium, 6PR Stadium and Intiga Stadium. Inglewood Stadium is used by Inglewood United FC, who compete in the National Premier Leagues Western Australia. Inglewood have been based at the ground since 1963; the ground has been used by Perth Glory FC Youth and Perth Glory Women, in the A-League National Youth League and W-League respectively. Inglewood Stadium is surrounded by a series of football pitches used by junior and senior teams who compete in Football West competitions