Lewis Allan Reed was an American musician and songwriter. He was the lead guitarist and principal songwriter for the rock band the Velvet Underground and had a solo career that spanned five decades; the Velvet Underground were not a commercial success during their existence, but are now regarded as one of the most influential bands in the history of underground and alternative rock music. After leaving the band in 1970, Reed released twenty solo studio albums, his second, was produced by David Bowie and arranged by Mick Ronson, brought mainstream recognition. After Transformer, the less commercial Berlin reached No. 7 on the UK Albums Chart. Rock n Roll Animal sold and Sally Can't Dance peaked at No. 10 on the Billboard 200. Reed cleaned up in the early 1980s, returned to prominence with New Sensations, reaching a critical and commercial career peak with his 1989 album New York. Reed participated in the reformation of the Velvet Underground in the 1990s, made several more albums, including a collaboration album with John Cale titled Songs for Drella, a tribute to their former mentor Andy Warhol.
1992's Magic and Loss would become Reed's highest-charting album on the UK Albums Chart, peaking at No. 6. He contributed music to two theatrical interpretations of 19th century writers, one of which he developed into an album titled The Raven, he married his third wife Laurie Anderson in 2008, recorded the collaboration album Lulu with Metallica. He died in 2013 of liver disease. Reed's distinctive deadpan voice, poetic lyrics and experimental guitar playing were trademarks throughout his long career. Lewis Allan Reed was born on March 2, 1942 at Beth El Hospital in Brooklyn and grew up in Freeport, Long Island. Reed was Sidney Joseph Reed, an accountant, his family was Jewish. Reed said that although he was Jewish, his real god was roll. Reed went on to Freeport Junior High School, his sister Merrill, born Elizabeth Reed, said that as an adolescent, he suffered panic attacks, became awkward and "possessed a fragile temperament" but was focused on things that he liked music. Having learned to play the guitar from the radio, he developed an early interest in rock and roll and rhythm and blues, during high school played in several bands.
He began experimenting with drugs at the age of 16. His first recording was, his love for playing music and his desire to play gigs brought him into confrontation with his anxious and unaccommodating parents. His sister recalled that during his first year in college he was brought home one day, having had a mental breakdown, after which he remained "depressed and unresponsive" for a time, that his parents were having difficulty coping. Visiting a psychologist, Reed's parents were made to feel guilty as inadequate parents, consented to electroconvulsive therapy. Reed appeared to blame his father for the treatment, he wrote about the experience in his 1974 song, "Kill Your Sons". Reed recalled the experience as having been traumatic and leading to memory loss, he believed. After Reed's death, his sister denied the ECT treatments were intended to suppress his "homosexual urges", asserting that their parents were not homophobic but had been told by his doctors that ECT was necessary to treat Reed's mental and behavioral issues.
Upon his recovery from his illness and associated treatment, Reed resumed his education at Syracuse University in 1960, studying journalism, film directing, creative writing. He was a platoon leader in ROTC. In 1961, he began. Named after a song by pianist Cecil Taylor, the program featured doo wop and blues, jazz the free jazz developed in the mid-1950s. Reed said that when he started out he was inspired by such musicians as Ornette Coleman, who had "always been a great influence" on him. Reed's sister said that during her brother's time at Syracuse, the university authorities had tried unsuccessfully to expel him because they did not approve of his extracurricular activities. At Syracuse University, he studied under poet Delmore Schwartz, who he said was "the first great person I met", they became friends, he credited Schwartz with showing him how "with the simplest language imaginable, short, you can accomplish the most astonishing heights." One of Reed's fellow students at Syracuse in the early 1960s was the musician Garland Jeffreys.
Jeffreys recalled Reed's time at Syracuse: "At four in the afternoon we'd all meet at The Orange Grove. Me, Delmore and Lou; that would be the center of the crew. And Delmore was the leader - our quiet leader." While at Syracuse, Reed was introduced to heroin for the first time, contracted hepatitis. Sterling Morrison was not attending Syracuse at the time, but met Reed while he was visiting mutual friend Jim Tucker, the older brother of Velvet Underground drummer Moe Tucker, att
Marine One is the call sign of any United States Marine Corps aircraft carrying the President of the United States. It denotes a helicopter operated by Marine Helicopter Squadron One, either the large Sikorsky VH-3D Sea King or the newer, smaller VH-60N "White Hawk". Both helicopters are called "White Tops" because of their livery. Any Marine Corps aircraft carrying the Vice President has the call sign Marine Two; the first use of helicopters for transporting the President was in 1957, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower traveled on a Bell UH-13J Sioux; the President needed a quick way to reach his summer home in Pennsylvania, as Air Force One could not land at the White House or the summer home. Eisenhower instructed his staff to look into alternative modes of transportation and a Sikorsky UH-34 Seahorse helicopter was commissioned; the early aircraft lacked the "creature comforts" found on its modern successors, such as air conditioning and toilets for in-flight use. In 1958, the H-13 was replaced by the Sikorsky H-34, in 1961 by the VH-3A.
Not long after the mode of presidential transport was introduced, presidential aides asked the Marine Corps to look into the White House South Lawn as a helicopter landing zone. Ample room was present, the protocol was established; until 1976, the Marine Corps shared the responsibility of helicopter transportation for the President with the United States Army. Army helicopters used the call sign Army One; the VH-3D entered service in 1978. The VH-60N entered service in 1987 and has served alongside the VH-3D. Improvements were made to both types of helicopters since their introduction to both take advantage of technological developments as well as to meet new mission requirements. However, by about 2001, it was clear that so much extra weight had been added to the helicopters that mission capability was being reduced and few new improvements could be made. By 2009, there were eight VH-60Ns in service as Presidential/VIP helicopters. On 16 July 2009, Marine One flew with an all-female crew for the first time.
This was the final flight of Major Jennifer Grieves, the first woman pilot to fly the President. Marine One has not been the subject of any accident or attack through 2009. However, in 2006, President George W. Bush boarded Marine One with his departing press secretary, the ignition on Marine One's engines failed; the president was forced to depart the White House in an automobile. The September 11 attacks on the U. S. led to widespread agreement that the Marine One helicopter fleet needed significant upgrades to its communication and security systems. But these could not be made due to the weight added to the aircraft. In April 2002, the Department of Defense initiated the VXX program to develop a new presidential/VIP helicopter transportation system; the helicopter program was assigned to the U. S. Navy. A delivery date of 2011 was set. In November 2002, the White House asked the Secretary of Defense to accelerate the development of the new aircraft, DOD said it would have a new aircraft ready by the end of 2008.
To do so, DOD asked companies bidding on the aircraft design to begin development and production at the same time. Specifications for the new aircraft were kept secret. Industry publications and testimony at congressional briefings revealed, that the helicopter was to be 64 feet long, carry 14 passengers, be able to carry several thousand pounds of baggage and gear, have a greater range than the VH-3D or VH-60N; the helicopter's defensive capabilities were to include a radar jamming and deception system to ward off anti-aircraft missiles, hardening of key electronics against nuclear electromagnetic pulse. It was to include an encrypted telecommunications system and videoconferencing. Lockheed Martin and Sikorsky Aircraft competed against one another for the contract. Lockheed partnered with AgustaWestland, a joint British and Italian aircraft company, offered a version of the AgustaWestland AW101. Sikorsky proposed using its S-92; the Navy awarded the contract to Lockheed Martin in January 2005, to develop and build 28 helicopters.
The helicopter was designated VH-71 Kestrel. Five of the initial less-sophisticated VH-71 version were due for delivery in 2010, with 23 of the upgraded version due for delivery in 2015; the goal was to retire all VH-3Ds and VH-60Ns along with the five initial VH-71s at that time, leaving the Marine One fleet with 23 helicopters. By March 2008, the $6.1 billion cost of the 28 helicopters had skyrocketed to $11.2 billion. Members of Congress were shocked to discover that each VH-71 would cost $400 million—more than a single Air Force One Boeing VC-25 airplane. Lockheed Martin blamed the Navy for the cost overruns, saying that more than 1,900 extra requirements were added to the project after the contract was signed; the Navy said. The company blamed having to redesign the VH-71 to Navy standards, an incomplete understanding by the Navy and Lockheed Martin on just how much retrofitting the civilian aircraft would need to meet the White House's specifications. In June 2009, the VH-71 program was canceled due to these cost overruns.
By this time, cost estimates had ballooned to more than $13 billion. The Government Accountability Office issued a report in March 2011 that pointed to three sources for the cost overruns. First, asking for development at the same time as production led to extensive retrofitting of built models. Second, a full-scale review of the system's requirements did not occur until four months after production started. Only was it discovered that the VH-71's design could not meet the system's needs. Third, DOD and the White House asked for excessive combat and communi
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
Rudolph William Louis Giuliani is an American politician, attorney and public speaker who served as the 107th Mayor of New York City from 1994 to 2001. He acts as an attorney to President Donald Trump. Politically a Democrat an Independent in the 1970s, a Republican since the 1980s, Giuliani served as United States Associate Attorney General from 1981 to 1983; that year he became the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, holding the position until 1989. He prosecuted cases against corrupt corporate financiers; when Giuliani took office as Mayor of New York City, he appointed a new police commissioner, William Bratton, who applied the broken windows theory of urban decay, which holds that minor disorders and violations create a permissive atmosphere that leads to further and more serious crimes that can threaten the safety of a city. Within several years, Giuliani was credited for making major improvements in the city's quality of life and lowering the rate of violent crimes.
While Giuliani was still Mayor, he ran for the United States Senate in 2000. Giuliani was named Time magazine's Person of the Year for 2001, was given an honorary knighthood in 2002 by Queen Elizabeth II for his leadership in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001. In 2002, Giuliani founded Giuliani Partners and sold Giuliani Capital Advisors, joined a Texas firm while opening a Manhattan office for the firm renamed Bracewell & Giuliani. Giuliani sought the Republican Party's 2008 presidential nomination, was considered the early front runner in the race, before withdrawing from the race to endorse the eventual nominee, John McCain. Giuliani was considered a potential candidate for New York Governor in 2010 and for the Republican presidential nomination in 2012. Giuliani declined all races, instead remained in the business sector. In April 2018, Giuliani became one of President Trump's personal lawyers. Since he has appeared in the media in defense of President Trump. Giuliani was born in an Italian-American enclave in East Flatbush in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the only child of working-class parents, Harold Angelo Giuliani and Helen Giuliani, both children of Italian immigrants.
Giuliani is of Tuscan origins from his father side, as his paternal grandparents were born in Montecatini, Italy. He was raised a Roman Catholic. Harold Giuliani, a plumber and a bartender, had trouble holding a job, was convicted of felony assault and robbery, serving time in Sing Sing. After his release he worked as an enforcer for his brother-in-law Leo D'Avanzo, who ran an organized crime operation involved in loan sharking and gambling at a restaurant in Brooklyn; the family lived in East Flatbush, Brooklyn until Harold died of prostate cancer in 1981, after which Helen moved to Manhattan's Upper East Side. Helen was featured in a television commercial to promote her son in the 1993 mayoral election; when Giuliani was seven years old in 1951, his family moved from Brooklyn to Garden City South, where he attended the local Catholic school, St. Anne's, he commuted back to Brooklyn to attend Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School, graduating in 1961. Giuliani attended Manhattan College in Riverdale, where he majored in political science with a minor in philosophy and considered becoming a priest.
Giuliani was elected president of his class in his sophomore year, but was not re-elected in his junior year. He joined the Phi Rho Pi fraternity, he graduated in 1965. Giuliani decided to forego the priesthood and instead attended the New York University School of Law in Manhattan, where he made the NYU Law Review and graduated cum laude with a Juris Doctor degree in 1968. Giuliani started his political life as a Democrat, he volunteered for Robert F. Kennedy's presidential campaign in 1968, he worked as a Democratic Party committeeman on Long Island in the mid-1960s and voted for George McGovern for president in 1972. Upon graduation, Giuliani clerked for Judge Lloyd Francis MacMahon, United States District Judge for the Southern District of New York. Giuliani did not serve in the military during the Vietnam War, his conscription was deferred while he was enrolled at NYU Law. Upon graduation from the latter in 1968, he was classified by the Selective Service System as 1-A, he was rejected. In 1969, Judge MacMahon wrote a letter to Giuliani's draft board, asking that he be reclassified as 2-A, because Giuliani, a law clerk for MacMahon, was an essential employee.
The deferment was granted. In 1970, Giuliani received a high draft lottery number. In 1975, Giuliani switched his party registration from Democratic to Independent as he was recruited to Washington, D. C. during the Ford administration, where he was named Associate Deputy Attorney General and chief of staff to Deputy Attorney General Harold "Ace" Tyler. His first high-profile prosecution was of Democratic U. S. Representative Bertram L. Podell, convicted of corruption. From 1977 to 1981, during the Carter administration, Giuliani practiced law at the Patterson, Belknap and Tyler law firm, as chief of staff to his previous DC boss, Ace Tyler. Tyler became
John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport, colloquially referred to as Kennedy Airport, New York JFK Airport, JFK Airport, New York-JFK, or JFK or Kennedy, is the primary international airport serving New York City, it is the busiest international air passenger gateway into North America, the 22nd-busiest airport in the world, the sixth-busiest airport in the United States, the busiest airport in the New York airport system. More than ninety airlines operate from the airport, with nonstop or direct flights to destinations in all six inhabited continents. JFK is located in the Jamaica neighborhood of Queens in New York City, 16 miles southeast of Midtown Manhattan; the airport features four runways. It serves as a hub for both American Airlines and Delta Air Lines, it is the primary operating base for JetBlue Airways. JFK was formerly a hub for Pan Am, TWA, Eastern and Tower Air; the facility opened in 1948 as New York International Airport and was known as Idlewild Airport. Following John F. Kennedy's assassination in 1963, the airport was renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport as a tribute to the 35th President.
John F. Kennedy International Airport was called Idlewild Airport after the Idlewild Beach Golf Course that it displaced, it was built to relieve LaGuardia Airport. Construction began in 1943, about US$60 million was spent with governmental funding, but only 1,000 acres of the Idlewild Golf Course site were earmarked for use. In 1943, the project was renamed Major General Alexander E. Anderson Airport, after a Queens resident who had commanded a Federalized National Guard unit in the southern United States and died in late 1942. In March 1948, the New York City Council changed the name to New York International Airport, Anderson Field, but the common name was "Idlewild" until the end of 1963; the Port of New York Authority leased the Idlewild property from the City of New York in 1947 and maintains this lease today. The first flight from Idlewild was on July 1, 1948. S. President Harry S. Truman; the Port Authority canceled foreign airlines' permits to use LaGuardia, forcing them to move to Idlewild during the next couple of years.
Idlewild opened with a seventh under construction. Runway 31R is still in use. Runway 4 opened June 1949 and runway 4R was added ten years later. A smaller runway 14/32 was built after runway 7R closed and was used until 1990 by general aviation, STOL, smaller commuter flights; the Avro Jetliner was the first jet airliner to land at Idlewild on April 16, 1950. A Sud Aviation Caravelle prototype was the next airliner to land at Idlewild, on May 2, 1957. In 1957, the USSR sought approval for two Tupolev Tu-104 flights carrying diplomats to Idlewild; the airport was renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport on December 24, 1963, a month and two days after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; the IDL and KIDL codes have since been reassigned to Indianola Municipal Airport in Mississippi. The Port of New York Authority planned a single 55-gate terminal, but the major airlines did not agree with this plan, arguing that the terminal would be far too small for future traffic. Architect Wallace Harrison designed a plan for each major airline at the airport to be given its own space to develop its own terminal.
This scheme made construction more practical, made terminals more navigable, introduced incentives for airlines to compete with each other for the best design. The revised plan met airline approval in 1955, with seven terminals planned. Five terminals were for individual airlines, one was for three airlines, one was for international arrivals; the airport was designed for aircraft up to 300,000-pound gross weight The airport had to be modified in the late 1960s to accommodate the Boeing 747's weight. The International Arrivals Building, or IAB, was the first new terminal at the airport, opening in December 1957; the building was designed by Skidmore and Merrill. The terminal stretched nearly 700 meters and was parallel to runway 7R; the terminal had "finger" piers at right-angles to the main building allowing more aircraft to park, an innovation at the time. The building was expanded in 1970 to accommodate jetways. However, by the 1990s the overcrowded building was showing its age and it did not provide adequate space for security checkpoints.
It was demolished in 2000 and replaced with Terminal 4. United Airlines and Delta Air Lines opened Terminal 7, a Skidmore design similar to the IAB, in October 1959, it was demolished in 2008. Eastern Airlines opened their Chester L. Churchill-designed Terminal 1 in November 1959; the terminal was demolished in 1995 and replaced with the current Terminal 1. American Airlines opened Terminal 8 in 1960, it was designed by Kahn and Jacobs and had a 317-foot stained-glass façade designed by Robert Sowers, the largest stained-glass installation in the world until 197
Kevin Spacey Fowler is an American actor and singer. He began his career as a stage actor during the 1980s before obtaining supporting roles in film and television, he gained critical acclaim in the 1990s that culminated in his first Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for the neo-noir crime thriller The Usual Suspects and an Academy Award for Best Actor for the midlife crisis-themed drama American Beauty. His other starring roles have included the comedy-drama film Swimming with Sharks, the psychological thriller Seven, the neo-noir crime film L. A. Confidential, the drama Pay It Forward, the science fiction-mystery film K-PAX, the musical biopic Beyond the Sea, the superhero film Superman Returns, the action film Baby Driver. In Broadway theatre, Spacey won a Tony Award in 1991 for his role in Lost in Yonkers. In 2017, he hosted the 71st Tony Awards, he was the artistic director of the Old Vic theatre in London from 2004 until stepping down in mid-2015. From 2013 to 2017, Spacey played Frank Underwood in the Netflix political drama series House of Cards.
The role won him a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Drama and two consecutive Screen Actors Guild Awards for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Drama Series. In October 2017, Spacey was accused by actor Anthony Rapp of making a sexual advance toward him when Rapp was 14. Shortly after, numerous other men alleged that Spacey had sexually assaulted them; as a result, Netflix cut ties with him, shelved his film Gore and removed him from the last season of House of Cards. His scenes in Ridley Scott's film All the Money in the World were reshot with actor Christopher Plummer replacing his role; the next year, Spacey appeared in Billionaire Boys Club with his role unchanged. In December 2018, he was charged with indecent assault and battery in relation to journalist Heather Unruh's accusation that he sexually assaulted her 18-year-old son. Spacey was born in South Orange, New Jersey, to Kathleen Ann, a secretary, Thomas Geoffrey Fowler, a technical writer and data consultant.
He has an older brother, Randy Fowler, a limousine driver and Rod Stewart impersonator in Boise, a sister, Julie Ann Fowler Keir, an office worker. His family relocated to southern California. Randy Fowler has stated that their father, whom he described as a racist "Nazi supporter", was sexually and physically abusive, that Spacey had shut down and become "very sly and smart" to avoid whippings. Spacey attended Northridge Military Academy, Canoga Park High School in the 10th and 11th grades, he graduated co-valedictorian of the class of 1977 of Chatsworth High School in Chatsworth, California. At Chatsworth, Spacey starred in the school's senior production of The Sound of Music, playing the part of Captain Georg von Trapp with Winningham as Maria von Trapp, he started using his middle name "Spacey", his paternal grandmother's maiden name. Spacey had tried to succeed as a comedian for several years before attending the Juilliard School in New York City, as a member of Group 12, where he studied drama with teacher Marian Seldes between 1979 and 1981.
During this time period, he performed stand-up comedy in bowling alley talent contests. Spacey's first professional stage appearance was as a spear carrier in a New York Shakespeare Festival performance of Henry VI, Part 1 in 1981; the following year, he made his first Broadway appearance, as Oswald in a production of Henrik Ibsen's Ghosts, starring Liv Ullmann. He portrayed Philinte in Molière's The Misanthrope. In 1984, he appeared in a production of David Rabe's Hurlyburly, in which he rotated through each of the male parts. Next came Anton Chekhov's The Seagull. In 1986, he appeared in a production of Sleuth in a New Jersey dinner theatre, his prominence as a stage actor began in 1986, when he was cast opposite Jack Lemmon, Peter Gallagher and Bethel Leslie as Jamie, the eldest Tyrone son, in Jonathan Miller's lauded production of Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night. Lemmon in particular would become a mentor to him and was invited, along with Spacey's high school drama teacher, to be present when Spacey received his star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1999.
He made his first major television appearance in the second-season premiere of Crime Story, playing a Kennedy-esque American senator. Although his interest soon turned to film, Spacey remained involved in the live theater community. In 1991, he won a Tony Award for his portrayal of Uncle Louie in Neil Simon's Broadway hit Lost in Yonkers. Spacey's father was unconvinced that Spacey could make a career for himself as an actor, did not change his mind until Spacey became well-known; some of Spacey's early roles include a widowed, eccentric millionaire on L. A. Law, the television miniseries The Murder of Mary Phagan, opposite Lemmon, the comedy See No Evil, Hear No Evil, he earned a fan base after playing the criminally insane arms dealer Mel Profitt on the television series Wiseguy. He developed a reputation as a character actor, was cast in bigger roles, including the malevolent office manager in the ensemble film Glengarry Glen Ross, one-half of a bickering Connecticut couple in the dark comedy film The Ref, a malicious Hollywood studio boss in the satire Swimming with Sharks, gaining him positive notices by critics.
His performance as the enigmatic criminal Verbal Kint in Bryan Singer's 1995 neo-noir film The Usual Suspects won him the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Spacey appeared in the 1995 thriller film Seven, maki