Kaufman-Straus was a local department store that operated in Louisville, from 1879 to 1969. In 1879, local retail clerk Henry Kaufman opened the first store on Jefferson between 8th. Four years Benjamin Straus entered into partnership with Kaufman. In 1887, the Kaufman-Straus store moved to South 4th Street in space leased from the Polytechnic Society of Kentucky; the new flagship store opened in 1903, at 533-49 South 4th Street, designed by local architect Mason Maury. In 1924, Kaufman-Straus was acquired by City Stores Company and the following year the flagship store underwent extensive renovations. City Stores rebranded the company as Kaufman's in 1960, it operated two stores in suburban Louisville at Dixie Manor. In 1969, Kaufman's was acquired by L. S. Ayres, the downtown Louisville store was subsequently closed in 1971; the flagship store was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. It is a six-story building
Courier Journal, locally called The Courier-Journal or The C-J or The Courier, is the largest news organization in Kentucky. According to the 1999 Editor & Publisher International Yearbook, the paper is the 48th-largest daily paper in the U. S. and the single-largest in Kentucky. The Courier-Journal was created from the merger of several newspapers introduced in Kentucky in the 19th century. Pioneer paper The Focus of Politics and Literature, was founded in 1826 in Louisville when the city was an early settlement of less than 7,000 individuals. In 1830 a new newspaper, The Louisville Daily Journal, began distribution in the city and, in 1832, absorbed The Focus of Politics and Literature; the Journal was an organ of the Whig Party and edited by George D. Prentice, a New Englander who came to Kentucky to write a biography of Henry Clay. Prentice would edit the Journal for more than 40 years. In 1844, another newspaper, the Louisville Morning Courier was founded in Louisville by Walter Newman Haldeman.
The Louisville Daily Journal and the Louisville Morning Courier were the news leaders in Louisville and were politically opposed throughout the Civil War. The Courier was suppressed by the Union and had to move to Nashville, but returned to Louisville after the war. In 1868, an ailing Prentice persuaded the 28-year-old Henry Watterson to come edit for the Journal. During secret negotiations in 1868, The Journal and the Courier merged and the first edition of The Courier-Journal was delivered to Louisvillians on Sunday morning, November 8, 1868. Henry Watterson, the son of a Tennessee congressman, had written for Harper's Magazine and the New York Times before enlisting in the Confederate Army, he became nationally known for his work as The Courier-Journal emerged as the region's leading paper. He supported the Democratic Party and pushed for the industrialization of Kentucky and the South in general, notably through urging the Southern Exposition be held in Louisville, he attracted controversy for attempting to prove that Christopher Marlowe had written the works of Shakespeare.
He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1917 for editorials demanding the United States enter World War I. The Courier-Journal founded a companion afternoon edition of the paper, The Louisville Times, in May 1884. In 1896, Watterson and Haldeman opposed Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan over his support of "Free Silver" coinage; this unpopular decision upset readers and advertisers, many of whom pulled their support for The Courier-Journal. Kentucky voted for the Republican candidate in 1896, the first time in state history, local political leaders blamed the Courier. Only the popularity of The Louisville Times, which had no strong editorial reputation, saved the newspaper company from bankruptcy; the Courier supported Bryan in future elections. Haldeman had owned the papers until his death in 1902, by 1917 they were owned by his son and Henry Watterson. On August 8, 1918, Robert Worth Bingham purchased two-thirds interest in the newspapers and acquired the remaining stock in 1920; the liberal Bingham clashed with longtime editor Watterson, who remained on board, but was in the twilight of his career.
Watterson's editorials opposing the League of Nations appeared alongside Bingham's favoring it, Watterson retired on April 2, 1919. I have always regarded the newspapers owned by me as a public trust and have endeavored so to conduct them as to render the greatest public service; as publisher, Bingham set the tone for his editorial pages, pushed for improved public education, support of African Americans and the poor of Appalachia. In 1933, the newspapers passed to his son, Barry Bingham, Sr. Barry Bingham would continue in his father's footsteps, guiding the editorial page and modernizing the paper by setting up several news bureaus throughout the state, expanding the news staff. During Barry Bingham, Sr.'s tenure, the paper was considered Kentucky's "Newspaper of Record" and ranked among the 10 best in the nation. In 1971, Barry Bingham, Jr. succeeded his father as the newspapers' publisher. The Binghams were well-liked owners popularly credited with being more concerned with publishing quality journalism than making heavy profits.
They owned the leading local radio and television stations -- WHAS-TV, WHAS-AM, WAMZ-FM—and Standard Gravure, a rotogravure printing company that printed The Courier-Journal's Sunday Magazine as well as similar magazines for other newspapers. Barry Bingham Jr. sought to free the papers from conflicts of interests, through The Louisville Times, experimented with new ideas such as signed editorials. Bingham Jr. parted with tradition by endorsing several Republican candidates for office. In 1974, Carol Sutton became managing editor of The Courier-Journal, the first woman appointed to such a post at a major US daily newspaper. Under the leadership of C. Thomas Hardin, director of photography, the combined photography staff of The Courier-Journal and Louisville Times was awarded the 1976 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography for its coverage of school desegregation in Louisville. Barry Bingham, Jr. served as editor and publisher until he resigned in 1986, shortly after his father announced that the newspaper company was for sale, in large measure because of disagreements between Bingham Jr. and his sister Sallie.
In July 1986, Gannett Company, Inc. purchased the newspaper company for $300 million and appointed George N. Gill President and Publisher. Gill had been with the newspaper and the Binghams for over two decades, working his way up from reporter to Chief Executive Officer of the Bingham Companies. In 1993, Gill retired and Edward E. Manassah became President and Publisher. February 1987 saw
Kentucky & Indiana Terminal Bridge
The Kentucky & Indiana Bridge is one of the first multi modal bridges to cross the Ohio River. It is for common roadway purposes together. By federal and local law railway and streetcar, wagon-way, pedestrian modes of travel were intended by the City of New Albany, City of Louisville, State of Kentucky, State of Indiana, the United States Congress, the bridge owners; the K & I Bridge connects Kentucky to New Albany, Indiana. Constructed from 1881 to 1885 by the Kentucky and Indiana Bridge Company, the original K&I Bridge opened in 1886, it included a single standard gauge track and two wagon ways, allowing wagons and other animal powered vehicles to cross the Ohio River by a method other than ferry for the first time. At the time motorized vehicles were nonexistent; the K&I Bridge company owned a ferry boat operation during both the 1st and 2nd bridge. The Kentucky & Indiana Bridge, which spans the mighty Ohio River at the Falls of the Ohio, was designed to connect the cities of New Albany and Louisville, to bring their residents closer together.
Citizens of New Albany and Louisville who conceived the bridge described its purpose in Articles of Association for the Kentucky and Indiana Bridge Company filed with the Recorder of Floyd County, Indiana March 7, 1881. The bridge founders declared, the object and purpose of the Kentucky & Indiana Bridge Company is to construct and operate a bridge from a point in the City of New Albany, Indiana across the Ohio River to a point in the City of Louisville, Kentucky for both railway and common roadway purposes together.. This bridge and its approaches cost $1,500,000 and is a monument to the enterprising citizens of Louisville and New Albany, who devised and carried out the financial plans for its erection, it is adapted for railway, wagon-way, pedestrian travel. The alignment of the K & I is along America's ancient roads known as the Great Buffalo Trace and Wilderness Road. Early Americans crossed at the coral rapids for 8,000 years; this strategic location has the only waterfall cascade on the 1,000 mile Mississippi River.
The location of the K & I is of enormous historic and sentimental importance and reflects the pioneer roots in our national destiny. America can commemorate the eighteenth-century migration of hundreds of thousands of settlers into Kentucky and Indiana via the Buffalo Traces by reopening the footpath across the Kentucky and Indiana Bridge. Today, some 48 million Americans have ancestors who moved through the Cumberland Gap and into Kentucky and Indiana along these pioneer trails. In Louisville, this route offered the most rapid connection to U. S. Highway 150 or Dixie Highway heading southwest and Lexington Road heading southwest. In Indiana between Vincennes and New Albany, the road follows the original route of the Buffalo Trace; each level of government, federal and city, preserved their right of way and established speed limits across the Kentucky and Indiana Bridge. In doing that, Louisville city leaders mandated that the purpose of the bridge was for four modes of transportation: railroad, streetcar and pedestrian purposes.
The City of Louisville and Federal Government declared the Kentucky and Indiana Bridge a postal route and retained its right of way in perpetuity. Designer Mace Moulton, Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, highlighted the K & I Bridge design, which included thoughtful safety innovations at the National Conference of the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1887, he chose the best Ohio River location in Louisville across the Falls of the Ohio, where it has the least width. This gave residents of New Louisville a shorter and independent entrance to their cities; the railroad track was placed in the center between two trusses. Designers used high visual screens along the roadway - to calm horses, to keep drivers focused on the roadway and not distracted by trains. On both the Louisville and New Albany sides, the common roadway and railway tracks are grade separated or independent. Publicity for the opening of the Kentucky and Indiana bridge was substantial as the Library of the United States Congress joined in advertising the grand opening of the bridge.
They wrote "There is in the course of construction at this time, about completed, a bridge across the Ohio, between Louisville and New Albany, Indiana. The bridge at Louisville is to have a railroad track, a passageway for the vehicles, a walk-way for foot passengers". Kentucky & Indiana Bridge had a remarkable safety rating. Experts at the time ranked it among the safest of any major bridge in the United States; this was due to the narrow roadway lanes, which induce slow driving speed and grade-separated crossings which kept the trains and roads on different vertical elevations where the road and rail routes crossed. The K & I Bridge Board of Directors reported, "The common roadway has been operated with remarkable freedom from accidents; the few that have occurred have been of trivial character with no loss of life or limb to any person. Upon opening, the bridge company offered the Daisy Line, an early steam locomotive commuter train service. In 1893, the Daisy Line trains became electrified, the first steam to electric conversion in the U.
S. This train was subject of feature articles in technical journals and was pictured in "Engineering News". Louisville's heavy rail electrification preceded the electrification of the famous Chicago's'L' trains by two years. Pa
The Southern Exposition was a five-year series of World's fairs held in the city of Louisville, from 1883 to 1887 in what is now Louisville's Old Louisville neighborhood. The exposition, held for 100 days each year on 45 acres south of Central Park, now the St. James-Belgravia Historic District, was an industrial and mercantile show. At the time, the exposition was larger than any previous American exhibition with the exception of the Centennial Exposition held in Philadelphia in 1876. U. S. President Chester A. Arthur opened the first annual exposition on August 1, 1883. One highlight of the show was the largest to-date installation of incandescent light bulbs, having been invented by Thomas Edison, to bring light to the exposition in the nighttime; the contract with the Louisville Board of Trade was for 5,000 incandescent lamps. 4,600 lamps for the exhibition hall and 400 for an art gallery, more than all the lamps installed in New York City at that time, were used. George H. Yater writes in his book Two Hundred Years at the Fall of the Ohio: Amphitheatre Auditorium, built with materials from the nearby dismantled remains of the Southern Exposition building Columbia Building The Filson Historical Society History of Louisville, Kentucky Louisville in the American Civil War Louisville mayors: Charles Donald Jacob and P. Booker Reed March 1890 middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak St. James Court Art Show, held in the same location Thomas Edison House Yater, George H..
Two Hundred Years at the Fall of the Ohio: A History of Louisville and Jefferson County. Filson Club, Incorporated. Bush, Bryan S.. Louisville's Southern Exposition, 1883-1887: The City of Progress. Charleston, South Carolina: The History Press. ISBN 978-1-60949-143-7. "'Went to the Exposition Tonight': Louisville's 1883 Southern Exposition" — Article by Kathryn Anne Bratcher of The Filson Historical Society "Southern Exposition: 1883-1887" — Article by Civil War historian/author Bryan S. Bush
Union Station (Louisville)
The Union Station of Louisville, Kentucky is a historic railroad station that serves as offices for the Transit Authority of River City, as it has since mid-April 1980 after receiving a year-long restoration costing $2 million. It was one of at least five union stations in Kentucky, amongst others located in Lexington, Covington and Owensboro, it was one of three stations serving Louisville, the others being Central Station and Southern Railway Station. It superseded previous, railroad depots located in Louisville, most notably one located at Tenth and Maple in 1868-1869, another L&N station built in 1858; the station was formally opened on September 1891 by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. There was a claim made at the time that it was the largest railroad station in the Southern United States, covering forty acres; the other major station in Louisville was Central Station, serving the Baltimore and Ohio, the Illinois Central and other railroads. Construction of the station began in 1880, but completion was delayed until 1889 due to rising costs totaling at $310,656.47.
Local contractors constructed all but the clock tower. Architect F. W. Mowbray was hired for the project, to reflect the Richardsonian Romanesque style of architecture, its exterior was made of limestone ashlar from Bowling Green, although that from Bedford, Indiana was used for its trim. The roof was made of a slate covering protecting heavy wood. Architectural features include a clock tower, smaller towers, turrets, a facade of considerable size, barreled vaulting; the interior was no less impressive. The atrium and ladies' retiring rooms on the first floor were quite spacious. A wrought iron balcony overlooked the atrium. Soft lighting of the facility came from rose-colored windows on both sides of the atrium; the walls were made of marble from Georgia, as well as southern pine. Ceramic tiles covered the floor. Union Station provided the entrance to Louisville for many visitors, with its height being the 1920s, when it served 58 trains a day; as a Union Station, it served not only the L&N railroad, but the Monon Railroad, the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Louisville, Henderson, & St. Louis, the latter merging with the L&N.
Many of those traveling to the Kentucky Derby would use the Union Station as their first place of celebration, with twenty special trains coming to the facility, Pullman cars allowing overnight accommodations, a trend that continued until the mid-1960s. Three separate United States presidents arrived in Louisville by Union Station; the lobby was once graced by a performance by Sarah Bernhardt. On July 17, 1905, a fire occurred in the facility; the structure was unusable. A temporary structure was used in its place during the restoration; the rose-colored windows were replaced due to the fire with an 84-paneled stained glass skylight that became a feature of the barrel-vaulting tower. The Ohio River flood of 1937 saw the structure close for twelve days. Amtrak used the facility from May 1971 until October 1976, when it began running the Floridian in conjunction with the Auto-Train from a suburban station near Louisville International Airport. From December 4, 2001 to July 4, 2003, a track on the west side of the parking lot served Amtrak's Kentucky Cardinal.
L&N would sell Union Station to TARC, which spent two million dollars from 1979 to 1980 to restore it. Since it has served as administration offices for TARC. In October 2010, TARC announced plans to use a grant from the U. S. Department of Transportation to restore all 278 windows at the 120-year-old Union Station, including 40 made of stained glass. Union Station will get a new geothermal-energy system. Combined with the window restoration, TARC estimates; until the 1950s and 1960s the station served several prominent named trains. Chicago and Louisville Railway: Thoroughbred, - Chicago, Illinois - Louisville Louisville & Nashville: Azalean, New York, New York - New Orleans, with western branch to Memphis, Tennessee Flamingo, - Cincinnati, Ohio - Jacksonville, Florida Humming Bird, Ohio - New Orleans Pan-American, New York, New York - New Orleans South Wind, Chicago - Miami, Florida Pennsylvania Railroad: Kentuckian, Chicago - Louisville Union Chicago - Louisville branch Connecting PRR trains to Indianapolis for St. Louis, Missouri - New York City trains: American, Penn Texas and St. LouisanConnecting PRR train to Fort Wayne for: Northern Arrow List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area Union Station Humming Bird Pan-American South Wind Floridian TARC History and Union Station TARC gets $9 million in federal grants—Business First October 28, 2010
Chestnut Street Baptist Church
The Chestnut Street Baptist Church is a historic church at 912 W. Chestnut Street in Louisville, Kentucky, it was built in 1884 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. It was deemed significant as "a significant example of Gothic Revival ecclesastical architecture in Louisville, it is an important part of the history of one of the city's earliest and most important black congregations."It was designed by German-born architect Henry Wolters. It is an "ornate Gothic Revival structure; the red brick church is richly ornamented with terra cotta. The facade of the structure consists of a central gabled section with two towers."
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 29th most-populous city in the United States. It is one of two cities in Kentucky designated as first-class, the other being Lexington, the state's second-largest city. Louisville is the historical seat and, since 2003, the nominal seat of Jefferson County, located in the northern region of the state, on the border with Indiana. Louisville, named for King Louis XVI of France, was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark, making it one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Sited beside the Falls of the Ohio, the only major obstruction to river traffic between the upper Ohio River and the Gulf of Mexico, the settlement first grew as a portage site, it was the founding city of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which grew into a 6,000-mile system across 13 states. Today, the city is known as the home of legendary boxer Muhammad Ali, the Kentucky Derby, Kentucky Fried Chicken, the University of Louisville and its Louisville Cardinals athletic teams, Louisville Slugger baseball bats, three of Kentucky's six Fortune 500 companies, being Humana, Kindred Healthcare and Yum!
Brands. Its main airport is the site of United Parcel Service's worldwide air hub. Since 2003, Louisville's borders have been the same as those of Jefferson County, after a city-county merger; the official name of this consolidated city-county government is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, abbreviated to Louisville Metro. Despite the merger and renaming, the term "Jefferson County" continues to be used in some contexts in reference to Louisville Metro including the incorporated cities outside the "balance" which make up Louisville proper; the city's total consolidated population as of the 2017 census estimate was 771,158. However, the balance total of 621,349 excludes other incorporated places and semiautonomous towns within the county and is the population listed in most sources and national rankings; the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as Kentuckiana, includes Louisville-Jefferson County and 12 surrounding counties, seven in Kentucky and five in Southern Indiana.
As of 2017, the MSA had a population of 1,293,953. The history of Louisville spans hundreds of years, has been influenced by the area's geography and location; the rapids at the Falls of the Ohio created a barrier to river travel, as a result, settlements grew up at this stopping point. The first European settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville was on Corn Island in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, credited as the founder of Louisville. Several landmarks in the community are named after him. Two years in 1780, the Virginia General Assembly approved the town charter of Louisville; the city was named in honor of King Louis XVI of France, whose soldiers were aiding Americans in the Revolutionary War. Early residents lived in forts to protect themselves from Indian raids, but moved out by the late 1780s. In 1803, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark organized their expedition across America in the town of Clarksville, Indiana at the present-day Falls of the Ohio opposite Louisville, Kentucky.
The city's early growth was influenced by the fact that river boats had to be unloaded and moved downriver before reaching the falls. By 1828, the population had grown to 7,000 and Louisville became an incorporated city. Early Louisville was slaves worked in a variety of associated trades; the city was a point of escape for slaves to the north, as Indiana was a free state. During this point in the 1850s, the city was growing and vibrant, but that came with negativity, it was the center of planning, supplies and transportation for numerous campaigns in the Western Theater. By the year 1855, ethnic tension was arising. Nobody knew. On August 6, 1855 "Bloody Monday" happened. By 1861, the civil war broke out. During the Civil War, Louisville was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky in the Union. By the end of the war, Louisville had not been attacked, although skirmishes and battles, including the battles of Perryville and Corydon, took place nearby. After Reconstruction, returning Confederate veterans took political control of the city, leading to the jibe that Louisville joined the Confederacy after the war was over.
The first Kentucky Derby was held on May 1875, at the Louisville Jockey Club track. The Derby was shepherded by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. the grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, grandnephew of the city's founder George Rogers Clark. Horse racing had a strong tradition in Kentucky, whose Inner Bluegrass Region had been a center of breeding high-quality livestock throughout the 19th century. Ten thousand spectators watched the first Derby. On March 27, 1890, the city was devastated and its downtown nearly destroyed when an F4 tornado tore through as part of the middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak. An estimated 74 to 120 people were killed and 200 were injured; the damage cost the city $2.5 million. In 1914, the City of Louisville passed a racially-based zoning residential zoning code, following Baltimore, a handful of cities in the Carolinas; the NAACP challenged the ordinance in two cases. Two weeks after the ordinance enacted, an African-American named Arthur Harris moved into a house on a block designated for whites.
He was found guilty. The second case was planned to create a test case. William Warley, the president of the local chapter