Himiko or Pimiko was a shamaness-queen of Yamataikoku in Wa. Early Chinese dynastic histories chronicle tributary relations between Queen Himiko and the Cao Wei Kingdom, record that the Yayoi period people chose her as ruler following decades of warfare among the kings of Wa. Early Japanese histories do not mention Himiko, but historians associate her with legendary figures such as Empress Consort Jingū, regent in the same era as Himiko. Scholarly debates over the identity of Himiko and the location of her domain, have raged since the late Edo period, with opinions divided between northern Kyūshū or traditional Yamato province in present-day Kinki; the "Yamatai controversy," writes Keiji Imamura, is "the greatest debate over the ancient history of Japan." The shaman Queen Himiko is recorded in various ancient histories, dating back to 3rd century China, 8th century Japan, 12th century Korea. The first historical records of Himiko are found in a Chinese classic text, the c. 297 Records of the Three Kingdoms.
Its "Records of Wei", which focuses on the Chinese kingdom of Cao Wei, has an "Account of the Wa People". This section is the first description of Himiko and Yamatai:The people of Wa dwell in the middle of the ocean on the mountainous islands southeast of Tai-fang, they comprised more than one hundred communities. During the Han dynasty, appeared at the Court; this early history describes how Himiko came to the throne:The country had a man as ruler. For some seventy or eighty years after that there were disturbances and warfare. Thereupon the people agreed upon a woman for their ruler, her name was Himiko. She occupied herself with sorcery, bewitching the people. Though mature in age, she remained unmarried, she had a younger brother. After she became the ruler, there were few, she had one thousand women as attendants, but only one man. He acted as a medium of communication, she resided in a palace surrounded by towers and stockades, with armed guards in a state of constant vigilance. The "Records of Wei" records envoys travelling between the Wa and Wei courts.
Himiko's emissaries first visited the court of Wei emperor Cao Rui in 238, he replied:Herein we address Himiko, Queen of Wa, whom we now call a friend of Wei. have arrived here with your tribute, consisting of four male slaves and six female slaves, together with two pieces of cloth with designs, each twenty feet in length. You live far away across the sea. Your loyalty and filial piety we appreciate exceedingly. We confer upon you, the title "Queen of Wa Friendly to Wei," together with the decoration of the gold seal with purple ribbon; the latter, properly encased, is to be sent to you through the Governor. We expect O Queen, to rule your people in peace and to endeavor to be devoted and obedient; the "Records of Wei" records that in 247 when a new governor arrived at Daifang Commandery in Korea, Queen Himiko complained of hostilities with Himikuku, the king of Kunu, one of the other Wa states. The governor dispatched "Chang Chêng, acting Secretary of the Border Guard" with a "proclamation advising reconciliation", subsequently:When Himiko passed away, a great mound was raised, more than a hundred paces in diameter.
Over a hundred male and female attendants followed her to the grave. A king was placed on the throne, but the people would not obey him. Assassination and murder followed. A relative of Himiko named a girl of thirteen, was made queen and order was restored. Chêng issued a proclamation to the effect. Commentators take this "Iyo" as a miscopy of Toyo paralleling the Wei Zhi writing Yamatai 邪馬臺 as Yamaichi. 邪馬壹 Two other Chinese dynastic histories mentioned Himiko. While both incorporated the above Wei Zhi reports, they made some changes, such as specifying the "some seventy or eighty years" of Wa wars occurred between 146 and 189, during the reigns of Han Emperors Huan and Ling; the c. 432 Book of Later Han says "the King of Great Wa resides in the country of Yamadai", rather than the Queen:The Wa dwell on mountainous islands southeast of Han in the middle of the ocean, forming more than one hundred communities. From the time of the overthrow of Chaoxian by Emperor Wu, nearly thirty of these communities have held intercourse with the Han court by envoys or scribes.
Each community has its king. The King of Great Wa resides in the country of Yamadai. … During the reigns of Huan-di and Ling-di, the country of Wa was in a state of great confusion and conflict raging on all sides. For a number of years, there was no ruler. A woman named Himiko appeared. Remaining unmarried, she bewitched the populace. Thereupon they placed her on the throne, she kept one thousand female attendants. There was only one man, in charge of her wardrobe and meals and acted as the medium of communication, she resided in a palace surrounded by to
Mount Miwa or Mount Mimoro is a mountain located in the city of Sakurai, Nara Prefecture, Japan. It has been an important religious and historical mountain in Japan during its early history, serves as a holy site in Shinto; the entire mountain is considered sacred, is home to one of the earliest Shinto shrines, Ōmiwa Shrine. Several burial mounds from the Kofun period can be found around the mountain; the kami associated with Mount Miwa is Ōmononushi, a rain kami. However, the Nihon Shoki notes that there was a degree of uncertainly when it came to naming the principal kami of Mount Miwa, but he is linked to Ōkuninushi. Mount Miwa was first described in the Kojiki as Mount Mimoro. Both names were in common use until the reign of Emperor Yūryaku. Mimoro has been held to mean something like "august, beautiful" and "room", or "hall"; the current kanji 輪 are purely phonetic. It has been written 三和, another a phonetic spelling with the same pronunciation. Religious worship surrounding Mount Miwa has been deemed the oldest and more primitive of its kind in Japan, dating to pre-history.
The mountain itself is designated sacrosanct, today's Ōmiwa Shrine still considers the mountain to be its shintai, or kami-body. The kami residing on Mount Miwa was judged the most powerful by the Fujiwara clan, palaces and roads were built in the vicinity; the Nihon Shoki, Book V, records that when the country was crippled by pesitilence and subsequent mayhem, the emperor consulted the gods. The god Ōmononushi spoke through the mouth of an elder princess of the imperial house named Yamato-to-to-hi-momoso-hime and revealed himself to be the deity residing in the borders of Yamato on Mount Miwa, promised to bring end to chaos if he were properly worshipped; the emperor propitiated to the god but the effects were not immediate. The same god appeared in a dream to and instructed him to seek out a man named Ōtataneko, said to be the child of the god, to install him as head priest of his cult. Subsequently, normal order was restored and crops no longer failed; the Nihon shoki records that the first priest of the shrine, Ōtataneko declares himself the son born between the god and Ikutama yori-hime.
However, in the Kojiki, Ōtataneko identifies himself as the great-grandson. Kojiki tells; the beautiful girl was found to be pregnant, claimed a handsome being had come to her at night. Her parents, in order to discover the identity of the man, instructed her to sprinkle red earth by her bedside, thread a hemp cord with a needle through the hem of his garment. In the morning, the hemp went through the hole of the door-hook so that only "three loops" were left, they trailed the remaining hemp thread to the shrine in the mountain, and, how they discovered the visitation was divine. The Kojiki records another divine birth from an earlier period, it tells how a maiden named Seya-datara was squatting in the toilet when the god transformed into the shape of a red-painted arrow and poked her in her privates. In astonishment, she picked up the arrow and placed it by the floor, whereby it transformed into a fine youth, who wound up marrying her; the girl child born was named Hoto-tatara-i-susuki-hime, hoto being an old word for a woman's private parts.
Book V in the Nihon Shoki, adds the following quaint episode. Suijin's aunt, the aforementioned Yamato-to-to-hi-momoso-hime, was appointed the consort or wife of Ōmononushi; the kami however, would only appear to her at night, the princess pleaded to reveal his true form. The kami warned her not to be shocked, agreed to show himself inside her comb box or toiletry case; the next day she discovered a magnificent snake inside. She shrieked out in surprise, whereby the deity transformed into human form, promised her payback for shaming him so, took off to Mount Mimoro; the princess was so distraught at this, that she flopped herself on the seat stabbed herself in the pudenda with chopsticks, which ensued in her death. She is buried at one of the six mounds near Mount Miwa, the Hashihaka mound; the Kojiki version of this myth describes a union between a woman from the Miwa clan and Ōmononushi, resulting in the birth of an early Yamato king. Scholars note that this is a clear effort to strengthen Yamato authority by identifying and linking their lineage to the established worship surrounding Mount Miwa.
In Nihon Shoki, Book XIV, under Emperor Yūryaku year 7, it is recorded that the emperor expressed the desire to get a glimpse of the deity of Mount Mimoro and ordered a man known for his brute strength, named Chiisakobe Sugaru to go capture it.. Sugaru thereby captured and presented it to the emperor, but Yūryaku neglected to purify himself so that the great serpent made thunderous noise and made its eyes glare. The frightened emperor retreated to the palace, had the snake released in the hill, he gave
Emperor Sujin known as Mimakiirihikoinie no Mikoto in the Kojiki, Mimakiiribikoinie no Sumeramikoto or Hatsukunishirasu Sumeramikoto in the Nihon Shoki was the tenth Emperor of Japan. The legendary Emperor's reign is conventionally assigned the years of reign 97 BC – 30 BC, but he may have lived in the early 1st century, or the third or fourth century. Sujin's grave site has not been identified, Andonyama kofun in Tenri, Nara has been designated by the Imperial Household Agency as the kofun, it is formally named Yamanobe no michi no Magari no oka no e no misasagi. Sujin is responsible for setting up the Ise Shrine or the Saikū associated with it to enshrine Amaterasu, he is credited with initiating the worship of Ōmononushi. He confiscated certain sacred treasures, passed down the line in Izumo; the Emperor may have been the first to perform a census and establish and regularize a system of taxation. Modern scholars have come to question the existence of at least the first nine Emperors. Sujin is regarded by historians as a "legendary Emperor" and the paucity of material information about him makes difficult any further verification and study.
The reign of Emperor Kinmei, the 29th Emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates. Sujin is a Posthumous name assigned by generations ascribed during the compilation of the Kojiki. According to the pseudo-historical Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Sujin was the second son of Emperor Kaika Sujin's mother was Ikagashikome no Mikoto, a stepmother of his father, he acceded to the throne purportedly in 97 BC. On the third year of his reign, he removed the capital to Shiki, naming it the Palace of Mizu-gaki, or Mizugaki-no-miya; the Kujiki records the legendary appointment of 137 governors for the provinces ruled by Emperor Sujin. Pestilence struck the 5th year of his rule, half the populace died. By the 6th year, peasants abandoning fields and rebellion became rampant. Up to this time, both the sun goddess Amaterasu and the god Yamato-ōkunitama were enshrined in Imperial Residence; the Emperor, over-awed with having to cohabit with these two powerful deities, set up separate enshrinements to house them.
Amaterasu was moved to Kasanui village in Yamato Province, there built as Himorogi altar out of solid stone, placing a daughter, the princess Toyosukiiri-hime in charge. The other god was entrusted to another daughter named Nunakiiri-hime but her hair fell out and became emaciated so she could not perform her duties. In the 7th year, the Emperor decreed a divination to be performed, so he made a trip to the plain of Kami-asaji or Kamu-asaji-ga-hara, invoked the eighty myriad deities. Yamatototohimomoso-hime acting as a shaman became possessed by a god, who identified himself as Ōmononushi and said that the land will be pacified if he were to be venerated; the Emperor complied. The Emperor was given guidance in a dream to seek out a certain Ōtataneko and appoint him as head priest; the pestilence subsided, the land was calmed, the five cereal crops ripened. The Miwa sept of the Kamo clan claim descent from this Ōtataneko personage; the Emperor appointed Ikagashikoo, ancestor of the Mononobe clan and elder brother of the empress as kami-no-mono-akatsu-hito, i.e. one who sorts the offerings to the gods.
Other gods were vernerated as dictated by divinations, eight red shields and spears were offered to Sumisaka Shrine in the east, eight black shields and spears were offered to Ōsaka Shrine in the west. In his 10th year of rule, Sujin instituted the Generals to the Four Cardinal Quarters Shidō shōgun, instructing them to quell those who would not submit to their rule. General Prince Ōhiko, sent up north, was at the top of the Wani acclivity, when a certain maiden approached him and sang him a cryptic song, disappeared; the Emperor's aunt, Yamatototohimomoso-hime was skilled at clairvoyancy and interpreted this to mean that Take-hani-yasu-hiko was plotting an insurrection. She pieced it together from the news she heard that the prince's wife Ata-bime came to Mount Amanokaguya and took a clump of earth in the corner of her neckerchief. Just as the Emperor gathered his generals in meeting, the couple had mustered troops to the west and was ready to attack the capital; the Emperor sent an army under Isaseri-hiko no Mikoto, which crushed the rebel forces, Ata-bime too was slain.
Subsequently, Hiko-kuni-fuku was sent to Yamashiro Province to punish the rebel prince, in an exchange of bowshots, the rebel prince Take-hani-yasu-hiko was struck in the chest and died. In the 12th year of his rule, he decreed a census be taken of the populace, "with grades of seniority, the order of forced labour"; the taxes, imposed in the form of mandatory labor, were called yuhazu no mitsugi for men and tanasue no mitsugi for women. Peace and prosperity ensued; the Emperor received the title Hatsu kuni shirasu sumeramikoto (
In cultural anthropology, sedentism is the practice of living in one place for a long time. As of 2018, the majority of people belong to sedentary cultures. In evolutionary anthropology and archaeology, sedentism takes on a different sub-meaning applying to the transition from nomadic society to a lifestyle that involves remaining in one place permanently. Sedentism means living in groups permanently in one place. For small-scale nomadic societies it can be difficult to adopt a sedentary lifestyle in a landscape without on-site agricultural or livestock-breeding resources, since sedentism requires sufficient year-round accessible local natural resources. Non-agricultural sedentism requires good preservation and storage technologies, such as smoking and fermentation, as well as good containers such as pottery, baskets, or special pits in which to securely store food whilst making it available, it was only in locations where the resources of several major ecosystems overlapped that the earliest non-agricultural sedentism occurred.
For example, people settled where a river met the sea, at lagoon environments along the coast, at river confluences, or where flat savanna met hills, mountains with rivers. Archaeological research has shown the earliest sedentism began with on-site agriculture and cattle breeding, most researchers now believe that sedentism was a prerequisite for the first agriculture to occur. Sedentism meant more people, sturdier houses, new stone tools, more jewelry, burials or cemeteries, more long-distance goods and clear signs of social stratification. At sedentary sites more people lived together for a longer time compared to earlier base camp sites or annual gathering sites; this created deeper cultural layers and thus richer archaeological materials. There are indications that the use of rock art is connected to sedentism, both pre-agricultural and agricultural forms. In archaeology a number of criteria is necessary for the recognition of either semi or full sedentism. According to Israeli archaeologist Ofer Bar-Yosef, they are as follows:1.
Increasing presence of organisms that benefit from human sedentary activities, e.g. House mice Rats Sparrows2. Cementum increments on mammal teeth Indications that hunting took place in both winter and summer3. Energy expenditure Leveling slopes Building houses Production of plaster Transport of undressed stones Digging of graves Shaping of large mortars The first sedentary sites were pre-agricultural, they appeared during the Upper Paleolithic in Moravia and on the East European Plain between c. 25000-17000 BC. A year-round sedentary site, with its larger population, generates a substantial demand on local occurring resources, a demand that may have triggered the development of deliberate agriculture. In the Levant, the Natufian culture was the first to become sedentary at around 12000 BC; the Natufians were sedentary for more than 2000 years before they, at some sites, started to cultivate plants around 10000 BC. The Jōmon culture in Japan, a coastal culture, was sedentary from c. 12000 to 10000 BC, before the cultivation of rice at some sites in northern Kyushu.
In northernmost Scandinavia, there are several early sedentary sites without evidence of agriculture or cattle breeding. They appeared from c. 5300-4500 BC and are all located optimally in the landscape for extraction of major ecosystem resources, e.g. the Lillberget Stone Age village site, the Nyelv site, the Lake Inari site. In northern Sweden the earliest indication of agriculture occurs at sedentary sites, one example is the Bjurselet site used during the period c. 2700-1700 BC, famous for its large caches of long distance traded flint axes from Denmark and Scania. The evidence of small-scale agriculture at that site can be seen from c. 2300 BC. Sedentism increased contacts and trade, the first Middle East cereals and cattle in Europe, could have spread through a stepping stone process, where the productive gift were exchanged through a network of large pre-agricultural sedentary sites, rather than a wave of advance spread of people with agricultural economy, where the smaller sites found in between the bigger sedentary ones, did not get any of the new products.
Not all contemporary sites during a certain period were sedentary. Evaluation of habitational sites in northern Sweden indicates that less than 10 percent of all the sites around 4000 BC, were sedentary. At the same time, only 0.5-1 percent of these represented villages with more than 3-4 houses. This means that the old nomadic or migratory life style continued in a parallel fashion for several thousand years, until somewhat more sites turned to sedentism, switched over to agricultural sedentism; the shift to sedentism is coupled with the adoption of new subsistence strategies from foraging to agricultural and animal domestication. The development of sedentism led to the rise of population aggregation and formation of villages and other community types. In North America, evidence for sedentism emerges around 4500 BC. Forced sedentism or sedentarization occurs when a dominant group restricts the movements of a nomadic group. Nomadic populations have undergone such a process since the first cultivation of land.
At the end of the 19th and throughout the 20th century many nomadic tribes turned to permanent settlement. It was a process initiated by local government
Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku and Tsukushi-no-shima; the historical regional name Saikaidō referred to its surrounding islands. In the 8th century Taihō Code reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region; as of 2016, Kyushu covers 36,782 square kilometres. The island is mountainous, Japan's most active volcano, Mt Aso at 1,591 metres, is on Kyushu. There are many other signs including numerous areas of hot springs; the most famous of these are in Beppu, on the east shore, around Mt. Aso, in central Kyushu; the island is separated from Honshu by the Kanmon Straits. The name Kyūshū comes from the nine ancient provinces of Saikaidō situated on the island: Chikuzen, Hizen, Buzen, Bungo, Hyūga, Satsuma. Today's Kyushu Region is a politically defined region that consists of the seven prefectures on the island of Kyushu, plus Okinawa Prefecture to the south: Northern Kyushu Fukuoka Prefecture Kumamoto Prefecture Nagasaki Prefecture Ōita Prefecture Saga Prefecture Southern Kyushu Kagoshima Prefecture Miyazaki Prefecture Okinawa Prefecture Kyushu comprises 10.3 percent of the entire population of Japan.
Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, with population corridors stretching southwest into Sasebo and Nagasaki and south into Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Excepting Oita and Miyazaki cities, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population. Kyushu is described as a stronghold of the LDP political party. Designated citiesFukuoka Kitakyushu Kumamoto Core citiesKagoshima Ōita Nagasaki Miyazaki Naha Kurume Sasebo Saga Parts of Kyushu have a subtropical climate Miyazaki prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture. Major agricultural products are rice, tobacco, sweet potatoes, soy; the island is noted for various types of porcelain, including Arita, Imari and Karatsu. Heavy industry is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles and metal processing. In 2010, the graduate employment rate in the region was the lowest nationwide, at 88.9%. Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu.
These springs are the site of occurrence of certain extremophile micro-organisms, that are capable of surviving in hot environments. Major universities and colleges in Kyushu: National universities Kyushu University – One of seven former "Imperial Universities" Kyushu Institute of Technology Saga University Nagasaki University Kumamoto University Fukuoka University of Education Oita University Miyazaki University Kagoshima University National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya University of the Ryukyus Universities run by local governments University of Kitakyushu Kyushu Dental College Fukuoka Women's University Fukuoka Prefectural University Nagasaki Prefectural University Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences Prefectural University of Kumamoto Miyazaki Municipal University Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts Major private universities Fukuoka University – University with the largest number of students in Kyushu Kumamoto Gakuen University Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Seinan Gakuin University Kyushu Sangyo University – Baseball team won the Japanese National Championship in 2005 University of Occupational and Environmental Health Kurume University The island is linked to the larger island of Honshu by the Kanmon Tunnels, which carry both the San'yō Shinkansen and non-Shinkansen trains of the Kyushu Railway Company, as well as vehicular and bicycle traffic.
The Kanmon Bridge connects the island with Honshu. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company, Nishitetsu Railway. Northern Kyushu Southern Kyushu Azumi people, an ancient group of people who inhabited parts of northern Kyūshū Geography of Japan Group Kyushu Western Army United States Fleet Activities Sasebo Hoenn, a fictional region in the Pokémon franchise, based on Kyushu Kanmonkyo Bridge, that connects Kyūshū with Honshū Kyushu National Museum List of regions in Japan Kyushu dialects Hichiku dialect, Hōnichi dialect and Kagoshima dialect Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
The Kofun period is an era in the history of Japan from about 300 to 538 AD, following the Yayoi period. The Kofun and the subsequent Asuka periods are sometimes collectively called the Yamato period; this period is the earliest era of recorded history in Japan, but studies depend on archaeology since the chronology of historical sources tends to be distorted. It was a period of cultural import. Continuing from the Yayoi period, the Kofun period is characterized by a strong influence from the Korean Peninsula; the word kofun is Japanese for the type of burial mound dating from this era, archaeology indicates that the mound tombs and material culture of the elite were similar throughout the region. From China and the Chinese writing system were introduced near the end of the period; the Kofun period recorded Japan's earliest political centralization, when the Yamato clan rose to power in southwestern Japan, established the Imperial House, helped control trade routes across the region. Kofun are burial mounds built for members of the ruling class from the 3rd to the 7th centuries in Japan, the Kofun period takes its name from the distinctive earthen mounds.
The mounds contained large stone burial chambers, some are surrounded by moats. Kofun come with round and square the most common. A distinct style is keyhole-shaped, with a square front and round back. Kofun range in size from several meters to over 400 meters long, unglazed pottery figures were buried under a kofun's circumference; the oldest Japanese kofun is Hokenoyama Kofun in Sakurai, which dates to the late 3rd century. In the Makimuku district of Sakurai keyhole kofuns were built during the early 4th century; the keyhole kofun spread from Yamato to Kawachi—with giant kofun, such as Daisenryō Kofun—and throughout the country during the 5th century. Keyhole kofun disappeared in the 6th century because of the drastic reformation of the Yamato court; the last two great kofun are the 190-metre-long Imashirozuka kofun in Osaka and the 135-metre long Iwatoyama kofun in Fukuoka, recorded in Fudoki of Chikugo as the tomb of Iwai. Kofun burial mounds on the island of Tanegashima and two old Shinto shrines on the island of Yakushima suggest that these islands were the southern boundary of the Yamato state.
Yamato rule is believed to have begun about 250 AD, it is agreed that Yamato rulers had keyhole-kofun culture and hegemony in Yamato until the 4th century. Autonomy of local powers remained throughout the period in Kibi, Koshi, Chikushi, Hi. During the 6th century, the Yamato clans began to dominate the southern half of Japan. According to the Book of Song, Yamato relationships with China began in the late 4th century; the Yamato polity, which emerged by the late 5th century, was distinguished by powerful clans. Each clan was headed by a patriarch, who performed sacred rituals to the clan's kami to ensure its long-term welfare. Clan members were the aristocracy, the royal line which controlled the Yamato court was at its zenith. Clan leaders were awarded kabane, inherited titles denoting rank and political standing which replaced family names; the Kofun period is called the Yamato period by some Western scholars, since this local chieftainship became the imperial dynasty at the end of the period.
However, the Yamato clan ruled just one polity among others during the Kofun era. Japanese archaeologists emphasise that other regional chieftainships were in close contention for dominance in the first half of the Kofun period; the Yamato court exercised power over clans in Kyūshū and Honshū, bestowing titles on clan chieftains. The Yamato name became synonymous with Japan as Yamato rulers suppressed other clans and acquired agricultural land. Based on Chinese models, they began to develop a central administration and an imperial court attended by subordinate clan chieftains with no permanent capital. Powerful clans were the Soga, Katsuragi and Koze clans in the Yamato and Bizen Provinces and the Kibi clans in the Izumo Province; the Ōtomo and Mononobe clans were military leaders, the Nakatomi and Inbe clans handled rituals. The Soga clan provided the government's chief minister, the Ōtomo and Mononobe clans provided secondary ministers, provincial leaders were called kuni no miyatsuko. Craftsmen were organized into guilds.
In addition to archaeological findings indicating a local monarchy in Kibi Province as an important rival, the legend of the 4th-century Prince Yamato Takeru alludes to the borders of the Yamato and battlegrounds in the region. Another frontier, in Kyūshū, was north of present-day Kumamoto Prefecture. According to the legend, there was an eastern land in Honshū "whose people disobeyed the imperial court" and against whom Yam