History of San Francisco
The history of the city of San Francisco and its development as a center of maritime trade, were shaped by its location at the entrance to a large natural harbor. San Francisco is the name of the county. Only settled by European-Americans at first, after becoming the base for the gold rush of 1849, the city became the largest and most important population, commercial and financial center in the American West. San Francisco was devastated by a great earthquake and fire in 1906 but was rebuilt; the San Francisco Federal Reserve Branch opened in 1914, the city continued to develop as a major business city throughout the first half of the 20th century. Starting in the half of the 1960s, San Francisco became the city most famous for the hippie movement. In recent decades, San Francisco has become an important center of technology; the high demand for housing, driven by its proximity to Silicon Valley, the low supply of available housing has led to the city being one of America's most expensive places to live.
San Francisco is ranked ninth on the Global Financial Centres Index. The earliest evidence of human habitation in what is now the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Native Americans who settled in this region found the bay to be a resource for hunting and gathering, leading to the establishment of many small villages. Collectively, these early Native Americans are now known as the Ohlone, the language they spoke belonged to the Miwok family, their trade patterns included places as far away as the Mojave Desert and Yosemite. The earliest Europeans to reach the site of San Francisco were a Spanish exploratory party in 1769, led overland from Mexico by Don Gaspar de Portolà and Fra. Juan Crespi; the Spanish recognized the location, with its large natural harbor, to be of great strategic significance. A subsequent expedition, led by Juan Bautista de Anza, selected sites for military and religious settlements in 1774; the Presidio of San Francisco was established for the military, while Mission San Francisco de Asís began the cultural and religious conversion of some 10,000 Ohlone who lived in the area.
The mission became known as Mission Dolores, because of its nearness to a creek named after Our Lady of Sorrows. The first anchorage was established at a small inlet on the north-east end of the peninsula, the small settlement that grew up nearby was named Yerba Buena, after the herb of the same name that grew in abundance there; the original plaza of the Spanish settlement remains as Portsmouth Square. Today's city took its name from the mission, Yerba Buena became the name of a San Francisco neighborhood now known as South of Market; the Moscone Center and Yerba Buena Gardens are in the Yerba Buena area. In addition, the name Yerba Buena was applied to the former Goat Island in the middle of San Francisco Bay, adjacent to Treasure Island. San Francisco became part of the United States with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. European visitors to the San Francisco Bay Area were preceded at least 8,000 years earlier by Native Americans. According to one anthropologist, the indigenous name for San Francisco was Ahwaste, meaning, "place at the bay".
Linguistic and paleontological evidence is unclear as to whether the earliest inhabitants of the area now known as San Francisco were the ancestors of the Ohlone population encountered by the Spanish in the late 18th century. The cultural unit, Ohlone, to which the San Francisco natives belonged did not recognize the city or county boundaries imposed by Americans, were part of a contiguous set of bands that lived from south of the Golden Gate to San José; when the Spanish arrived, they found the area inhabited by the Yelamu tribe, which belongs to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. The Ohlone speakers are distinct from Pomo speakers north of the San Francisco Bay, are part of the Miwok group of languages, their traditional territory stretched from Big Sur to the San Francisco Bay, although their trading area was much larger. Miwok-speaking Indians lived in Yosemite, Ohlone-speakers intermarried with Chumash and Pomo speakers as well; the Spanish conquest of the San Francisco Bay area came than to Southern California.
San Francisco's characteristic foggy weather and geography led early European explorers such as Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo to bypass the Golden Gate and miss entering San Francisco Bay, although it seems clear from historical accounts of navigation that they passed close to the coastline north and south of the Golden Gate. A Spanish exploration party, led by Portolà and arriving on November 2, 1769, was the first documented European sighting of San Francisco Bay. Portolà claimed the area for Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Seven years a Spanish mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, was established by Fra. Junípero Serra, a military fort was built, the Presidio of San Francisco. In 1786 French explorer, the Comte de La Pérouse visited San Francisco and left a detailed account of it. Six years in 1792 British explorer George Vancouver stopped in San Francisco, in part, according to his journal, to spy on the Spanish settlements in the area. In addition to Western Europeans, Russian fur-traders visited the area.
From 1770 until about 1841, Russian traders colonized an area that ranged from Alaska south to Fort Ross in Sonoma County, California. The naming of San Francisco's Russian Hill neighborhood is attributed to the remains of Russian fur traders and sailors found there. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first significant homeste
Angel Stadium of Anaheim known as Anaheim Stadium and Edison International Field of Anaheim, is a modern-style ballpark located in Anaheim, California. Since its opening in 1966, it has served as the home ballpark of the Los Angeles Angels of Major League Baseball, was the home stadium to the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League from 1980 to 1994; the stadium is referred to by its unofficial nickname The Big A, coined by Herald Examiner Sports Editor, Bud Furillo. It is the fourth-oldest active Major League Baseball stadium, behind Fenway Park, Wrigley Field, Dodger Stadium, it hosted the 1967, 1989, 2010 Major League Baseball All-Star Games. Angel Stadium and its surrounding parking lot are bounded by Katella Avenue to the north, the Orange Freeway to the east, Orangewood Avenue to the south, State College Boulevard to the west. Located near the eastern boundary of the parking lot is the landmark "Big A" sign and electronic marquee, which served as a scoreboard support; the halo located near the top of the 230' tall, 210-ton sign is illuminated following games in which the Angels win, which gives rise to the fan expression, "Light that baby Up!"
ARTIC servicing the Metrolink Orange County Line and Amtrak Pacific Surfliner, is located nearby on the other side of the State Route 57 and accessed through the Douglass Road gate at the northeast corner of the parking lot. The station provides convenient access to the stadium, the nearby Honda Center, Disneyland from various communities along the route, which links San Luis Obispo, Los Angeles, San Diego; the Anaheim Resort Transit stops at the center along with Orange County Transportation Authority buses. Aside from professional baseball and football, Angel Stadium has hosted high school and college football games, National Football League pre-season games, the short-lived World Football League, two crusades by evangelist Billy Graham, nearly 20 consecutive annual crusades by evangelist Greg Laurie, Eid el Fitr celebrations, concerts, 2 to 3 AMA Supercross Championship races a year; the stadium houses the studios and offices of the Angels' owned and operated flagship radio station, KLAA.
Angel Stadium has been the home of the Angels since their move from Los Angeles. On August 31, 1964, ground was broken for Anaheim Stadium and in 1966, the then-California Angels moved into their new home after having spent four seasons renting Dodger Stadium from the Dodgers; the stadium was built on a parcel of about 160 acres of flat land used for agricultural purposes by the Allec and Knutzen families in the southeast portion of Anaheim. Consistent with many major-league sports stadiums built in the 1960s, it is located in a suburban area, though one, host to major tourist attractions; the field dimensions were derived from a scientific study conducted by the Angels. Based on the air density at normal game times, the Angels tried to formulate dimensions that were balanced between pitcher and average weather conditions; the Angels tinkered with those dimensions several times, expanding or contracting parts of the outfield by a few feet here and there, to try to refine that balance. 396 feet is the shortest center-field in the American League, tied for 2nd-shortest in the major leagues with Petco Park behind only Dodger Stadium's 395 feet.
None of this seemed to matter to their Hall of Fame pitcher Nolan Ryan, who threw two of his record seven no-hitters in this ballpark, racked up 2,416 of his 5,714 career strikeouts in eight seasons with the Angels. One of the no-hitters, on June 1, 1975, was his fourth, which tied Sandy Koufax's career record, one Ryan would supplant. In the late 1970s, Los Angeles Rams owner Carroll Rosenbloom was looking for a more modern venue than the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, wanted a stadium that would be small enough to keep Rams games from being blacked out on local television; the Coliseum seated 100,000 people, the Rams had trouble filling it in their best years. Rosenbloom brokered a deal by which the Rams would move from Los Angeles to an expanded Anaheim Stadium. To add more seats for football games, the mezzanine and upper decks were extended around the playing field, resulting in a trapezoidal enclosed stadium. An elevated bank of bleachers was built in right field, temporary seats were placed underneath, to be pulled out for football games.
Another bank of bleachers was built in left field. As a result, the view of the local mountains and State Highway 57 was lost. Additionally, the Big A scoreboard support that stood in left field, was the inspiration for the stadium's nickname, was moved 1,300 feet to its present site in the parking lot, adjoining the Orange Freeway beyond the right-field stands. A black and white scoreboard/instant replay video board was installed above the newly constructed upper deck seats in left field, but was deemed inadequate during day games. A triangular metal spire was added to the top of the Jumbotron to evoke the original emplacement of the "Big A"; the changes did not sit well with Angels fans. As built, no s
History of San Jose, California
This article covers the history of San Jose, the third largest city in the state, the largest of all cities in the San Francisco Bay Area and Northern California, with a population of 982,765. For thousands of years before the arrival of European settlers, the area now known as San Jose was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans. Permanent European presence in the area came with the 1770 founding of the Presidio of Monterey and Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo by Gaspar de Portolà and Junípero Serra, about sixty miles to the south. Don Pedro Fages, the military governor at Monterey, passed through the area on his 1770 and 1772 expeditions to explore the East Bay and Sacramento River Delta. Late in 1775, Juan Bautista de Anza led the first overland expedition to bring colonists from New Spain to California and to locate sites for two missions, one presidio, one pueblo, he left the colonists at Monterey in 1776, explored north with a small group. He selected the sites of the Presidio of San Francisco and Mission San Francisco de Asís in what is now San Francisco.
Anza returned to Mexico City before any of the settlements were founded, but his name lives on in many buildings and street names. El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe was founded by José Joaquín Moraga on November 29, 1777, the first pueblo-town not associated with a mission or a military post in upper Las Californias; the town was founded by the colonists led to California by Anza, as a farming community to provide food for the presidios of San Francisco and Monterey. In 1778, the pueblo had a population of 68. In 1781, Governor Felipe de Neve issued the first rules regarding governance of secular pueblos, the "Regulations for the Government of the Province of the Californias" In 1797, the pueblo was moved from its original location, near the present-day intersection of Guadalupe Parkway and Taylor Street, to a location in what is now Downtown San Jose, surrounding Pueblo Plaza. In the ensuing years a number of Mexican Rancho Land Grants Land Grants were confirmed within the lands now considered San Jose.
List of Spanish and Mexican Alcaldes of San Jose:Spanish rule Jose Manuel Gonzales, Alcalde of San Jose 1785-1789 Ignacio Archuleta, Alcalde of San Jose 1803–? Mexican rule: Antonio Suñol, Alcalde of San Jose 1841–? Pedro Chabolla, Alcalde of San Jose 1845 Antonio Maria Pico, Alcalde of San Jose 1845–1846 Dolores Pacheco, Alcalde of San Jose 1846 John Burton, Alcalde of San Jose 1846–1847 During the Bear Flag Revolt, Captain Thomas Fallon led a small force from Santa Cruz and captured the pueblo without bloodshed on July 11, 1846. Fallon received an American flag from John D. Sloat, raised it over the pueblo on July 14, as the California Republic agreed to join the United States following the start of the Mexican–American War. Fallon would become the tenth mayor of San Jose. It's unclear whether or not Fallon ordered all townspeople of Spanish/Mexican origin out of San Jose, as some local historians claimed. During the California Gold Rush period, the New Almaden Quicksilver Mines just south of the city were the largest mercury mines in North America.
The cinnabar deposits were discovered in 1845 by a Mexican cavalry captain, Andres Castillero, when he recognized the red powder used by local Ohlone Indians to decorate the chapel at Mission Santa Clara. Mining operations began in 1847 at what was the first operating mine in the province, just in time for the Gold Rush; the importance of the mercury industry at the time explains why the local newspaper is named the Mercury News. On March 27, 1850, San Jose became the first incorporated city in the U. S. state of California. It served as the state's first capital with the first and second sessions of the California Legislature, known as the Legislature of a Thousand Drinks, being held there in 1850 and 1851; the legislature was unhappy with the location, as no buildings suitable for a state government were available in the city, took up State Senator Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo's offer to build a new capital on land he donated to the state in what is now Benicia. From 1858 to 1861, San Jose was a stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail stage line.
In 1881, because of a forceful campaign by editor J. J. Owen of the San Jose Mercury, the city council authorized the construction of the San Jose Electric Light Tower, ostensibly to replace the gas streetlights that had illuminated downtown San Jose since 1861, it didn't provide sufficient illumination, by 1884 was used only for ceremonial purposes. It collapsed during the great gale of 1915. In 1989, an informal "Court of Historical Inquiry" looked into the issue of whether the Eiffel Tower was a copyright infringement of the Electric Light Tower. In 1884, Sarah L. Winchester, the widow of William Winchester and heiress to the empire that manufactured the Winchester rifle, moved from Connecticut to San Jose and began a construction project of such magnitude that it was to occupy the lives of carpenters and craftsmen until her death: the house was continually under construction for thirty-eight years. Before the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the Winchester M
History of San Diego
The written history of the San Diego, region began in the present state of California when Europeans first began inhabiting the San Diego Bay region. As the first area of California in which Europeans settled, San Diego has been described as "the birthplace of California."Explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo claims to have discovered San Diego Bay in 1542 200 years before Europeans settled the area. A fort and mission were established in 1769, which expanded into a settlement under first Spanish and Mexican rule. San Diego became part of the U. S. in 1848, the town was named the county seat of San Diego County when California was granted statehood in 1850. It remained a small town for several decades, but grew after 1880 due to development and the establishment of multiple military facilities. Growth was rapid during and after World War II. Entrepreneurs and boosters laid the basis for an economy based today on the military, defense industries, international trade, manufacturing. San Diego is now the eighth largest city in the country and forms the heart of the larger San Diego metropolitan area.
The area has long been inhabited by the Kumeyaay Native American people. The first European to visit the region was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542, his landing is re-enacted every year at the Cabrillo Festival sponsored by Cabrillo National Monument, but it did not lead to settlement. The bay and the area of present-day San Diego were given their current name sixty years by Sebastián Vizcaíno when he was mapping the coastline of Alta California for Spain in 1602. Vizcaino was a merchant. After holding the first Catholic service conducted on California soil on the feast day of San Diego de Alcala, he renamed the bay, he left after 10 days and was enthusiastic about its safe harbor, friendly natives, promising potential as a successful colony. Despite his enthusiasm, the Spanish were unconvinced. In 1769, Gaspar de Portolà and his expedition founded the Presidio of San Diego, on July 16, Franciscan friars Junípero Serra, Juan Viscaino and Fernando Parron raised and'blessed a cross', establishing the first mission in upper Las Californias, Mission San Diego de Alcala.
Colonists began arriving in 1774. In the following year the Kumeyaay indigenous people rebelled against the Spanish, they killed the priest and two others, burned the mission. Serra organized the rebuilding, a fire-proof adobe and tile-roofed structure was completed in 1780. By 1797 the mission had become the largest in California, with a population of more than 1,400 converted Native American "Mission Indians" relocated to and associated with it; the tile-roofed adobe structure was destroyed by an 1803 earthquake but replaced by a third church in 1813. In 1821 Mexico ousted the Spanish in the Mexican War of Independence and created the Province of Alta California; the San Diego Mission was secularized and shut down in 1834 and the land was sold off. 432 residents petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy.
The original town of San Diego was located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area, now Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. The location was not ideal. Imported goods and exports had to be carried over the La Playa Trail to the anchorages in Point Loma; this arrangement was suitable only for a small town. In 1830 the population was about 600. In 1834 the presidio was described as "in a most ruinous state, apart from one side, in which the commandant lived, with his family. There were only two guns, one of, spiked, the other had no carriage. Twelve half-clothed and half-starved-looking fellows composed the garrison, they, it was said, had not a musket apiece." The settlement composed about forty brown huts and three or four larger, whitewashed ones belonging to the gentry. In 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because of its dwindling population, estimated as 100 to 150 residents, it was considered a suburb of Los Angeles. During the Mexican–American War the control of the city was exchanged three times: once in July 1846 when the USS Cyane and the California Battalion took control, in October 1846 when Californio forces took control, again in October 1846 when the American flag was raised again over the pueblo.
By November 1846, American control was secured with the arrival of reinforcements from the USS Congress. Following events near San Gabriel in early January 1847, peace returned to California. Alta California became part of the United States in 1848 following the U. S. victory in the Mexican–American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The resident "Californios" became American citizens with full voting rights. California was admitted to the Union as a state in 1850. San Diego, still little more than a village, was incorporated on March 27 as a city and was named the county seat of the newly established San Diego County; the United States Census reported the population of the town as 650 in 1850 and 731 in 1860. San Diego promptly got into financial trouble due to overspending on a poorly designed jail. In 1852 the state repealed the city charter, in effect declaring the city bankrupt, installed a state-controlled three-member board
Maritime history of California
In the California coast, the use of ships and the Pacific Ocean has included water craft, shipbuilding, Gold Rush shipping, shipwrecks, naval ships and installations, lighthouses. The maritime history of California can be divided into several periods: the Native American period. In the northwest coast of California near the redwood forests several Indian tribes developed large dugout canoes they used for fishing and warfare; these canoes were constructed by taking a large tree and shaping it with hand tools and fire to a boat's configuration. A redwood log 4 metres long and 240 centimetres diameter weighs about 2,000 kilograms; this large weight meant that the logs were selected that required a minimum of movement—usually driftwood or dead fall trees, blown over by the wind. Sometimes logs were cut to length and rolled into water where they could be floated to a selected work area; the logs were cut to length by fire and stone age hand tools and the interior of the canoe was burned out with small fires.
The basic procedure was to start a small fire on the tree where it needed shaping extinguish it after a short burn. This would leave one or more centimeters of charred wood where the fire was built that would be easier to remove. By successively using small fires to char the areas that needed to be worked the logs could be shaped by the crude scrapers and rock and horn based tools available. A finished 4 metres long dugout canoe with a nominal 5 centimetres thickness still weighed over 100 kilograms. Most larger dugouts weighed too much to move and were just pulled up on a beach far enough to get them above high tide. Constructing these types of dugout canoes took considerable time and skill with stone age tools and fire. Dugout canoes lasted several years. Tule have a rounded green stems that grows to 1 to 3 metres tall, they grow well at the edges of bodies of water. The tule stem has a pithy interior filled with spongy tissue packed with air cells—this makes it float well on water as well as a good insulator.
Native Americans used tule for making and thatching huts, mats, decoys, hats and shoes. Tule was cut using deer scapula'saws' that had rough saw like edges cut into them. Tule has to be handled with care when green to avoid breaking the stem and gains strength when it is dried. To make a tule boat, green tule was cut and spread out in the sun to dry for several days. Tule canoes were constructed of cut stalks of tule plants bundled together around a willow'core' for extra strength; the bundle of tules could be pre-bent. The length of each bundle depends on the size of the boat that were typically about 10 feet to 15 feet; the bundle that formed the bottom of the canoe on which the boatman or boatmen sat, knelt or stood was much larger than the others. To make the sides of the tule canoe two to six tapered bundles were tied to the bottom bundle with grape vines or other native material with extensive lacing at the stern and prow to bend all the tule bundles into a tapered and raised bow and stern.
Tule canoes accommodated one to four people. Tule boats can be built from dried tule, by experienced canoe builders, in less than one day. Tule boats have a limited useful life before they rot and/or come apart—typically only lasting a few weeks. Several tribes in and around the San Francisco Bay area and in northern California made and used tule canoes. Bay Miwok, Coast Miwok, Pomo, Klamath and several other indigenous natives used the tule plant to make canoes. Tule canoes were used in ocean lagoons from Tomales Bay and Point Reyes National Seashore south to Monterey Bay. Tule–reed boats were used in lakes and slow-moving rivers in much of Northern California, they were used by the Pomo living in the Laguna de Santa Rosa and Clear Lake, Tule Lake and other areas. They were common in the San Francisco Bay and on the extensive Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and its tributary rivers; these tule canoes were used for transportation to and from their favorite spots for hunting or harvesting salmon, seeds, shellfish or oysters and other fish or foods.
Extensive beds and shoals of oysters and other shellfish lay in shallow water near the shores of San Francisco Bay and Tomales Bay and were a food source used for centuries. Tule canoes were used for gathering more tule reeds and for hunting duck or geese which were often present in the wetlands, etc. in the millions. Tule canoes were used in collecting duck and goose eggs. Ducks and geese were hunted from tule canoes with arrows or nets. Tule canoes were used in fishing with nets, spears or bone fish hooks for several native fish species present in or migrating through the rivers and bays; the boatman sits, kneels or stands in the boat and either paddles it with a double bladed paddle or with his arms in a single person canoe when lying prone. If the boat was not woven enough the boatman would find himself sitting, standing or kneeling in several inches of water; the tule canoes were used for transportation to oyster mollusk and other shellfish beds that could be harvested at low tide. The Emer
History of Piedmont, California
The history of Piedmont, covers the history of the area in California's San Francisco Bay Area, now known as Piedmont, up to and beyond the legal establishment of a city. In 1850, what is now Piedmont was part of Rancho San Antonio; this area, owned by the Peralta family, covered much of the northeastern shore of San Francisco Bay, now northern Alameda County. Rancho San Antonio was sparsely populated except for the vaqueros who tended them. In 1860, retired South Carolinian Congressman Isaac Holmes bought a piece of land from his neighbor Reed; the area included Bushy Dell Creek, a creek that runs through the dog-walking trail of modern-day Piedmont. Holmes bathed in the foul-smelling pink water of a nearby spring, believing the water beneficial for his rheumatism. In 1870, Walter Blair bought over 800 acres of land in the foothills of East Bay. Where the spring was located he built the Piedmont Springs Hotel, of 20 bedrooms and five dining rooms; the water of the spring was thought to have curative powers.
Wealthy San Franciscans retired to the hotel during trips to "the country."In addition to the hotel, Blair built a dairy farm on what is now Highland Avenue and a quarry where Dracena Park is today. In April 1877, James Gamble bought a 350-acre tract of land from Blair, formed the Piedmont Land Company, along with James deFremery, George W. Beaver, L. A. Booth, T. L. Barker; the Piedmont Land Company hired landscape engineer William Hammond Hall to plan the avenues and subdivide the tract into 67 parcels. The first auction of land took place on April 10, 1877. In January 1891, the women of Piedmont led a temperance movement to block the sale of liquor at the Piedmont Springs Hotel, they petitioned the Alameda County Board of Supervisors to withdraw the liquor license granted to the owner of the hotel. Prominent signers included Annie Barton, Anna Richardson, N. Randall, Florence Wing, Inez Craig, M. Laurence, Ethyl Robert, Mary Gamble; the liquor controversy ended with the Piedmont Springs Hotel fire.
On November 17, 1892, sparks from the chimney of the hotel set the roof on fire. Newspapers reported that Firefighters had to arrive from Oakland, two hours at 11:30 a.m. to contain the flames. Jack London never lived in "Piedmont", because in 1900, Scenic Avenue was in unincorporated Oakland. After marrying Bess Maddern, the newlywed couple settled in a redwood bungalow in the eastern hills of unincorporated Oakland to become part of the present-day city of Piedmont. At the time, this area was growing into a community for artists, it was here. London's two daughters, including Joan London, were born during this time. In 1902, London moved to 206 Scenic Avenue, "tried to create a childhood he never had," Piedmont historian Ann Swift wrote, he entertained "Peter Pans of both sexes," flew kites, held bubble-blowing contests, competed to see who could swallow the most soda crackers. London's friends included fellow Bohemians George Sterling, James Hopper, Herman Whitaker, Xavier Martinez, Blanche Partington, Charmian Kittredge.
After divorcing Bess Maddern London in 1904, he married Kittredge. The Bohemians were characterized by living non-traditional lifestyles as artists, writers and actors. Unlike their wealthier neighbors, the Bohemians of Piedmont could not afford to have their homes constructed for them and instead built them themselves. Francis Marion Smith and Frank C. Havens encouraged the development of pre-Piedmont into a city. Smith, who made his fortune on borax, built railroads the East Bay's Key System. Havens headed and was in charge of the Realty Syndicate, which subdivided 13,000 acres of East Bay property. Havens began a major restoration. In May 1898 the new park was complete. In 1901, the first post office opened. In 1908 Havens built an art gallery. Carrie Sterling, estranged wife of George Sterling, nephew of Havens, served as curator; the population of Piedmont increased fourfold following the 1906 earthquake. San Franciscans fled the City to the hills. To accommodate the growing population, a new city hall and fire station were built a block from the park.
Two elections were held among the citizens of Piedmont in 1907, both of which narrowly upheld the decision for Piedmont to become a city. By the Roaring Twenties, Piedmont was known as the "City of Millionaires" because it had the most resident millionaires per square mile of any city in the United States. Many of these millionaires built mansions that still stand, notably on Glen Alpine Road/Sotelo Avenue and Sea View Avenue in upper Piedmont. Piedmont became a charter city under the laws of the State of California on December 18, 1922. On February 27, 1923, voters adopted the charter, which can only be changed by another vote of the people. By the 1920s, Frank Havens had died and Piedmont Park was on the path towards subdivision. Wallace Alexander, who had moved to Piedmont from Hawaii with his wife, Mary Alexander, stepped forward, he loaned the city enough to buy the park, encouraged the Bay Area architect Albert L. Farr to create the Civic Center Plan; this plan was presented to the community in 1922.
It included expanding City Hall, building a city library, connecting the entrance of Piedmont Park to the electric trolley line, the transportation at the time. Of the plan, little did materialize; the exedra, the structure that includes the iconic vase of Piedmont, was built at the head of Piedmont Park. Piedmont High School was opened to students the following year, it was funded by a bond passed by voters in 1920. However, the stock market crash of 1929
History of California 1900–present
This article continues the history of California in the years 1900 and later. After 1900, California continued to grow and soon became an agricultural and industrial power; the economy was based on specialty agriculture, tourism, shipping and after 1940 advanced technology such as aerospace and electronics industries – along with a significant military presence. The films and stars of Hollywood helped make the state the "center" of worldwide attention. California became an American cultural phenomenon. Silicon Valley became the world's center for computer innovation. California is now the most populous state in the United States. If it were an independent country, California would rank 34th in population in the world. California has had waves of emigration over the years; the first big wave was the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 of miners, farmers, etc. as well as their many supporters. There were fewer than 10,000 females in a total California population of about 120,000 residents in 1850.
About 3.0% of the gold rush Argonauts before 1850 were female or about 3,500 female Gold Rushers, compared to about 115,000 male California Gold Rushers. Massive immigration from other states continued throughout the nineteenth century. California did not reach a "normal" male to female ratio of about one to one until the 1950 census. California for over a century was short on females; the 1900 census showed emigrations down to "only" a 20% growth rate. The early 1900s showed a massive population increase of over 60% between 1900 and 1910; the population more than doubled again in the next 20 years by 1930. Foreign immigration ceased during the Great Depression, as immigration to the United States was held to a low of 23,068 per year by 1933, many foreign workers were deported. There were not enough jobs to go around. After World War II and the Great Depression, there was a increasing buildup of United States workers in California as wartime industries boomed. Most of these workers were from other states as they settled in California and increased the California population to 10,586,223 by 1950.
Immigration to the United States only started to increase in 1946, when immigration to all of the United States was back up to 108,721 per year The continuing prosperity and emigration from other states and immigration from other countries in the 1950s and 1970s doubled the California population again to 19,953,134 by 1970. The 1970–2010 population growth has still been substantial but has slowed to "only" about a 15% growth rate per decade. By 2010 the California population growth rate slowed to 10%. Earthquakes in California are common occurrences since the state is traversed by six major strike-slip fault systems with hundreds of related faults, many of which are "sister faults" of the infamous San Andreas Fault that runs nearly the full length of California at the juncture of the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate; the fault systems include the Hayward Fault Zone, Calaveras Fault, Clayton-Marsh Creek-Greenville Fault, the San Gregorio Fault. Significant blind thrust faults are associated with portions of the Santa Cruz Mountains and the northern reaches of the Diablo Range and Mount Diablo.
The California earthquake forecast gives a rough estimate of where the main earthquake zones in California are. Earthquake damage depends on what area is hit, how close to the surface the center of the earthquake is located, its magnitude. Earthquake damage, for a given magnitude earthquake, to human structures depends on how well the buildings are built and what the structures are located on. Buildings on soft or filled-in soil suffer the most. Buildings on bedrock suffer less damage. Sometimes the ensuing fires, floods or tsunamis caused by the earthquake are where the greatest damage occurs; the 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the city and nearby communities at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18, 1906. Devastating fires broke out in the city that lasted for several days, destroying about 28,000 buildings; as a result of the quake and fires, over 3,000 people died and over 80% of San Francisco was destroyed. The death toll from the earthquake and resulting fire is the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California's history.
The most accepted estimate for the magnitude of the earthquake is a moment magnitude or Richter magnitude of 7.8. Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, inland as far as central Nevada; the San Francisco 1906 earthquake was caused by a rupture on the San Andreas Fault, a continental transform fault that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The fault is characterized by lateral motion where the western plate moves northward relative to the eastern plate; the 1906 rupture propagated both northward and southward from its epicenter for a total of about 300 miles. The San Andreas Fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino to the north, a distance of about 810 miles; the earthquake ruptured the northern third of the fault for a distance of about 300 miles. The maximum observed surface displacement was about 20 feet (6.1 m