Timeline of Jerusalem

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a timeline of major events in the History of Jerusalem; a city that had been fought over sixteen times in its history.[1] During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.[2]

Ancient period[edit]

New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BCE
The Levant showing Jerusalem in c. 830 BCE
Neo-Assyrian Empire at its greatest extent
Achaemenid Empire under Darius III

Proto-Canaanite period[edit]

Canaanite and New Kingdom Egyptian period[edit]

Independent Israel and Judah (House of David) period[edit]

Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires period[edit]

Illustration from the Nuremberg Chronicle of the destruction of Jerusalem under the Babylonian rule

Persian (Achaemenid) Empire period[edit]

Classical antiquity[edit]

Hellenistic Kingdoms (Ptolemaic / Seleucid) period[edit]

Kingdoms of the Diadochi and others before the battle of Ipsus, c. 303 BCE
The Seleucid Empire in c. 200 BCE
Hasmonean Kingdom at its greatest extent under Salome Alexandra
  • 332 BCE: Jerusalem capitulates to Alexander the Great, during his six-year Macedonian conquest of the empire of Darius III of Persia. Alexander's armies took Jerusalem without complication while travelling to Egypt after the Siege of Tyre (332 BC).
  • 323 BCE: The city comes under the rule of Laomedon of Mytilene, who is given control of the province of Syria following Alexander's death and the resulting Partition of Babylon between the Diadochi. This partition was reconfirmed two years later at the Partition of Triparadisus.
  • 320 BCE: General Nicanor, dispatched by satrap of Egypt Ptolemy I Soter and founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, takes control of Syria including Jerusalem and captures Laomedon in the process.
  • 315 BCE: The Antigonid dynasty gains control of the city after Ptolemy I Soter withdraws from Syria including Jerusalem and Antigonus I Monophthalmus invades during the Third War of the Diadochi. Seleucus I Nicator, then governor of Babylon under Antigonus I Monophthalmus, fled to Egypt to join Ptolemy.
  • 312 BCE: Jerusalem is re-captured by Ptolemy I Soter after he defeats Antigonus' son Demetrius I at the Battle of Gaza. It is probable that Seleucus I Nicator, then an Admiral under Ptolemy's command, also took part in the battle, as following the battle he was given 800 infantry and 200 cavalry and immediately travelled to Babylon where he founded the Seleucid Empire.
  • 311 BCE: The Antigonid dynasty regains control of the city after Ptolemy withdraws from Syria again following a minor defeat by Antigonus I Monophthalmus, and a peace treaty is concluded.
  • 302 BCE: Ptolemy invades Syria for a third time, but evacuated again shortly thereafter following false news of a victory for Antigonus against Lysimachus (another of the Diadochi).
  • 301 BCE: Coele-Syria (Southern Syria) including Jerusalem is re-captured by Ptolemy I Soter after Antigonus I Monophthalmus is killed at the Battle of Ipsus. Ptolemy had not taken part in the battle, and the victors Seleucus I Nicator and Lysimachus had carved up the Antigonid Empire between them, with Southern Syria intended to become part of the Seleucid Empire, although Seleucus did not attempt to conquer the area he was due, Ptolemy's pre-emptive move led to the Syrian Wars which began in 274 BC between the successors of the two leaders.
  • 219–217 BCE: The northern portion of Coele-Syria is given to the Seleucid Empire in 219 through the betrayal of Governor Theodotus of Aetolia, who had held the province on behalf of Ptolemy IV Philopator. The Seleucids advanced on Egypt, but were defeated at the Battle of Raphia (Rafah) in 217.
  • 200 BCE: Jerusalem falls under the control of the Seleucid Empire following the Battle of Panium (part of the Fifth Syrian War) in which Antiochus III the Great defeated the Ptolemies.
  • 175 BCE: Antiochus IV Epiphanes succeeds his father and becomes King of the Seleucid Empire. He accelerates Seleucid efforts to eradicate the Jewish religion by forcing the Jewish High Priest Onias III to step down in favour of his brother Jason, who was replaced by Menelaus three years later. He outlaws Sabbath and circumcision, sacks Jerusalem and erects an altar to Zeus in the Second Temple after plundering it.
  • 167 BCE: Maccabean revolt sparked when a Seleucid Greek government representative under King Antiochus IV asked Mattathias to offer sacrifice to the Greek gods; he refused to do so, killed a Jew who had stepped forward to do so and attacked the government official that required the act.[11] Led to the guerilla Battle of Wadi Haramia.
  • 164 BC 25 Kislev: The Maccabees capture Jerusalem following the Battle of Beth Zur, and rededicate the Temple (see Hanukkah). The Hasmoneans take control of part of Jerusalem, while the Seleucids retain control of the Acra (fortress) in the city and most surrounding areas.
  • 160 BCE: The Seleucids retake control of the whole of Jerusalem after Judas Maccabeus is killed at the Battle of Elasa, marking the end of the Maccabean revolt.
  • 145–144 BCE: Alexander Balas is overthrown at the Battle of Antioch (the capital of the Empire) by Demetrius II Nicator in alliance with Ptolemy VI Philometor of Egypt. The following year, Mithradates I of Parthia captured Seleucia (the previous capital of the Seleucid Empire), significantly weakening the power of Demetrius II Nicator throughout the remaining empire.

Hasmonean kingdom[edit]

Early Roman period[edit]

Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus, 30BCE – 6AD
Pompey in the Temple, 63 BCE (Jean Fouquet 1470–1475)
  • 7–26 CE: Brief period of peace, relatively free of revolt and bloodshed in Judea and Galilee.[30]
  • 28–30 CE: Three-year Ministry of Jesus, during which according to the bible a number of key events took place in Jerusalem, including:
Jesus at the Temple (Giovanni Paolo Pannini c. 1750)
Flevit super illam” (He wept over it); by Enrique Simonet, 1892.
[dubious ]
  • 30 CE: Key events in the martyrdom of Jesus which according to the bible took place in Jerusalem.
[dubious ]
The siege of Jerusalem, 70AD (David Roberts, 1850)

Late Roman period (Aelia Capitolina)[edit]

The Roman empire at its peak under Hadrian showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 CE.

Late Antiquity period[edit]

Byzantine period[edit]

Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476
Helena finding the True Cross (Italian manuscript, c. 825)
The Madaba Map depiction of sixth-century Jerusalem

Middle Ages[edit]

Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates period[edit]

The expansion of the caliphate under the Umayyads.
  Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
  Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
An anachronistic map of the various de facto independent emirates after the Abbasids lost their military dominance (c. 950)

Fatimid Caliphate period[edit]

The Fatimid Caliphate at its greatest extent

First Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099–1187)[edit]

Crusader states in 1180
The capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders on 15 July 1099
1. The Holy Sepulchre, 2, the Dome of the Rock, 3. Ramparts
A woodcut of Jerusalem in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493

Ayyubid period and Second Crusader Kingdom[edit]

The Crusader defeat at the Battle of Hattin leads to the end of the First Crusader Kingdom (1099–1187), during the Second Crusader Kingdom (1192–1291), the Crusaders can only gain a foothold in Jerusalem on a limited scale, twice through treaties (access rights in 1192 after the Treaty of Jaffa; partial control 1229–39 after the Treaty of Jaffa and Tell Ajul), and again for a last time between 1241–44.[55]

Jerusalem under the Ayyubid dynasty after the death of Saladin, 1193
The Bahri Mamluk Dynasty 1250–1382
  • 1239: An-Nasir Dawud, Ayyubid Emir of Kerak, briefly occupies the city and destroys its fortifications before withdrawing to Kerak.
  • 1240–44: An-Nasir Dawud competes with his cousin As-Salih Ayyub, who had allied with the Crusaders, for control of the region.
  • 1244: Siege of Jerusalem (1244) – In order to permanently retake the city from rival breakaway Abbasid rulers who had allied with the Crusaders, As-Salih Ayyub summoned a huge mercenary army of Khwarezmians, who were available for hire following the defeat of the Khwarazm Shah dynasty by the Mongols ten years earlier.[61] The Khwarezmians could not be controlled by As-Salih Ayyub, and destroyed the city. A few months later, the two sides met again at the decisive Battle of La Forbie, marking the end of the Crusader influence in the region.
  • 1246: The Ayyubids regain control of the city after the Khwarezmians are defeated by Al-Mansur Ibrahim at Lake Homs.
  • 1248–50: The Seventh Crusade, launched in reaction to the 1244 destruction of Jerusalem, fails after Louis IX of France is defeated and captured by Ayyubid Sultan Turanshah at the Battle of Fariskur in 1250. The Mamluk Sultanate is indirectly created in Egypt as a result, as Turanshah is killed by his Mamluk soldiers a month after the battle and his stepmother Shajar al-Durr becomes Sultana of Egypt with the Mamluk Aybak as Atabeg. The Ayyubids relocate to Damascus, where they continue to control the rump of their empire including Jerusalem for a further ten years.

Bahri Mamluk and Burji Mamluk periods[edit]

  • 1260: The Army of the Mongol Empire reaches Palestine for the first time:
  • 1267: Nachmanides goes to Jerusalem and prays at the Western Wall. Reported to have found only two Jewish families in the city.
  • 1300: Further Mongol raids into Palestine under Ghazan and Mulay. Jerusalem held by the Mongols for four months (see Ninth Crusade). Hetham II, King of Armenia, was allied to the Mongols and is reported to have visited Jerusalem where he donated his sceptre to the Armenian Cathedral.
  • 1307: Marino Sanuto the Elder writes his magnum opus Historia Hierosolymitana.
  • 1318–20: Regional governor Sanjar al-Jawli undertook renovations of the city, including building the Jawliyya Madrasa.
  • 1328: Tankiz, the Governor of Damascus, undertook further renovations including of the al-Aqsa Mosque and building the Tankiziyya Madrasa.
  • 1340: The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem builds a wall around the Armenian Quarter.
  • 1347: The Black Death sweeps Jerusalem and much of the rest of the Mamluk Sultanate.
  • 1377: Jerusalem and other cities in Mamluk Syria revolt, following the death of Al-Ashraf Sha'ban. The revolt was quelled and a coup d'etat is staged by Barquq in Cairo in 1382, founding the Mamluk Burji dynasty.
  • 1392–93: Henry IV of England makes a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
  • 1482: The visiting Dominican priest Felix Fabri described Jerusalem as "a collection of all manner of abominations". As "abominations" he listed Saracens, Greeks, Syrians, Jacobites, Abyssinians, Nestorians, Armenians, Gregorians, Maronites, Turcomans, Bedouins, Assassins, a sect possibly Druzes, Mamelukes, and "the most accursed of all", Jews. Only the Latin Christians "long with all their hearts for Christian princes to come and subject all the country to the authority of the Church of Rome".
  • 1496: Mujir al-Din al-'Ulaymi writes The Glorious History of Jerusalem and Hebron.

Early modern period[edit]

Early Ottoman period[edit]

The Ottoman Empire in 1683, showing Jerusalem

Modern era[edit]

Decline of the Ottoman Empire period[edit]

Map of Jerusalem in 1883
"Independent" Vilayet of Jerusalem shown within Ottoman administrative divisions in the Levant after the reorganisation of 1887–88

British Mandate period[edit]

Zones of French and British influence and control proposed in the Sykes-Picot Agreement
General Allenby enters Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, 11 December 1917

Partition between Israel and Jordan[edit]

Israeli period[edit]

The Temple Mount as it appears today. The Western Wall is in the foreground with the Dome of the Rock in the background
  • 6 June: The Battle of Ammunition Hill takes place in the northern part of Jordanian controlled East Jerusalem.
  • 7 June: The Old City is captured by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).
  • 10 June: The Moroccan Quarter including 135 houses and the Al-Buraq mosque is demolished, creating a plaza in front of the Western Wall.
  • 28 June: Israel declares Jerusalem unified and announces free access to holy sites of all religions.

Graphical overview of Jerusalem's historical periods[edit]

Reunification of Jerusalem Occupation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Jordan British Empire Ottoman Empire Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) Ayyubid Empire Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubid Empire Kingdom of Jerusalem Fatimid Caliphate Seljuq Empire Fatimid Caliphate Ikhshidid Abbasid Caliphate Tulunid Abbasid Caliphate Umayyad Caliphate Rashidun Caliphate Byzantine Empire Sassanid Empire Byzantine Empire Roman Empire Hasmonean Kingdom Syrian Wars Achaemenid Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Late Period of ancient Egypt Neo-Babylonian Empire Neo-Assyrian Empire Kingdom of Judah United Monarchy of Israel Jebusite Egyptian New Kingdom Canaan

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Steckoll, Solomon H., The gates of Jerusalem, Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1968, preface
  2. ^ "Do We Divide the Holiest Holy City?". Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008. . According to Eric H. Cline's tally in Jerusalem Besieged.
  3. ^ a b c d e Slavik, Diane. 2001. Cities through Time: Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Jerusalem. Geneva, Illinois: Runestone Press, p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8225-3218-7
  4. ^ Mazar, Benjamin. 1975. The Mountain of the Lord. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., p. 45. ISBN 0-385-04843-2
  5. ^ Jane M. Cahill (2003). "Jerusalem at the time of the United Monarchy". In Vaughn, Andrew; Killebrew, Ann. E. Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period. Society of Biblical Literature. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-58983-066-0. 
  6. ^ Crouch, C. L. (1 October 2014). Israel and the Assyrians: Deuteronomy, the Succession Treaty of Esarhaddon, and the Nature of Subversion. SBL Press. ISBN 978-1-62837-026-3. Judah's reason(s) for submitting to Assyrian hegemony, at least superficially, require explanation, while at the same time indications of its read-but-disguised resistance to Assyria must be uncovered... The political and military sprawl of the Assyrian empire during the late Iron Age in the southern Levant, especially toward its outer borders, is not quite akin to the single dominating hegemony envisioned by most discussions of hegemony and subversion; in the case of Judah it should be reiterated that Judah was always a vassal state, semi-autonomous and on the periphery of the imperial system, it was never a fully-integrated provincial territory. The implications of this distinction for Judah's relationship with and experience of the Assyrian empire should not be underestimated; studies of the expression of Assyria's cultural and political powers in its provincial territories and vassal states have revealed notable differences in the degree of active involvement in different types of territories. Indeed, the mechanics of the Assyrian empire were hardly designed for direct control over all its vassals' internal activities, provided that a vassal produced the requisite tribute and did not provoke trouble among its neighbors, the level of direct involvement from Assyria remained relatively low, for the entirety of its experience of the Assyrian empire, Judah functioned as a vassal state, rather than a province under direct Assyrian rule, thereby preserving at least a certain degree of autonomy, especially in its internal affairs. Meanwhile, the general atmosphere of Pax Assyriaca in the southern Levant minimized the necessity of (and opportunities for) external conflict, that Assyrians, at least in small numbers, were present in Judah is likely - probably a qipu and his entourage who, if the recent excavators of Ramat Rahel are correct, perhaps resided just outside the capital - but there is far less evidence than is commonly assumed to suggest that these left a direct impression of Assyria on this small vassal state... The point here is that, despite the wider context of Assyria's political and economic power in the ancient Near East in general and the southern Levant in particular, Judah remained a distinguishable and semi-independent southern Levantine state, part of but not subsumed by the Assyrian empire and, indeed, benefitting from it in significant ways. 
  7. ^ Chronology of the Israelite Tribes from The History Files (historyfiles.co.uk)
  8. ^ Ben-Dov, Meir. 1985. In the Shadow of the Temple. New York, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., pp. 34–35. ISBN 0-06-015362-8
  9. ^ Bright, John (1980). A History of Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-664-22068-6. 
  10. ^ http://studentreader.com/jerusalem/#Edict-of-Cyrus Student Reader Jerusalem: "When Cyrus captured Babylon, he immediately issued the Edict of Cyrus, a decree that those who had been exiled by the Babylonians could return to their homelands and start rebuilding."
  11. ^ "Maccabean Revolt". Virtualreligion.net. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  12. ^ Josephus The Jewish Wars (1:60)
  13. ^ Barthold Georg Niebuhr; Marcus Carsten Nicolaus von Niebuhr (1852). Lectures on Ancient History. Taylor, Walton, and Maberly. p. 465. 
  14. ^ "Josephus, chapter 10". Christianbookshelf.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  15. ^ Encyclopaedic dictionary of the Bible, Volume 5, William George Smith. Concept Publishing Company. 1893. 
  16. ^ Sievers, 142
  17. ^ Martin Sicker (2001). Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 Years of Roman-Judaean Relations. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-275-97140-3. 
  18. ^ "Armenians of Jerusalem Launch Project To Preserve History and Culture". Pr-inside.com. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  19. ^ Aram Topchyan; Aram Tʻopʻchʻyan (2006). The Problem of the Greek Sources of Movses Xorenacʻi's History of Armenia. Isd. ISBN 978-90-429-1662-3. 
  20. ^ Jacob Neusner (1997). A History of the Jews in Babylonia. 2. Brill Archive. p. 351. 
  21. ^ "And when he had ordained five councils (συνέδρια), he distributed the nation into the same number of parts. So these councils governed the people; the first was at Jerusalem, the second at Gadara, the third at Amathus, the fourth at Jericho, and the fifth at Sepphoris in Galilee." Josephus, Ant. xiv 54:
  22. ^ "Josephus uses συνέδριον for the first time in connection with the decree of the Roman governor of Syria, Gabinius (57 BCE), who abolished the constitution and the then existing form of government of Palestine and divided the country into five provinces, at the head of each of which a sanhedrin was placed ("Ant." xiv 5, § 4)." via Jewish Encyclopedia: Sanhedrin:
  23. ^ Armstrong 1996, p. 126
  24. ^ Sicker 2001, p. 75
  25. ^ Dave Winter (1999). Israel Handbook: With the Palestinian Authority Areas. Footprint Handbooks. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-900949-48-4. 
  26. ^ Emil Schürer; Géza Vermès; Fergus Millar (1973). History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ. A&C Black. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-567-02242-4. 
  27. ^ "Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews – Book XVIII, "Cyrenius came himself into Judea, which was now added to the province of Syria"". Ccel.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  28. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, pp. 247–248: "Consequently, the province of Judea may be regarded as a satellite of Syria, though, in view of the measure of independence left to its governor in domestic affairs, it would be wrong to say that in the Julio-Claudian era Judea was legally part of the province of Syria."
  29. ^ A History of the Jewish People, H.H. Ben-Sasson editor, 1976, p. 247: "When Judea was converted into a Roman province [in 6 CE, p. 246], Jerusalem ceased to be the administrative capital of the country. The Romans moved the governmental residence and military headquarters to Caesarea, the centre of government was thus removed from Jerusalem, and the administration became increasingly based on inhabitants of the Hellenistic cities (Sebaste, Caesarea and others)."
  30. ^ John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew, vol. 1, ch. 11; also H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, p. 251: "But after the first agitation (which occurred in the wake of the first Roman census) had faded out, we no longer hear of bloodshed in Judea until the days of Pilate."
  31. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pp. 254–256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37–41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then—if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment—there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."
  32. ^ Acts 21:26–39
  33. ^ See also Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiquities XX, ix, 1.
  34. ^ Eusebius, Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, III, xxxii.
  35. ^ Christopher Mackay. "Ancient Rome a Military and Political History" 2007: 230
  36. ^ Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils: First Nicaea: Canon VII: "Since custom and ancient tradition have prevailed that the Bishop of Aelia [i.e., Jerusalem] should be honored, let him, saving its due dignity to the Metropolis, have the next place of honor."; "It is very hard to determine just what was the "precedence" granted to the Bishop of Aelia, nor is it clear which is the "metropolis" referred to in the last clause. Most writers, including Hefele, Balsamon, Aristenus and Beveridge consider it to be Cæsarea; while Zonaras thinks Jerusalem to be intended, a view recently adopted and defended by Fuchs; others again suppose it is Antioch that is referred to."
  37. ^ Browning, Robert. 1978. The Emperor Julian. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, p. 176. ISBN 0-520-03731-6
  38. ^ Horn, Cornelia B.; Robert R. Phenix, Jr. 2008. The Lives of Peter the Iberian, Theodosius of Jerusalem, and the Monk Romanus. Atlanta, Georgia: Society of Biblical Literature, p. lxxxviii. ISBN 978-1-58983-200-8
  39. ^ The Emperor Justinian and Jerusalem (527–565)
  40. ^ Hussey, J.M. 1961. The Byzantine World. New York, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, p. 25.
  41. ^ Karen Armstrong. 1997. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. New York, New York: Ballantine Books, p. 229. ISBN 0-345-39168-3
  42. ^ "Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 21, Number 281: "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Allah's Apostle, and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, (Mosque of Jerusalem)."". Islamicity.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  43. ^ Ostrogorsky, George. 1969. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 104. ISBN 0-8135-0599-2
  44. ^ Leslie J. Hoppe (2000). The Holy City: Jerusalem in the Theology of the Old Testament. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-5081-3. 
  45. ^ Theophilus (of Edessa) (2011). Theophilus of Edessa's Chronicle and the Circulation of Historical Knowledge in Late Antiquity and Early Islam. Liverpool University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-84631-698-2. 
  46. ^ Elizabeth Jeffreys; Fiona K. Haarer (2006). Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies: London, 21-26 August, 2006. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-7546-5740-8. 
  47. ^ Miriam Greenblatt (2002). Charlemagne and the Early Middle Ages. Benchmark Books. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-7614-1487-2. 
  48. ^ Heck, Gene W. Charlemagne, Muhammad, and the Arab roots of capitalism. p. 172. 
  49. ^ Majid Khadduri (2006). War and Peace in the Law of Islam. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-58477-695-6. 
  50. ^ a b Guy le Strange (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems from AD 650 to 1500, Translated from the Works of the Medieval Arab Geographers. Florence: Palestine Exploration Fund. 
  51. ^ Ross Burns (2005). Damascus: A History. Routledge. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-415-27105-9. 
  52. ^ Singh, Nagendra. 2002. "International Encyclopedia of Islamic Dynasties"'
  53. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. 2007. "Historic Cities of the Islamic World
  54. ^ Runciman, Steven. 1951. A History of the Crusades: Volume 1 The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 279–290. ISBN 0-521-06161-X
  55. ^ Adrian J. Boas (2001). Jerusalem in the Time of the Crusades: Society, Landscape and Art in the Holy City Under Frankish Rule. London: Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 9780415230001. 
  56. ^ Larry H. Addington (1990). The Patterns of War Through the Eighteenth Century. Midland book. Indiana University Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780253205513. ... in the Sixth Crusade, Frederick II ...concluded a treaty with the Saracens in 1229 that placed Jerusalem under Christian control but allowed Muslim and Christian alike freedom of access to the religious shrines of the city. ... Within fifteen years of Frederick's departure from the Holy Land, the Khwarisimian Turks, successors to the Seljuks, rampaged through Syria and Palestine, capturing Jerusalem in 1244. (Jerusalem would not be ruled again by Christians until the British occupied it in December 1917, during World War I.) 
  57. ^ Denys Pringle (2007). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: Volume 3, The City of Jerusalem: A Corpus. The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-521-39038-5. During the period of Christian control of Jerusalem between 1229 and 1244 ... 
  58. ^ Annabel Jane Wharton (2006). Selling Jerusalem: Relics, Replicas, Theme Parks. University of Chicago Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-226-89422-5. (footnote 19): It is perhaps worth noting that the same sultan, al-Malik al-Kamil, was later involved in the negotiations with Emperor Frederick II that briefly reestablished Latin control in Jerusalem between 1229 and 1244. 
  59. ^ Hossein Askari (2013). Conflicts in the Persian Gulf: Origins and Evolution. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-137-35838-7. Later, during the years 1099 through 1187 AD and 1229 through 1244 AD, Christian Crusaders occupied Jerusalem ... 
  60. ^ Moshe Ma'oz, ed. (2009). The Meeting of Civilizations: Muslim, Christian, and Jewish. Sussex Academic Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-84519-395-9. (Introduction by Moshe Ma'oz) ... When the Christian Crusaders occupied Jerusalem (AD 1099–1187, 1229–1244) ... 
  61. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Jerusalem (After 1291)". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  62. ^ Jerusalem Timeline From David to the 20th century Archived 27 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  63. ^ "10 Facts about the Walls of Jerusalem". eTeacher Hebrew. Retrieved 14 March 2018. 
  64. ^ Ambraseys, N. (2009). Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East: A Multidisciplinary Study of Seismicity up to 1900 (First ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 444–451. ISBN 978-0521872928. 
  65. ^ Thomas Augustine Prendergast (2004). Chaucer's Dead Body: From Corpse to Corpus. Psychology Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-415-96679-5. 
  66. ^ Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin (1993). The Druzes: A New Study of Their History, Faith, and Society. BRILL. p. 192. ISBN 90-04-09705-8. 
  67. ^ Asali, K.J. Jerusalem in History. Brooklyn, New York: Olive Branch Press, p. 215. ISBN 978-1-56656-304-8
  68. ^ Salmon, Thomas (1744). Modern History, Or, The Present State of All Nations: Describing Their Respective Situations, Persons, Habits, and Buildings, Manners, Laws and Customs ... Plants, Animals, and Minerals. p. 461. 
  69. ^ Fisk and King, 'Description of Jerusalem,' in The Christian Magazine, July 1824, p. 220. Mendon Association, 1824.
  70. ^ "Batei Mahseh Square". Jerusalem Municipality. Retrieved 9 May 2016. 
  71. ^ "Mishkenot Sha'ananim". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  72. ^ Mishkenot Sha'ananim Archived 10 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  73. ^ Hasson, Nir (18 April 2011). "A new state-funded project lets photo albums tell the history of the Land of Israel – Israel News | Haaretz Daily Newspaper". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  74. ^ Simon Goldhill (2009). Jerusalem: City of Longing. Harvard University Press. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-674-03772-4. 
  75. ^ Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine, Complete. Metropolitan Books. pp. 295–313. ISBN 0-8050-4848-0.  The group assembled at the Wall shouting "the Wall is ours". They raised the Jewish national flag and sang Hatikvah, the Israeli anthem. The authorities had been notified of the march in advance and provided a heavy police escort in a bid to prevent any incidents. Rumours spread that the youths had attacked local residents and had cursed the name of Muhammad.
  76. ^ Levi-Faur, Sheffer and Vogel, 1999, p. 216.
  77. ^ Sicker, 2000, p. 80.
  78. ^ 'The Wailing Wall In Jerusalem Another Incident', The Times, Monday, 19 August 1929; p. 11; Issue 45285; col D.
  79. ^ Prince-Gibson, Eetta (27 July 2006). "Reflective truth". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 10 May 2009. 
  80. ^ Yoav Gelber, Independence Versus Nakba; Kinneret–Zmora-Bitan–Dvir Publishing, 2004, ISBN 965-517-190-6, p.104
  81. ^ "Christians in the Holy Land" Edited by Michael Prior and William Taylor. ISBN 0-905035-32-1. p. 104: Albert Aghazarian "The significance of Jerusalem to Christians". This writer states that "Jews did not own any more than 20% of this quarter" prior to 1948
  82. ^ "Palestine and Palestinians", p. 117.
  83. ^ "Trump Jerusalem move sparks Israeli-Palestinian clashes", BBC News, 7 December 2017 
  84. ^ "Paraguay becomes third country to open embassy in Jerusalem". Retrieved 2018-05-23. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]