History of Pittsburgh
The history of Pittsburgh began with centuries of Native American civilization in the modern Pittsburgh region, known as "Dionde:gâ'" in the Seneca language.' French and British explorers encountered the strategic confluence where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet to form the Ohio, which leads to the Mississippi River. The area became a battleground when Britain fought for control in the 1750s; when the British were victorious, the French ceded control of territories east of the Mississippi. Following American independence in 1783, the village around Fort Pitt continued to grow; the region saw the short-lived Whiskey Rebellion, when farmers rebelled against federal taxes on whiskey. The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing large quantities of iron, brass and glass products. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh had grown to one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. Production of steel began in 1875. During the 1877 railway riots it was the site of the most violence and damage in any city affected by the nationwide strikes of that summer.
Workers protested against cuts in wages, burning down buildings at the railyards, including 100 train engines and more than 1,000 cars. Forty men were killed, most of them strikers. By 1911, Pittsburgh was producing half the nation's steel. Pittsburgh was a Republican party stronghold until 1932; the soaring unemployment of the Great Depression, the New Deal relief programs and the rise of powerful labor unions in the 1930s turned the city into a liberal stronghold of the New Deal Coalition under powerful Democratic mayors. In World War II, it was the center of the "Arsenal of Democracy", producing munitions for the Allied war effort as prosperity returned. Following World War II, Pittsburgh launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance." The industrial base continued to expand through the 1960s, but after 1970 foreign competition led to the collapse of the steel industry, with massive layoffs and mill closures. Top corporate headquarters moved out in the 1980s.
In 2007 the city lost its status as a major transportation hub. The population of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area is holding steady at 2.4 million. For thousands of years, Native Americans inhabited the region where the Allegheny and the Monongahela join to form the Ohio. Paleo-Indians conducted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle in the region as early as 19,000 years ago. Meadowcroft Rockshelter, an archaeological site west of Pittsburgh, provides evidence that these first Americans lived in the region from that date. During the Adena culture that followed, Mound Builders erected a large Indian Mound at the future site of McKees Rocks, about three miles from the head of the Ohio; the Indian Mound, a burial site, was augmented in years by members of the Hopewell culture. By 1700 the Iroquois Confederacy, the Five Nations-based south of the Great Lakes in present-day New York, held dominion over the upper Ohio valley, reserving it for hunting grounds. Other tribes included the Lenape, displaced from eastern Pennsylvania by European settlement, the Shawnee, who had migrated up from the south.
With the arrival of European explorers, these tribes and others had been devastated by European infectious diseases, such as smallpox, measles and malaria, to which they had no immunity. In 1748, when Conrad Weiser visited Logstown, 18 miles downriver from Pittsburgh, he counted 789 warriors gathered: the Iroquois included 163 Seneca, 74 Mohawk, 35 Onondaga, 20 Cayuga, 15 Oneida. Other tribes were 165 Lenape, 162 Shawnee, 100 Wyandot, 40 Tisagechroami, 15 Mohican. Shannopin's Town, a Seneca tribe village on the east bank of the Allegheny, was the home village of Queen Aliquippa, it was deserted after 1749. Sawcunk, on the mouth of the Beaver River, was a Lenape settlement and the principal residence of Shingas, a chief of theirs. Chartier's Town was a Shawnee town established in 1734 by Peter Chartier. Kittanning was a Shawnee village on the Allegheny, with an estimated 300 -- 400 residents; the first Europeans arrived in the 1710s as traders. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a manuscript in 1717, that year European traders established posts and settlements in the area.
Europeans first began to settle in the region in 1748, when the first Ohio Company, an English land speculation company, won a grant of 200,000 acres in the upper Ohio Valley. From a post at present-day Cumberland, the company began to construct an 80-mile wagon road to the Monongahela River employing a Delaware Indian chief named Nemacolin and a party of settlers headed by Capt. Michael Cresap to begin widening the track into a road, it followed the same route as an ancient Amerindian trail, now known as Nemacolin's Trail. The river crossing and flats at Redstone creek, was the earliest point and shortest distance for the descent of a wagon road. In the war, the site fortified as Fort Burd was one of several possible destinations. Another alternative was the divergent route that became Braddock's Road a few years through present-day New Stanton. In the event, the colonists did not succeed in improving the Amerindian path to a wagon road much beyond the Cumberland Narrows pass before they were confronted by hostile Native Americans.
The colonists mounted a series of expeditions in order to accomplish piecemeal improvements to the track. The French had built nearby Logstown as a trade and council center for the Native Americans to increase their influence in the Ohio Valley. Between June
Edgar Thomson Steel Works
The Edgar Thomson Steel Works is a steel mill in the Pittsburgh area communities of Braddock and North Braddock, United States. It has been active since 1872, it is owned by U. S. Steel and is known as Mon Valley Works – Edgar Thomson Plant on its official website; the mill occupies the historic site of Braddock's Field, on the banks of the Monongahela River east of Pittsburgh. On July 9, 1755, in the Battle of the Monongahela and Indian forces from Fort Duquesne defeated the expedition of British General Edward Braddock, who himself was mortally wounded. Braddock's Field was the site of a rally of rebellious militiamen and farmers during the Whiskey Rebellion, prior to a massive march on the town of Pittsburgh on August 1, 1794; the site is on the banks of the Monongahela, which provides cost-effective, riverine transportation of coke and finished steel products. The Edgar Thomson Steel Works was designed and built because of the Bessemer process, the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel.
In the process, air blowing through the molten iron removed impurities via oxidation. This took place in the Bessemer converter, a large ovoid steel container lined with clay or dolomite. In the summer of 1872, while in Europe, Andrew Carnegie learned about the Bessemer process, he returned to Pittsburgh with plans to build his own Bessemer plant. Some of the partners and connected people were William Coleman, Andrew Kloman, Henry Phipps, David McCandless, Wm. P. Shinn, John Scott, David A. Stewart, James Robb Wilson and Thomas Carnegie; the firm was known as Carnegie, McCandless, Company. The plant was named after J. Edgar Thomson, the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Carnegie Brothers and Company was created by the consolidation of the steel businesses owned by Andrew Carnegie in the early 1880s; those steel and coke works that were consolidated were: Sciota Ore Mines Union Iron Mills Edgar Thomson Steel Works Lucy Furnaces Monastery Coke Works Larimer Coke WorksThe merging of these separate business operations into one resulted in the newly formed company owning an interest of nearly $5 million.
On January 1, 1873, ground work began on the Edgar Thomson Steel Works in Braddock Twp. It has been estimated; the mill was built by Alexander Lyman Holley, who found a manager to run the mill, Capt. William Jones, a Civil War veteran. On August 22, 1875, the Edgar Thomson Steel Works' hulking Bessemer converter produced its first heat of liquid steel, destined to become 2,000 steel rails for the Pennsylvania Railroad. Within one year of beginning production the mill was able to create 32,228 tons of steel rail; the district was known as Bessemer incorporated as North Braddock. The plant's first general superintendent, William R. Jones, described the steel mill writing, "This is the most powerful rail mill in the country. With continual improvements in production the mill was capable of producing 225 tons of steel rails per day. By the late 1880s James Gayley took over as manager of the plant. In 1892, the workers of the plant took part in one of the most serious strikes in U. S. history. The Homestead Strike arose when Henry Clay Frick, an associate and partner of Carnegie, took over while Carnegie traveled to Scotland.
Frick attempted to cut the wages of the steel workers. The steelworkers at the Duquesne and Edgar Thomson Works joined the strike and shut their mills down in sympathy. Frick took extreme measures, he brought in thousands of strikebreakers. When he sent in 300 Pinkerton guards to protect the strikebreakers, a riot broke out, resulting in 10 deaths and thousands of injuries. To prevent any further bloodshed, the governor, Robert Pattison, sent two brigades to stop the fighting. Carnegie, McCandless and Company recommenced operations with non-union immigrant workers. In 1901, Carnegie sold the Carnegie Steel Company, including the Edgar Thomson Works, to J. P. Morgan, Elbert H. Gary and other investors, as part of the foundation of U. S. Steel. In October, 1984 a Merrill Lynch analyst infamously predicted that U. S. Steel would close Thomson within a few years; the plant survived the collapse of the steel industry in the 1980s, which shuttered famous plants, like the Homestead Steel Works in Homestead, or the National Tube Works in Mckeesport, became the last integrated mill in the valley, an area which once contained 90,000 people employed in the basic steel industry.
Today, two blast furnaces continue in operation at the Edgar Thomson Steel Works, which remains part of U. S. Steel. In 2005, the mill produced 2.8 million tons of steel, equal to 28% of U. S. Steel's domestic production; the mill employs about 900 persons, some of whom belong to the second or third generations of their families to work in the mill. Among improvements to its physical plant is a $250 million continuous caster, which converts liquid steel directly into slabs, installed in 1992. In April 1995, the mill was designated a historic landmark by ASM International, a society that honors works of structural engineering. Other structures that have been honored by the society include the Statue of Liberty and the Eiffel Tower. Historic American Engineering Record No. PA-384, "U. S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Along Monongahela River, Allegheny County, PA", 3 photos, 1 color transparency, 85 data pages, 1 photo caption page Historic pictures and schematics of the area's rail service U. S. Steel Website — Facilities
Allegheny Cemetery is one of the largest and oldest burial grounds in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. It is a nonsectarian, wooded hillside park located at 4734 Butler Street in the Lawrenceville neighborhood and bounded by the Bloomfield and Stanton Heights areas, it is sited on the north-facing slope of hills above the Allegheny River. In 1973 the cemetery's Butler Street Gatehouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and in 1980 the entire cemetery was listed on the National Register. Incorporated in 1844, the Allegheny Cemetery is the sixth oldest rural cemetery in America and has expanded over the years to now encompass 300 acres. Allegheny Cemetery memorializes more than 124,000 people; some of the oldest graves are of soldiers who fought in the French and Indian War, which were moved here from their original burial site at Pittsburgh's Trinity Cathedral downtown. Many notables from the city of Pittsburgh are buried here; the cemetery was amongst those profiled in the PBS documentary A Cemetery Special.
In 1834 three members of the Third Presbyterian Church of Pittsburgh, Dr. J. Ramsey Speer, Stephen Colwell and John Chislett, Sr. tried to establish a rural cemetery near Pittsburgh. Dr. Speer visited several famous rural cemeteries, Mount Auburn Cemetery on Boston, Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Green-Wood Cemetery in New York. In 1842 the 100 acre farm of Colonel Bayard was selected for the site. An Act of Incorporation passed the Pennsylvania Legislature and was signed by Gov. David R. Porter on April 24, 1844."Mt. Barney" was selected as the site of a memorial to naval heroes in 1848 and Commodore Joshua Barney and Lt. James L. Parker were reinterred there. Another memorial was erected on Memorial Day, 1937 to the memory of over 7,000 servicemen buried in the cemetery. Marcus E. Baldwin, Major League Baseball Player Joseph Baker, mayor of Pittsburgh Joshua Barney, Commodore in the United States Navy and American Revolutionary War veteran Richard Biddle, US Congressman Lem Billings and campaigner for John F. Kennedy James Blackmore, Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1872-1875 and 1868-1869.
Francis B. Brewer, US Congressman Don Brockett, motion picture and television actor, "Chef Brockett" on the PBS series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood James W. Brown, US Congressman Eben Byers, wealthy American industrialist and socialite noted for his gruesome death caused by consumption of the radioactive patent medicine Radithor. John Caldwell, Jr. George Westinghouse partner and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Louis Semple Clarke, automotive pioneer, founder of the Autocar Company and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club James Wallace Conant, manager of the Schenley Park Casino and Duquesne Gardens and founder of the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League. Beano Cook, college football commentator John Dalzell, US Congressman Cornelius Darragh, US Congressman Ebenezer Denny, first mayor of Pittsburgh, American Revolutionary War veteran Harmar Denny, U. S. Congressman Harmar D. Denny, Jr. US Congressman William J. Diehl, Pittsburgh Mayor Harry Allison Estep, US Congressman John Baptiste Ford, founder of PPG Industries and Ford City, Pennsylvania Walter Forward, United States Secretary of the Treasury Stephen Foster, songwriter Josh Gibson, baseball great of the Negro Leagues Gus Greenlee, Major League Baseball Team Owner Moses Hampton, US Congressman General Alexander Hays William B.
Hays, Pittsburgh mayor Joseph Horne, founder of Pittsburgh department store Horne's the chain of stores closed in 1994 Thomas Marshall Howe, US Congressman Alfred E. Hunt, co-founder of the company that became Alcoa Thomas Irwin, US Congressman William Wallace Irwin, US Congressman, Pittsburgh Mayor William Freame Johnston, Governor of Pennsylvania Samuel Kier, pioneer oil refiner Andrew W. Loomis, US Congressman F. T. F. Lovejoy, associate of Andrew Carnegie William McClelland, US Congressman Charles McClure, US Congressman James McCord, millionaire owner of the oldest hattery west of the Allegheny Mountains and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Henry Sellers McKee, millionaire glass manufacturer, founder of Jeannette and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Robert McKnight, US Congressman William McNair, Pittsburgh mayor Thomas Mellon, founder of Mellon Bank Alexander Pollock Moore, publisher of the Pittsburgh Leader and ambassador, married to actress Lillian Russell James Kennedy Moorhead, US Congressman Philip H. Morgan, jurist, diplomat General James S. Negley, Civil War general and U.
S. Congressman John Neville, American Revolutionary War veteran and tax collector during the Whiskey Rebellion George Tener Oliver, publisher of the Pittsburgh Gazette Times and Chronicle Telegraph, US Senator Alfred L. Pearson, United States Army officer Henry Kirke Porter, US Congressman James Hay Reed, founding partner, Knox & Reed, member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club John Buchanan Robinson, US Congressman William Robinson, Jr. politician and militia general Calbraith Perry Rodgers, aviation pioneer James Ross, US Sen
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Fort Pitt (Pennsylvania)
Fort Pitt was a fort built by British forces between 1759 and 1761 during the French and Indian War at the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, where the Ohio River is formed in western Pennsylvania. It was near the site of Fort Duquesne, a French colonial fort built in 1754 as tensions increased between Great Britain and France in both Europe and North America; the French destroyed the fort in 1758. British colonial protection of this area led to the development of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania by British-American colonists and immigrants. In April 1754, the French began building Fort Duquesne on the site of the small British Fort Prince George at the beginning of the French and Indian War; the Braddock expedition, a 1755 British attempt to take Fort Duquesne, met with defeat at the Battle of the Monongahela at present-day Braddock, Pennsylvania. The French garrison defeated an attacking British regiment in September 1758 at the Battle of Fort Duquesne. French Colonel de Lignery ordered Fort Duquesne destroyed and abandoned at the approach of General John Forbes' expedition in late November.
The Forbes expedition was successful where the Braddock expedition had failed because the British Treaty of Easton of 1758 had cut into former French alliances with Native American tribes. Chiefs of 13 American Indian nations agreed to negotiate peace with the colonial governments of Pennsylvania and New Jersey and to abandon any alliances with the French; the nations were the Six Nations of the Iroquois League, bands of the Lenape, the Shawnee. They agreed to the treaty based on the colonial governments' promising to respect their rights to hunting and territory in the Ohio Country, to prohibit establishing new settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains, to withdraw British and colonial military troops after the war; the American Indians wanted a trading post at Fort Duquesne, but they did not want a British army garrison or colonial settlement. The British named it Fort Pitt, after William Pitt the Elder; the fort was built from 1759 to 1761 during the French and Indian War, next to the site of former Fort Duquesne.
It was built in the popular pentagram shape, with bastions at the star points, by Captain Harry Gordon, a British Engineer in the 60th Royal American Regiment. After the colonial war and in the face of continued broken treaties, broken promises and encroachment by the Europeans, in 1763 the western Lenape and Shawnee took part in a Native uprising known as Pontiac's War, an effort to drive settlers out of the Native American territory; the American Indians' siege of Fort Pitt began on June 22, 1763, but they found it too well-fortified to be taken by force. In negotiations during the siege, Captain Simeon Ecuyer, the commander of Fort Pitt, gave two Delaware emissaries blankets, exposed to smallpox; the potential of this act to cause an epidemic among the American Indians was understood. Commander William Trent wrote that he hoped "it will have the desired effect." Colonel Henry Bouquet, leading a relief force, would discuss similar tactics with Commander-in-Chief Jeffery Amherst. The effectiveness of these attempts to spread the disease are unknown, although it is known that the method used is inefficient compared to respiratory transmission, it is difficult to differentiate from occurring epidemics resulting from previous contacts with colonists.
During and after Pontiac's War, epidemics of smallpox among Native Americans devastated the tribes of Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes areas. On August 1, 1763, most of the American Indians broke off the siege to intercept the approaching force under Colonel Bouquet. In the Battle of Bushy Run, Bouquet fought off the American Indian attack and relieved Fort Pitt on August 10. In 1772, after Pontiac's War, the British commander at Fort Pitt sold the building to two colonists, William Thompson and Alexander Ross. At that time, the Pittsburgh area was claimed by the colonies of both Virginia and Pennsylvania, which struggled for power over the region. After Virginians took control of Fort Pitt, they called it Fort Dunmore, in honour of Virginia's Governor Lord Dunmore; the fort served as a staging ground in Dunmore's War of 1774. During the American Revolutionary War, Fort Pitt served as a headquarters for the western theatre of the war. In present-day Michigan, the British garrisoned Fort Detroit.
A redoubt, a small brick outbuilding called the Blockhouse, survives in Point State Park as the sole remnant of Fort Pitt. Erected in 1764, it is believed to be the oldest building still standing in Pittsburgh. Used for many years as a private residence, the blockhouse was purchased and preserved for many years by the local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Notice was given to area residents of an auction of all salvageable remains of the fort on August 3, 1797 after the U. S. Army decommissioned the site. In the 20th century, the city of Pittsburgh commissioned archeological excavation of the foundations of Fort Pitt. Afterward, some of the fort was reconstructed to give visitors at Point State Park a sense of the size of the fort. In this rebuilt section, the Fort Pitt Museum is housed in the Monongahela Bastion, excavated portions of the fort were filled in. Fort Pitt Foundry was an important armaments manufacturing center for the Federal government during the Civil War, under the charge of William Metcalf.
The Allegheny Uprising starred Claire Trevor. In Cecil B. DeMille's Unconquered, starring Gary Cooper and Paulette Goddard, Howard Da Silva played a gunrunner and Boris Karloff a Seneca chief who lead an American Indian uprising in 1763
Iron City Brewing Company
The Iron City Brewing Company is a beer company that until August 2009 had been located in the Lawrenceville neighborhood of Pittsburgh, United States. On June 11, 2009, it was reported that the brewery was "moving" to Pennsylvania; that move was completed and Iron City is now produced in the Latrobe Brewery, once used to produce Rolling Rock. In 1861, a young German immigrant, Edward Frauenheim, started the Iron City Brewery, one of the first American breweries to produce a lager, in the bustling river port known at the time as the "Smoky City." This founder of Frauenheim, Miller & Company started brewing Iron City Beer, now the flagship of the Iron City Brewing Company, in a city thriving on heavy industry and commerce. By 1866, the brewery had begun to grow; the business outgrew its original facilities on 17th Street and moved into a four-story brick building that the company built at Liberty Avenue and 34th Street worth an estimated $250,000. Just three years Iron City Brewery erected an additional three-story building at the site.
The two buildings, carrying an average stock of about 10,000 barrels, used state-of-the-art brewing equipment. At the time, 25 of the operation's 30 skilled workmen were employed full-time, Iron City Brewery continued to expand its markets to become the largest brewery in Pittsburgh. After the 1866 expansion, Leopold Vilsack, a Pittsburgh native who learned the brewer’s trade at Pittsburgh’s old Bennett Brewery, joined Frauenheim, Miller & Company; the young man became a partner, investing his small wealth in the firm when Miller retired and another partner died. Iron City Brewery became Frauenheim and Vilsack Company. Frauenheim and Vilsack’s fame spread throughout the brewing industry across the country, as the company had built one of the most complete and extensive breweries in the United States. With a brewing capacity of about 50,000 barrels a year, the Iron City Brewery was an impressive operation, able to compete favorably in sales with any brewery west of the Atlantic Coast area. Historians and newspapers were amazed.
The total value of Iron City, from stock to raw materials, was about $150,000 – an unheard of sum for a brewery. By 1886, the Iron City Brewery had about large 500 reception cask, each of which held 45 to 50 barrels of beer. And, the brewery had about 10,000 kegs in constant use. During the latter part of the 19th century, trusts became the business vogue, industries began to merge or form trusts to achieve stability through size and take advantage of economies of scale; the brewing industry was no exception. On February 3, 1899, the Pittsburgh Dispatch reported that 12 local brewing firms applied to transfer their license to the trust known as Pittsburgh Brewing Company: Wainwright Brewing Company, Phoenix Brewing Company, Keystone Brewing Company, Winter Brothers Brewing Company, Phillip Lauer, John H. Nusser, Ebhardt & Ober Brewing Company, Hippely & Sons, Ober Brewing Company, J. Seiferth Brothers, Straub Brewing Company, the Iron City Brewing Company. In addition to these 12 Pittsburgh and Allegheny County breweries, nine breweries outside the county took part in the merger.
In all, 21 breweries joined to make Pittsburgh Brewing Company the largest brewing operation in Pennsylvania and the third largest in the country. The combined facilities, worth about $11 million, provided a capacity of more than one million barrels. Greater efficiencies and more modern equipment made it practical to close many of the 21 breweries shortly after the incorporation without relinquishing capacities. Prohibition, starting in 1920, forced many breweries and taverns to close, yet Pittsburgh Brewing Company survived. One of only 725 American breweries left when the movement was repealed in April 1933, PBC produced soft drinks, ice cream and'near beer' and ran a cold storage business to endure those years; the brewery’s creative efforts kept alive a Pittsburgh tradition and foreshadowed future innovations that would again restore security in times of struggle. In the 1970s, the Pittsburgh Brewing Company acquired the Queen City Brewing Company of Cumberland, Maryland; the Queen City Brewing Company was known as the Old German Brewing Company and included the Cumberland Brewing Company, purchased by the brewery in 1958.
At its peak, the Queen City brewery produced over 250,000 barrels of beer a year in Cumberland. The company prospered during the 1960s; the Queen City brewery was demolished in April 1975, ending a combined 152 years of brewing in Cumberland, Maryland. In January, 1974, the Pittsburgh Brewing Company acquired the Augustiner, Mark V, Robin Hood and Gambrinus brand names from August Wagner Breweries, Inc. Columbus, Ohio. By 1977, Pittsburgh Brewing Company was one of just 40 breweries left in the country. To rebound from difficult years, the brewery introduced a new light beer, Iron City Light—or IC Light. IC Light's aggressive marketing campaign targeted the young beer drinker. Both men and women enjoyed the new beer, which captured 80 percent of the local light-beer market. IC Light’s popularity also heightened the sales of regular Iron City beer, as it soon regained the position of Southwestern Pennsylvania’s favorite beer. In 1986, Pittsburgh Brewing Company was acquired by Alan Bond's Bond Brewing Holdings Ltd. of Perth, Western Australia, two years he integrated Pittsburgh Brewing into the structure of its corpo
Allegheny College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in northwestern Pennsylvania in the town of Meadville 35 miles south of Erie. Founded in 1815, Allegheny is the oldest college in continuous existence under the same name west of the Allegheny Mountains. Allegheny is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association and the North Coast Athletic Conference and it is regionally accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Allegheny was founded in April 1815 by the Reverend Timothy Alden, a graduate of Harvard's School of Divinity; the college is affiliated with the United Methodist Church beginning in 1833, but does not integrate religion into the classroom or pedagogy. The first class, consisting of four male students, began their studies on July 4, 1816, without any formal academic buildings. Within six years, Alden accumulated sufficient funds to begin building a campus; the first building erected, the library, was designed by Alden himself, is a notable example of early American architecture.
Bentley Hall is named in honor of Dr. William Bentley, who donated his private library to the College, a collection of considerable value and significance. In 1824, Thomas Jefferson wrote to Alden, expressing the hope that his University of Virginia could someday possess the richness of Allegheny's library. Alden served as president of the college until 1831, when financial and enrollment difficulties forced his resignation. Ruter Hall was built in 1853. Allegheny began admitting women in 1870, early for a US college. By the time Ida Tarbell, future journalist, arrived in 1876, nineteen women had attended Allegheny and only two had graduated. Tarbell described Ruter Hall in her writing, "...looking out on the town in the valley, its roofs and towers half hidden by a wealth of trees, beyond it to a circle of round-breasted hills. Before I left Allegheny I had found a precious thing in that severe room--the companionship there is in the silent presence of books." In 1905, Allegheny built Alden Hall as a new and improved preparatory school.
Over the decades, the college has grown in size and significance while still maintaining ties to the community. In 1971 the film Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up to Me based on the Richard Farina novel was filmed on college grounds. While the word "Allegheny" is a brand for the college, it is the name of a county, a river, a mountain range, the school has tried to prevent other entities from using this word. For example, Allegheny objected in 2006 when Penn State tried to rename one of its campuses "Allegheny". Allegheny president Richard Cook said'Allegheny' was "our brand." It sued the Philadelphia's Allegheny Research Foundation in 1997 to change its name. Under president Richard J. Cook, Allegheny was reported to have had a "stronger endowment, optimal enrollment, record retention rates, innovative new programs and many physical campus improvements." These years were marked by tremendous growth in the endowment, marked by a $115-million fund-raising drive, bringing the endowment to $150 million.
In February 2008, James H. Mullen Jr. was named the 21st president of Allegheny. He took office Aug. 1, 2008. The college and the town cooperate in many ways. One study suggested the Allegheny College generates $93 million annually into Meadville and the local economy. Since 2002, Allegheny hosts classical music festivals during the summer. In October 2006, the college attracted negative publicity after local enforcement cited over 100 people for underage drinking at a college party. In July 2007, a 1,500-pound wrecking ball demolishing part of Allegheny's Pelletier Library broke its chain, rumbled down the hill, careened "back and forth across the street," hit nine parked cars, wrecked curbs, crashed into the trunk of an Allegheny student's car, pushing his car into two cars in front of him. Eight soccer balls in his car "likely lessened the impact of the wrecking ball," and spared his life, according to a police officer on the scene; the student body voted to name the library's coffee shop "The Wrecking Ball" after the event.
The college has sponsored panels on unusual topics such as face transplants. Allegheny professors have joined visible initiatives. Dr. Maniates said "We need to think of ways of making it possible for people to think about working less and getting by on less." At present, environmental concerns are important at Allegheny, which in 2008 worked with Siemens to devise a "total energy use reduction plan" for the college. The campus has 40 principal buildings on a 79-acre central campus located just north of Downtown Meadville, a 203-acre outdoor recreational complex north of campus, called the Roberston Athletic Complex, the 283-acre Bousson nature reserve, protected forest, experimental forest. Residence Halls: North Village II is the newest residence hall on campus, which houses 230 residents in either quad or double living in an air conditioned environment. North Village houses 110 residents in air-conditioned suites housing 5 residents a suite; the most environmentally friendly of all the residence halls, it features geothermal heating, eco-friendly tiles, rainwater recharge stations College Court is located at the southern part of the campus and houses 77 students in apartment style housing which shares a common courtyard and features a kitchen and air conditioning.
Located about a 5-minute walk from campus, Allegheny Commons is a new addi