Gammeltorv is the oldest square in Copenhagen, Denmark. With adjoining Nytorv it forms a common space along the Strøget pedestrian zone, while the square dates back to the foundation of the city in the 12th century, most of its buildings were constructed after the Great Fire of 1795 in Neoclassical style. Another dominating feature is the Caritas Well, a Renaissance fountain erected by King Christian IV in 1610, Gammeltorv has been the focal point of Copenhagens judicial and political life as well as one of its two principal marketplaces. Several former city halls have been located on the square or in its immediate vicinity, its name is not a reference to adjoining Nytorv but to the slightly younger Amagertorv, Copenhagens other major market in early times. Already prior to Absolons construction of his castle on Slotsholmen, there seems to have been a marketplace at Gammeltorv, possibly a Thing. Copenhagens first town hall, of which nothing is known, was built on the east side of the square but destroyed during Hanseatic capture.
In 1374 the square is referred to as Forum and in 1446 the square is referred to as the old square as opposed to the somewhat younger Amagertorv, from 1470 the name Gammeltorv is used consistently. In 1479 a new hall was built om the south side of Gammeltorv. Towards the end of the 16th century, King Frederick II provided for the construction of a tube from Lake Emdrup. Six kilometres long, it was made from carved out tree trunks, King Christian IV rebuilt the town hall in Renaissance style from 1608 to 1610. He moved and redesigned Frederick IIs fountain, creating the Caritas Well and it was at this point that the area behind the town hall was cleared and Nytorv founded. When Kongens Nytorv—King Christian Vs grand new place royale—was established in 1670, in the Great Fire of 1728, the town hall was among the many buildings lost to the flames. A new town hall was erected on its foundation, built to a design of Johan Conrad Ernst, to commemorate the tercentenary of the House of Oldenburgs accent to the Danish throne, the City Magistrate erected an octagonal memorial temple in the square in 1749.
In the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 the city burnt down once again. After this it was moved to a site at Nytorv and the two squares were merged to form one large, rectangular space. After the fire the buildings around the square were rebuilt in the Neoclassical style typical of the time. The square was known for its poultry ladies who gathered around the Caritas Well, selling poultry. They came from the village of Valby unlike the vendours on Amagertorv who came from Amager, after this the Citys attention became directed at the trade at Gammeltorv and on 15 April 1910 a Pork Hall was inaugurated
Christianization of Scandinavia
The Christianization of Scandinavia took place between the 8th and the 12th centuries. The realms of Scandinavia proper, Denmark and Sweden, established their own Archdioceses, responsible directly to the Pope, in 1104,1154 and 1164, respectively. The conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian people required more time, the Sami remained unconverted until the 18th century. Although the Scandinavians became nominally Christian, it took longer for actual Christian beliefs to establish themselves among the people. The old indigenous traditions that had provided security and structure were challenged by ideas that were unfamiliar, such as sin, the Incarnation. Thirteenth-century runic inscriptions from the merchant town of Bergen in Norway show little Christian influence, during the early Middle Ages the papacy had not yet manifested itself as the central Roman Catholic authority, so that regional variants of Christianity could develop. Recorded missionary efforts in Denmark started with Willibrord, Apostle to the Frisians, who preached in Schleswig and he went north from Frisia sometime between 710 and 718 during the reign of King Ongendus.
Willibrord and his companions had little success, the king was respectful but had no interest in changing his beliefs, agantyr did permit 30 young men to return to Frisia with Willibrord. Perhaps Willibrords intent was to them and recruit some of them to join his efforts to bring Christianity to the Danes. A century Ebbo, Archbishop of Reims and Willerich, Bishop of Bremen and he returned to Denmark twice to proselytize but without any recorded success. In 826, the King of Jutland Harald Klak was forced to flee from Denmark by Horik I, Harald went to Emperor Louis I of Germany to seek help getting his lands in Jutland back. Louis I offered to make Harald Duke of Frisia if he would give up the old gods, Harald agreed, and his family and the 400 Danes with him were baptized in Ingelheim am Rhein. When Harald returned to Jutland, Emperor Louis and Ebbo of Rheims assigned the monk Ansgar to accompany Harald, when Harald Klak was forced from Denmark by King Horik I again, Ansgar left Denmark and focused his efforts on the Swedes.
Ansgar traveled to Birka in 829 and established a small Christian community there and his most important convert was Herigar, described as a prefect of the town and a counselor to the king. In 831 the Archdiocese of Hamburg was founded and assigned responsibility for proselytizing Scandinavia, Horik I sacked Hamburg in 845 where Ansgar had become the archbishop. The seat of the archdiocese was transferred to Bremen, in the same year there was a pagan uprising in Birka that resulted in the martyrdom of Nithard and forced the resident missionary Bishop Gautbert to flee. Ansgar returned to Birka in 854 and Denmark in 860 to reestablish some of the gains of his first visits, in Denmark he won over the trust of then-King Horik II who gave him land in Hedeby for the first Christian chapel. A second church was founded a few years in Ribe on Denmarks west coast, a significant step in this direction was the foundation of an archbishopric for the whole of Scandinavia at Lund in 1103-04
Christian's Church, Copenhagen
Christians Church is a magnificent Rococo church in the Christianshavn district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Designed by Nicolai Eigtved, it was built 1754–59, the church was originally built by the German community as a church for the large German community at Christianshavn and served this purpose until the end of the 19th century. Today it is a parish church for Christians Parish within the Danish National Church. Its name is a reference to King Christian IV. who founded the Christianshavn district in 1611, after Christian IV founded Christianshavn in 1617 as a town specially for merchants, a large community of German tradrers and craftsmen settled there. This lasted until they finally asked King Christian VI for permission to build their own church, the King approved the plans and contributed with a lot, a former saltern, located at the end of Strandgade in the southern part of the neighbourhood. He granted permission for a lottery to be held to cover the financing with the result that the finished church used to be colloquially known as the Lottery Church.
In return for his approaval and donation of the lot, the laid down very specific guidelines for the placement. Nicolai Eigtved, the preferred architect at the time, was charged with the design of the new church but died in 1754. Instead his son-in-law, Royal Master Builder Georg David Anthon, was entrusted with supervising the construction of the church which was completed in 1759. Anthon designed the spire which is an addition from 1769, the church originally called Frederiks German Church, and served its original purpose as a church for the German congregation until it was dissolved in 1886. Since 1991 it has been a parish church for Christians Parish which includes part of Christianshavn as well as Slotsholmen. The church has a layout, the nave occupying the space between the shorter rather than the longer sides of the rectangle, giving it exceptional width. Standing on a plinth, the church is a yellow brick building with sandstone finishing for the portal. Ionic pilasters decorate the portal and the windows are tall.
The tower stands 70 metres high, designed by Eigtveds son-in-law D. G. Anthon, the spire was added in 1769. The tower is positioned at the centre of the side which serves as the main facade. The unusual interior of Christians Church is reminiscent of a theatre, in addition to the benches on either side of the nave, three tiers of galleries complete with boxes rise the full height of the building on the northern and southern sides. They are all arranged to provide the congregation with an excellent view of the podium on the side which is reminiscent of a stage
University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden
The University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden, usually referred to simply as Copenhagen Botanical Garden, is a botanical garden located in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 10 hectares and is noted for its extensive complex of historical glasshouses dating from 1874. The garden is part of the Natural History Museum of Denmark and it serves both research and recreational purposes. The botanical garden was first established in 1600 but it was moved twice before it was given its current location in 1870. It was probably founded to secure a collection of Danish medicinal plants after the Reformation had seen many convents, the first garden, known as Hortus Medicus, was created on 2 August 1600 by royal charter on a piece of land donated by the king, Christian IV. It was located in Skidenstræde and a residence for one of the professors of the university was built at the site. It rested upon the professor in residence to maintain the garden, the smaller western section, covering just under half a hectare, was equipped with a greenhouse while the eastern section remained largely unplanted.
The garden was opened to the public in 1763, in 1770 part of Oeders Garden was put at the disposal of the Universitys botanical garden. The preceding year Christian VII had donated 2,500 thaler to the University and this had created the economical foundation for an enlargement but since there was no space for it at its original address, the off-site solution was ultimately opted for. Oeder became the Botanical Gardens first director, oeder was fired in 1771 in connection with the Johann Friedrich Struensee affair. Plans for this garden received royal approval on 22 July 1778 and it was to have two directors, one appointed by the University and the other by the King. The first University appointment to this post was Christian Friis Rottbøll, who had managed the garden since Oeders retirement. At the same event, a professor was employed at the garden. The first to hold this chair was Martin Vahl, who played a part in moving the plants from Oeders Garden to Charlottenborg Garden. In 1817, the model with a double directorship was abandoned when Jens Wilken Hornemann was made the director of the garden.
At this stage the garden encompassed approximately 1.6 hectares in a low, waterlogged area that was bounded by Charlottenborg, the Mint and Bremerholm. A main building was erected along the Nyhavn cabal, housing both a museum, a library and residences for the director and a botanical gardener. There were facilities for the storage of sensitive plants during winter, the gardens first greenhouse, Guiones Koldhus, was erected in 1784
Copenhagen Fire of 1728
The Copenhagen Fire of 1728 was the largest fire in the history of Copenhagen, Denmark. It began on the evening of 20 October 1728 and continued to burn until the morning of 23 October and it destroyed approximately 28% of the city, left 20% of the population homeless, and the reconstruction lasted until 1737. Although the number of dead and wounded was relatively low compared to the extent of the fire, the exact time that the fire started is unknown. Various sources mention times between 6,00 and 8,00 p. m. and 7,30 p. m. is the best estimate, the exact location of the origin of the fire is known. Almost directly across the street from Vesterport was Lille Sankt Clemens Stræde, on the corner facing Vestervold, there was a small house on lot Vester Kvarter 146 owned by Signe, widow of Boye Hansen. The lot is almost identical to the one on the corner of present-day Frederiksberggade, among the widows tenants were restaurant manager Peder Rasmussen and his wife, Anne Iversdatter. It was on the floor of the restaurateurs apartment that the fire started.
The wind blew from the southwest that evening, carrying the fire along Lille Sankt Clemens Stræde, Store Sankt Clemens Stræde, Vombadstuestræde, Antiquitetsstræde, by 9,00 p. m the main street of Vestergade was burning on both sides. From here the fire spread along Store Lars Bjørns Stræde, Lille Lars Bjørns Stræde and Studiestræde, that evening, the fire reached Sankt Peders Stræde, where the Valkendorfs Kollegium dormitory was engulfed in flames. Professor Peder Horrebow, who lived at the dormitory, lost most of his possessions, presumably simultaneously, the fire reached Professor Hans Steenbuchs room on Studiestræde. Around midnight, the reached the priests residence by the church Sankt Petri Kirke. On Nørregade, another fire started at a brewery Wednesday evening – possibly between 10 p. m. and 11 p. m, just prior to that the original fire had reached Gammeltorv, where people fought to keep the fire back. For that reason, help was sent late to deal with the new fire, around midnight the wind shifted to the west, and the situation on Nørregade turned critical as the fire was driven towards the street along a wide front.
At first people sought to keep the fire on the side of Nørregade. Simultaneously, the fire moved from present day Nørre Voldgade towards Nørreport, early Thursday morning, a final desperate attempt to keep the flames from spreading was made at Gammeltorv. Already-burning houses were fired upon with cannons to make them collapse, when that did not work, an order was given to blow up the houses with black powder charges. While the building did go down, people were killed and injured, at Nørregade, the fire reached Sankt Petri Kirke around 8 a. m. By 9 a. m. the flames reached bishop Christen Worms residence, the bishop who was travelling, was left with the clothes on his back and three prayer books
History of Scandinavia
The history of Scandinavia is the history of the region of northern Europe comprising Denmark and Sweden. Finland and Iceland are at times considered part of Scandinavia, one important collection that exists, however, is a widespread and rich collection of stone drawings known as petroglyphs. As the ice receded, Reindeer grazed on the lands of Denmark. This was the land of the Ahrensburg culture, tribes who hunted over vast territories, there was little forest in this region except for arctic white birch and rowan, but the taiga slowly appeared. In the 7th millennium BC, when the reindeer and their hunters had moved for northern Scandinavia, the Maglemosian culture lived in Denmark and southern Sweden. To the north, in Norway and most of southern Sweden, lived the Fosna-Hensbacka culture, the northern hunter/gatherers followed the herds and the salmon runs, moving south during the winters, moving north again during the summers. During the 6th millennium BC, southern Scandinavia was covered in temperate broadleaf, fauna included aurochs, wisent and red deer.
The Kongemose culture was dominant in this time period and they hunted seals and fished in the rich waters. North of the Kongemose people lived other hunter-gatherers in most of southern Norway and Sweden called the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures, descendants of the Fosna, near the end of the 6th millennium BC, the Kongemose culture was replaced by the Ertebølle culture in the south. During the 5th millennium BC, the Ertebølle people learned pottery from neighbouring tribes in the south and they too started to cultivate the land, and by 3000 BC they became part of the megalithic Funnelbeaker culture. During the 4th millennium BC, these Funnelbeaker tribes expanded into Sweden up to Uppland, the Nøstvet and Lihult tribes learnt new technology from the advancing farmers and became the Pitted Ware cultures towards the end of the 4th millennium BC. At least one settlement appears to be mixed, the Alvastra pile-dwelling and this new people advanced up to Uppland and the Oslofjord, and they probably provided the language that was the ancestor of the modern Scandinavian languages.
They were cattle herders, and with them most of southern Scandinavia entered the Neolithic, during this period Scandinavia gave rise to the first known advanced civilization in this area following the Nordic Stone Age. The Scandinavians adopted many central European and Mediterranean symbols at the time that they created new styles. Mycenaean Greece, the Villanovan Culture and Ancient Egypt have all identified as possible sources of influence in Scandinavian artwork from this period. The foreign influence is believed to originate with amber trade, several petroglyphs depict ships, and the large stone formations known as stone ships indicate that shipping played an important role in the culture. Several petroglyphs depict ships which could possibly be Mediterranean, from this period there are many mounds and fields of petroglyphs, but their signification is long since lost. There are artifacts of bronze and gold
The royal Frederiks Hospital was Denmarks first hospital in the present-day meaning of the word. It was founded by king Frederik V and financed by the earnings from the Norwegian Postal Service and it opened on March 31,1757 on the birthday of Frederick V. The hospital was run as an independent institution with the purpose of giving free care and cure to patients without means, about two thirds of the patients were treated free of charge. It was at one time the seat of the Fødsels- og Pleiestiftelsen, until 1848 Frederiks Hospital was managed by the Danish Chancellory, from 1848 to 1871 by the Ministry of Justice and from there on by the Ministry of Church and Education. On November 11,1855, the philosopher Søren Kierkegaard died here, the hospital was closed in 1910 with the founding of Rigshospitalet. The building was remodelled in the 1920s to house the Danish Museum of Decorative Art, illustreret Veiviser og Beskrivelse over Byen og Omegnen, p. 104-,1857
Iron Age Scandinavia
Iron Age Scandinavia refers to the Iron Age, as it unfolded in Scandinavia. The 6th and 5th century BC was a point for exports and imports on the European continent. Now they had to be practically self-dependent and self-sustaining, archaeology attests a rapid and deep change in the Scandinavian culture and way of life. Agricultural production became more intensified, organized around larger settlements and with a much more labour-intensive production, slaves were introduced and deployed, something uncommon in the Nordic Bronze Age. Bronze could not be produced in Scandinavia, as tin was not a natural resource. Iron is a metal and was suitable for tools and weapons. The Bronze Age ard plough was still the plough of choice, herds of livestock had pasture grazed freely in large wood pastures, but were now placed in stables, probably to utilize manure more efficiently and increase agricultural production. Even though the advent of the Iron Age in Scandinavia was a time of great crisis, the period might just reflect a change of culture and not necessarily a decline in standards of living.
The Iron Age in Scandinavia and Northern Europe begins around 500 BC with the Jastorf culture, AD800 and the beginning Viking Age. It succeeds the Nordic Bronze Age with the introduction of metallurgy by contact with the Hallstatt D/La Tène cultures. Jørgen Jensen, I begyndelsen, Gyldendal og Politikens Danmarks Historie, ISBN 87-89068-26-2 Bente Magnus, G Franceschi, Asger Jorn, Men and Masks in Nordic Iron Age Art
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Kongens Nytorv is a public square in Copenhagen, centrally located at the end of the pedestrian street Strøget. The largest square of the city, it was out by Christian V in 1670 in connection with a major extension of the fortified city. Outside the gate, an undulating terrain extended towards the sea, as part of Christian IVs ambitious plans to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, he wanted to double the area of the fortified city, he acquired 200 hectares of land outside Østerport in 1606. To protect the new city district, called New Copenhagen or Saint Annes Town, he started construction of a redoubt, Saint Annes Post, in 1627 a customs house was added at the site. According to a masterplan created by the fortification engineer Axel Urups. Shortly after Christian V was crowned in 1670, he decided to level and this decision was taken mainly for military reasons, its strategic location with almost the same distance to all points along the ramparts of the city making it well suited as a central alarm square.
In the same time, the square was to serve as a place royale with inspiration from France, land around the new square was distributed among interested wealthy citizens, including people from the new ranks. Buildings facing the square were required to be in at least two stories and meet certain standards, in 1688, a baroque garden complex with trees around a parterre and a gilded equestrian statue of Christian V in its centre, was inaugurated. In 1747 the entire square was rebuilt by Frederik V as a drill and ceremony ground for the Kings troops until 1908. The equestrian statue of Christian V was created by the French sculptor Abraham-César Lamoureux, dating from 1688, it is the oldest equestrian statue in Scandinavia. Originally made in gilded lead, it was recast in bronze 1939, at the foot of the plinth, Lamoureux placed four allegorical statues. This happened from 1939 to 1942 and the new cast was inaugurated on 22 May 1946, Krinsen is an old form of the Danish word Krans, meaning circle or wreath.
It is an elliptical parterre surrounding the statue of Christian V, the ellipse was a favoured geometrical shape at the time, an obvious example bing the elliptical pattern in the paving around the Marcus Aurelius statue at Piazza del Campidoglio. Around the parterre, two rows of trees were planted, some of the trees were dug up and reused for the establishment of the avenue Østre Allé. New rows of elm trees were planted around the statue in 1855-56, in 2001,80 lime trees were planted as part of a major refurbishment of the square. On the square stands an old kiosk and telephone stand from 1913 and it is built in Baroque Revival style with a copper-clad roof and hand-carved ornamentation. It used to offer the first public telephonic connection in Copenhagen from where it was possible to every day except Sunday from 10 am to 8 pm. Today it houses a small café with outdoor service,1, Charlottenborg Palace Herdorffs House, at No
History of Copenhagen
The history of Copenhagen dates back to the first settlement at the site in the 11th century. From the middle of the 12th century it grew in importance after coming into the possession of Bishop Absalon, the harbour and the excellent possibilities for herring fishing contributed to Copenhagens growth and development into an important trading centre. It was repeatedly attacked by the Hanseatic League as the Germans became aware of its expansion, in 1254, it received its charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen. The town was enlarged under Christian IV of Denmark after his coronation in 1596 by the addition of new city districts and modern fortifications with earthworks. The king commissioned German and Dutch architects and craftsmen to construct magnificent edifices designed to enhance his prestige, during 1658-59 it withstood a severe siege by the Swedes under Charles X and successfully repelled a major assault. In 1728 and again in 1795, the city was ravaged by large fires, in 1801, a British fleet under Admiral Parker fought a major battle, the Battle of Copenhagen, with the Danish navy in Copenhagen harbour.
It was during this battle Lord Nelson put the telescope to the eye in order not to see Admiral Parkers signal to cease fire. But not until the 1850s were the ramparts of the city opened to new housing to be built around the lakes which bordered the old defence system to the west. This dramatic increase of space was long overdue, not only because the old ramparts were out of date as a defence system, but because of bad sanitation in the old city. Before this relaxation, the centre of Copenhagen was inhabited by approximately 125,000 people, peaking in the census of 1870. In 1901, Copenhagen expanded further, incorporating communities with 40,000 people, since the summer 2000, the cities of Copenhagen and Malmö have been connected by a toll bridge/tunnel for both rail and road traffic. As a result, Copenhagen has become the centre of a metropolitan area which spans both nations. The construction of the bridge has led to a number of changes to the public transportation system. Signs of human activity dating back to about 4000 BCE have been found, the surrounding area consisted of moist beach meadows and signs of cattle grazing have been found.
The city probably had a located at present day Højbro Plads. Details of the existence of a town as early as the 11th century have recently been published by Videnskab. dk with a series of articles documenting new archeological finds. These provide evidence of an estate at todays Kongens Nytorv, a church close to the St Clemens. In the 12th century Copenhagen assumed increasing importance and the town was reinforced with earthworks, the Roman Catholic Church erected cathedrals in Roskilde and in Lund, which laid the basis for further development in those regional centres