Louis I of Hungary
Louis I Louis the Great. He was the first child of Charles I of Hungary and his wife, Elizabeth of Poland, to survive infancy. A 1338 treaty between his father and Casimir III of Poland, Louis's maternal uncle, confirmed Louis's right to inherit the Kingdom of Poland if his uncle died without a son. In exchange, Louis was obliged to assist his uncle to reoccupy the lands that Poland had lost in previous decades, he did not administer the province. Louis was of age when succeeded his father in 1342, but his religious mother exerted a powerful influence on him, he inherited a rich treasury from his father. During the first years of his reign, Louis launched a crusade against the Lithuanians and restored royal power in Croatia; when his brother, Duke of Calabria, husband of Queen Joanna I of Naples, was assassinated in 1345, Louis accused the queen of his murder and punishing her became the principal goal of his foreign policy. He launched two campaigns to the Kingdom of Naples between 1347 and 1350.
His troops occupied large territories on both occasions, Louis adopted the styles of Neapolitan sovereigns, but the Holy See never recognized his claim. Louis's arbitrary acts and atrocities committed by his mercenaries made his rule unpopular in Southern Italy, he withdrew all his troops from the Kingdom of Naples in 1351. Like his father, Louis administered Hungary with absolute power and used royal prerogatives to grant privileges to his courtiers. However, he confirmed the liberties of the Hungarian nobility at the Diet of 1351, emphasizing the equal status of all noblemen. At the same Diet, he introduced an entail system and a uniform rent payable by the peasants to the landowners, confirmed the right to free movement for all peasants, he waged wars against the Lithuanians and the Golden Horde in the 1350s, restoring the authority of Hungarian monarchs over territories along frontiers, lost during previous decades. He forced the Republic of Venice to renounce the Dalmatian towns in 1358.
He made several attempts to expand his suzerainty over the rulers of Bosnia, Moldavia and parts of Bulgaria and Serbia. These rulers were sometimes willing to yield to him, either under duress or in the hope of support against their internal opponents, but Louis's rule in these regions was only nominal during most of his reign, his attempts to convert his pagan or Orthodox subjects to Catholicism made him unpopular in the Balkan states. Louis established a university in Pécs in 1367, but it was closed within two decades because he did not arrange for sufficient revenues to maintain it. Louis inherited Poland after his uncle's death in 1370. Since he had no sons, he wanted his subjects to acknowledge the right of his daughters to succeed him in both Hungary and Poland. For this purpose, he issued the Privilege of Koszyce in 1374 spelling out the liberties of Polish noblemen. However, his rule remained unpopular in Poland. In Hungary, he authorized the royal free cities to delegate jurors to the high court hearing their cases and set up a new high court.
Suffering from a skin disease, Louis became more religious during the last years of his life. At the beginning of the Western Schism, he acknowledged Urban VI as the legitimate pope. After Urban deposed Joanna and put Louis's relative Charles of Durazzo on the throne of Naples, Louis helped Charles occupy the kingdom. In Hungarian historiography, Louis was regarded for centuries as the most powerful Hungarian monarch who ruled over an empire "whose shores were washed by three seas". Born on 5 March 1326, Louis was the third son of Charles I of Hungary and his wife, Elizabeth of Poland, he was named for his father's uncle, Bishop of Toulouse, canonized in 1317. The first-born son of his parents, died before Louis was born. Louis became his father's heir after the death of his brother Ladislaus in 1329, he had a liberal education by the standards of his age and learned French and Latin. He showed a special interest in astrology. A cleric from Wrocław, taught him the basic principles of Christian faith.
However, Louis's religious zeal was due to his mother's influence. In a royal charter, Louis remembered that in his childhood, a knight of the royal court, Peter Poháros carried him on his shoulders, his two tutors, Nicholas Drugeth and Nicholas Knesich, saved the lives of both Louis and his younger brother, when Felician Záh attempted to assassinate the royal family in Visegrád on 17 April 1330. Louis was only nine when he stamped a treaty of John of Bohemia. A year Louis accompanied his father in invading Austria. On 1 March 1338, John of Bohemia's son and heir, Margrave of Moravia, signed a new treaty with Charles I of Hungary and Louis in Visegrád. According to the treaty, Charles of Moravia acknowledged the right of Charles I's sons to succeed their maternal uncle, Casimir III of Poland, if Casimir died without a male issue. Louis pledged that he would marry the margrave's three-year-old daughter, Margaret. Casimir III's first wife, Aldona of Lithuania, died on 26 May 1339. Two leading Polish noblemen – Zbigniew, chancellor of Cracow, Spycimir Leliwita – persuaded Casimir, who had not fathered a son, to make his sister and her offspring his heirs.
According to the 15th-century Jan Długosz, Casimir held a gen
Władysław I the Elbow-high
Władysław I the Elbow-high or the Short was the King of Poland from 1320 to 1333, duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years. He was a member of the Piast family of rulers, son of Duke Casimir I of Kujawy, great-grandson of King Casimir II the Just, he inherited a small portion of his father’s lands, but his dominion grew as some of his brothers died young. He tried for rule of the Duchy of Krakow in 1289, after the death of his half brother Leszek II the Black and the withdrawal from contention of his ally Bolesław II of Masovia, but was unsuccessful. After a period in exile during the rule of Wenceslas II, Władysław rebounded to re-assume some duchies after Wenceslas’ death, gained Krakow in 1306 after the murder of Wenceslas III, he temporarily took control of part of Greater Poland after the death of his ally Przemysł II, lost it, regained it on. He conquered Gdansk Pomerania, left it to familial governors. For defense of this territory he turned to the Teutonic Knights, who demanded an exorbitant sum or the land itself as an alternative.
This led to an extended battle with the Knights, not resolved after either a papal trial or Władysław’s own death. His greatest achievement was gaining papal permission to be crowned King of Poland in 1320, which occurred for the first time at Wawel Cathedral in Krakow. Władysław died in 1333, his reign was followed by the rule of his more renowned son, Casimir III the Great. In 1138, the Kingdom of Poland, growing in strength under the rule of the Piast dynasty, encountered an obstacle which impeded its development for nearly two hundred years. In the will of King Bolesław III Wrymouth, Poland was divided into five provinces: Silesia, Mazovia with eastern Kuyavia, Greater Poland, the Sandomierz Region, the Seniorate Province; the Seniorate Province comprised Kraków and western Lesser Poland, eastern Greater Poland including Gniezno and Kalisz, western Kuyavia, Łęczyca and Sieradz, with Pomerelia as a fiefdom. To prevent his four sons from quarreling, Bolesław granted one province to each of them, while the Seniorate Province was to be given to the eldest brother on the grounds of primogeniture.
This decision was meant to prevent the disintegration of the kingdom. However, it proved inadequate, began nearly two centuries of what it had sought to counteract – constant fighting and disorder. Władysław I succeeded in re-uniting most of these lands back into the kingdom of Poland. Władysław the Elbow-high was the oldest son of Casimir I of Kujawy and his third wife Eufrozyna of Opole, he was third in seniority to be Duke of Kujawy, however, as he had two older half-brothers from Casimir’s second marriage to Constance of Wrocław: Leszek II the Black and Ziemomysł. He was named after his uncle, his mother's brother Duke of Opole. In contemporary sources he was nicknamed "Łokietek", a diminutive of the word łokieć, it translates as "elbow" or "ell" – a medieval unit of measure similar to a cubit, as in "elbow-high". The origin of this nickname, as resulting from Władysław’s short stature, was explained only in the 15th century by historian Jan Dlugosz. In 1267, when Władysław the Elbow-high was seven years old, his father Casimir died.
At this time, Leszek II the Black inherited Łęczyca, Ziemomysł gained Inowrocław, Brześć Kujawski and Dobrzyń were held in regency by Eufrozyna on behalf of Władysław and his younger brothers Casimir II and Siemowit. After the death of his father, Władysław was sent to Krakow to the court of his relative, Bolesław V the Chaste. In 1273 Władysław participated in the arbitration by Bolesław the Pious, duke of Greater Poland, to reconcile him and his mother Eufrozyna with the Teutonic Knights. Władysław took responsibility for governing these territories in 1275, but they were held in a "niedzial" with his two younger brothers. In October 1277, lands destined for his younger brother Casimir II were invaded by Lithuanians, after the abduction of prisoners and seizure of loot returned home; this was a result of being the proteges of Bolesław V the Chaste, who at this time was in the opposite political camp from Konrad II, Duke of Mazovia, through whose land the Lithuanian invasion passed. Two years in 1279, Władysław the Elbow-high was considered to be one of the contenders to succeed in Lesser Poland after the death of Bolesław V the Chaste, according to the Hypatian Codex.
However the nobility abided by Boleslaw’s will, which had designated Władysław’s elder half-brother Leszek II the Black as his heir. After Leszek II the Black’s acquisition of power in Krakow and Sandomierz in 1279, Władysław, along with his younger brothers, recognized Leszek’s sovereignty; this resulted in, among other things, the adoption of a coat of arms by all of the sons of Casimir I Kujawski: half-lion, half-eagle, afterwards Władysław always served as an ally to his older half-brother. In 1280, Władysław militarily helped Leszek’s ally, the Mazovian Prince Bolesław II, in a battle with Bolesław's brother, Konrad II, during the expedition won the castle of Jazdów, it is possible that at a meeting between Leszek II the Black and Przemysł II, Duke of Greater Poland, in Sieradz in February 1284, the marriage of Władysław to Jadwiga, a cousin of Przemysł, was discussed. The following year, in August, Władysław was present, along with Przemysl II and Ziemomysł of Kujawy, w
Przemysł II, was the Duke of Poznań from 1257–1279, of Greater Poland from 1279–1296, of Kraków from 1290–1291, Gdańsk Pomerania from 1294–1296, King of Poland from 1295 until his death. After a long period of Polish High Dukes and two nominal kings, he was the first to obtain the hereditary title of king, thus to return Poland to the rank of Kingdom. A member of the Greater Poland branch of the House of Piast as the only son of Duke Przemysł I and the Silesian princess Elisabeth, he was born posthumously. Six years after the death of his uncle, he obtained the Duchy of Kalisz. In the first period of his government, Przemysł II was involved only in regional affairs, first in close collaboration and competing with the Duke of Wrocław, Henryk IV Probus; this policy caused the rebellion of the prominent Zaremba family and the temporary loss of Wieluń. Working with the Archbishop of Gniezno, Jakub Świnka, he sought the unification of the principalities of the Piast dynasty. Unexpectedly, in 1290, under the will of Henryk IV Probus, he managed to obtain the Duchy of Kraków and with this the title of High Duke of Poland.
In 1293, thanks to the mediation of Archbishop Jakub Świnka, he joined into a close alliance with the Kuyavian princes Władysław the Elbow-high and Casimir II of Łęczyca. This alliance was anti-Bohemian, his goal was to recover Kraków in the hands of King Wenceslaus II. After the death of Duke Mestwin II in 1294, according to the Treaty of Kępno signed in 1282, Przemysł II inherited Pomerelia; this enabled his coronation as King of Poland. The ceremony was held on 26 June 1295 in Gniezno, was performed by his ally Archbishop Jakub Świnka. Only nine months on 8 February 1296, Przemysł II was murdered during a failed kidnapping attempt made by men of the Margraves of Brandenburg, with some help from the Polish noble families of Nałęcz and Zaremba. Przemysł II was born on 14 October 1257 in Poznań as the fifth child and only son of Duke Przemysł I of Greater Poland and his wife Elisabeth, daughter of Duke Henry II the Pious of Silesia, it is known that he was born in the morning, because according to the Chronicle of Greater Poland, when Dowager Duchess Elisabeth gave birth to a son, the vicars and canons of the city were singing morning prayers.
At the news of the birth, the local clergy chanted. Shortly after his birth, the prince was baptized by the Bishop of Poznań, Bogufał III. According to the Chronicle of Greater Poland, Przemysł II was named after his father, who had died four months before his birth, on 4 June 1257; the form of the name in the days of his contemporaries sounded like Przemysł or Przemyśl. However, due to the fact that the word "Przemysł" means production of a good or service within an economy today, it's reasonable to be considered that his name could be a valid form from Przemysław as this version is undoubtedly more medieval. Another name under which the Duke of Greater Poland was known, following the indications of the Rocznik Kołbacki, is Peter, but Oswald Balzer considered this an obvious mistake; the only historian who recognized the name Peter as authentic was K. Górski. No sources about contemporary rulers provided information about a nickname. Only in sources related to the Teutonic Order from 1335 he is given the nickname Kynast.
In current historiography he is sometimes nicknamed Posthumous, but this has not been universally accepted. At the time of is birth, Przemysł II was the nominal ruler of the Duchy of Poznań; the guardianship of the Duchy alongside with his mother Elisabeth, was taken by his uncle Duke Bolesław the Pious and his wife, the Hungarian princess Jolenta. In consequence the prince remained at the court in Poznań. On 16 January 1265 Dowager Duchess Elisabeth died at her estate in Modrze, the orphaned Przemysł together with his sisters were cared for by their uncle and aunt. Little information exists about the education given to Przemysł II. Diplomatic sources have retained only the names of two of his teachers: Przybysław, it is assumed that the prince had some knowledge of at least Latin in writing. The next mention of Przemysł II came in 1272, when his uncle Duke Bolesław the Pious appointed him the nominal commander of an armed expedition against Brandenburg; the true commanders of the expedition were the Governor of Poznań, Przedpełk and the Castellan of Kalisz, Janko.
The expedition was launched on 27 May. The young prince was to be educated in the art of war; the project, as detailed in the Chronicle of Greater Poland, was a great success. The city of Strzelce Krajeńskie after a short, but fierce battle, was defeated and captured by the Greater Poland army. According to the Chronicle, while gaining command of th
Bolesław I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis
The intervention in the Kievan succession crisis of 1015–1019 by the Polish ruler Bolesław Chrobry was an episode in the struggle between Sviatopolk I Vladimirovich and his brother Yaroslav for the rulership of Kiev and Kievan Rus'. It occurred when Sviatopolk's father-in-law Bolesław, ruler of Poland, intervened on Sviatopolk's behalf; the intervention was successful as Bolesław defeated Yaroslav's armies, temporarily secured the throne for Sviatopolk. But when Bolesław withdrew himself and his army from Kiev, Sviatopolk was unable to retain his position, being defeated by Yaroslav in the following year. Chronicles of the expedition include legendary accounts as well as factual history and have been subject to varied interpretations; the ruler of Poland, Bolesław I, the ruler of Kiev, Vladimir I, had fought over the Cherven Towns in a conflict that ended favorably for Vladimir. Furthermore, Bolesław, who had two wives, wanted to marry Predslava, one of Vladimir's daughters, in order to cement ties between the two families.
Despite Bolesław's best efforts, the offer was refused and instead he had to accept a less prestigious connection to the house of Vladimir through the marriage of Bolesław's daughter to Vladimir's son, Sviatopolk. Between 1005 and 1013, Vladimir arranged Sviatopolk's marriage to Bolesław's daughter, whose name has not survived in sources, it is possible that Vladimir decided that neither Sviatopolk nor Yaroslav would succeed to the Kievan throne after his death, as both Sviatopolk and Yaroslav revolted against their father. Vladimir intended that Sviatopolk would only receive the remote town of Turov after his death, choosing his younger sons and Gleb, as successors despite Sviatopolk being older. Although Sviatopolk is known to have been older than Boris and Gleb, the exact birth order of Vladimir's sons is not known and Sviatopolk is alleged in some sources to have been a bastard. Unhappy by his rule being restricted to only a small appanage, Sviatopolk plotted to overthrow his father; those theories, are based on little evidence, in the words of two historians, the origins of their "quarrels with their father are obscure".
According to Thietmar of Merseburg, Bolesław encouraged Sviatopolk's revolt through his daughter and the latter's wife, though he does not specify the goal of the revolt. Sviatopolk's conspiracy was, in the event, thwarted by Vladimir, who called Sviatopolk and his entourage to Kiev and jailed them in 1013; the planned overthrow, if it existed, may have been supported by Bishop Reinbern of Kołobrzeg, who had traveled with Bolesław's daughter. According to the same chronicler, Reinbern took part in converting pagans in and around the Rus lands, but was imprisoned with Sviatopolk and the latter's wife. Reinbern, who might have acted in the interest of Catholic Rome, died shortly after being imprisoned, it is of note that Bolesław invaded Kiev's lands in 1013. This was Bolesław's first attempt to re-take the Cherven Towns, though it has been argued that his goal might have been to free Sviatopolk. Just before Vladimir died, he had sent his son Boris on campaign against the nomads in the south. According to the Primary Chronicle, Sviatopolk seized Kiev while those of Vladimir's retainers who were with Boris on campaign encouraged Boris to take power, an offer Boris refused stating "Be it not for me to raise my hand against my elder brother".
In the confusion resulting from the death of Vladimir Sviatopolk was able to seize power in Kiev, as Yaroslav was in the north, Mstislav in the south, Sviatoslav in the Derevlian land, Gleb in Murom and Boris on the aforementioned expedition against the Pechenegs. As Franklin and Shepard put it, Sviatopolk's "previous arrest turned to his advantage, for it ensured that he was already... closest to the center of power". According to the Primary Chronicle, Sviatopolk arranged the murder of three of his brothers, Boris of Rostov, Gleb of Murom and Sviatoslav of the Derevlian lands; when news of the fratricides reached Vladimir's fourth son, Yaroslav the Wise in Novgorod, he came to Kiev from the north with Novgorodians and Varangians. Sviatopolk's reign in Kiev was threatened. After a 3-month stand-off near Lyubech, Sviatopolk was defeated and "fled to the Poles". Bolesław, who had agreed a peace with the German Kingdom, agreed to support his son-in-law through military intervention. There are three main sources.
The best and most reliable account is from a chronicle by Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg, who obtained detailed information from Saxon knights fighting for Bolesław. The Primary Chronicle attributed to Nestor the Chronicler is another sources giving a detailed account of events, its reliability being variable, depending event-by-event on the sources from which it was compiled. Nestor's writing reflects the typical Rus' admiration of Saint Vladimir, while Bishop Thietmar's account, despite a positive attitude towards the Rus', paints both Bolesław and Vladimir in a negative light. A third source is the Chronicle of Polish Dukes, a semi-legendary ode to the early Polish dukes written in the 1110s by the Benedictine monk Gallus'; this account portrays Bolesław in a positive light. According to Thietmar, the army of Bolesław crossed the border in 1018 and reached Kiev that same year. Little is known about the armies. Thietmar relates:"Among those rendering assistance to the aforesaid duke, were three hundred of our warriors, five hundred Hungarians, one thousand Pechenegs".
Polish historian Rafał Jaworski states that the estimates of the size of Bolesław's army range between
Bolesław I the Brave
Bolesław I the Brave, less known as Bolesław I the Great, was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, the first King of Poland in 1025. As Boleslav IV, he was Duke of Bohemia between 1002 and 1003, he was the son of Mieszko I of Poland by Dobrawa of Bohemia. According to a scholarly theory, Bolesław ruled Lesser Poland during the last years of his father's reign. Mieszko I, who died in 992, divided Poland among his sons, but Bolesław expelled his father's last wife, Oda of Haldensleben, his half-brothers and reunited Poland between 992 and 995, he supported the missionary views of Adalbert, Bishop of Prague, Bruno of Querfurt. The martyrdom of Adalbert in 997 and his imminent canonization were used to consolidate Poland's autonomy from the Holy Roman Empire; this happened most during the Congress of Gniezno, which resulted in the establishment of a Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno. This See was independent of the German Archbishopric of Magdeburg, which had tried to claim jurisdiction over the Polish church.
Following the Congress of Gniezno, bishoprics were established in Kraków, Wrocław and Kołobrzeg, Bolesław formally repudiated paying tribute to the Holy Roman Empire. Following the death of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III in 1002, Bolesław fought a series of wars against the Holy Roman Empire and Otto's cousin and heir, Henry II, ending in the Peace of Bautzen. In the summer of 1018, in one of his expeditions, Bolesław I captured Kiev, where he installed his son-in-law Sviatopolk I as ruler. According to legend, Bolesław chipped his sword. In honor of this legend, a sword called Szczerbiec would become the coronation sword of Poland's kings. Bolesław I was a remarkable politician and statesman, he not only turned Poland into a country comparable to older western monarchies, but he raised it to the front rank of European states. Bolesław conducted successful military campaigns in the west and east, he consolidated Polish lands and conquered territories outside the borders of modern-day Poland, including Slovakia, Red Ruthenia, Meissen and Bohemia.
He was a powerful mediator in Central European affairs. As the culmination of his reign, in 1025 he had himself crowned King of Poland, he was the first Polish ruler to receive the title of rex. He was an able administrator who established the "Prince's Law" and built many forts, churches and bridges, he introduced the first Polish monetary unit, the grzywna, divided into 240 denarii, minted his own coinage. Bolesław I is considered one of Poland's most capable and accomplished Piast rulers. Bolesław was born in 966 or 967, the first child of Mieszko I of Poland and his wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa, his Epitaph, written in the middle of the 11th century, emphasized that Bolesław had been born to a "faithless" father and a "true-believing" mother, suggesting that he was born before his father's baptism. Bolesław was baptized shortly after his birth, he was named after his maternal grandfather, Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia. Not much is known about Bolesław's childhood, his Epitaph recorded that he underwent the traditional hair-cutting ceremony at the age of seven and a lock of his hair was sent to Rome.
The latter act suggests. Historian Tadeusz Manteuffel says that Bolesław needed that protection because his father had sent him to the court of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in token of his allegiance to the emperor; however historian Marek Kazimierz Barański notes that the claim that Bolesław was sent as a hostage to the imperial court is disputed. Bolesław's mother, Dobrawa died in 977. Around that time, Bolesław became the ruler of Lesser Poland, through it is not clear in what circumstances. Jerzy Strzelczyk says. Mieszko I died on 25 May 992; the contemporaneous Thietmar of Merseburg recorded that Mieszko left "his kingdom to be divided among many claimants", but Bolesław unified the country "with fox-like cunning" and expelled his stepmother and half-brothers from Poland. Two Polish lords, "Odilien and Przibiwoj", who had supported her and her sons, were blinded on Bolesław's order. Historian Przemysław Wiszniewski says that Bolesław had taken control of the whole Poland by 992. Bolesław's first coins were issued around 995.
One of them bore the inscription Vencievlavus, showing that he regarded his mother's uncle, Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, as the patron saint of Poland. Bolesław sent reinforcements to the Holy Roman Empire to fight against the Polabian Slavs in summer 992. Bolesław led a Polish army to assist the imperial troops in invading the land of the Abodrites or Veleti in 995. During the campaign, he met the young German monarch, Otto III. Soběslav, the head of the Bohemian Slavník dynasty participated in the 995 campaign. Taking advantage of Soběslav's absence, Boleslav II of Bohemia invaded the Slavníks' domains and had most members of the family murdered. After learning of his kinsmen's fate, Soběslav settled in Poland. Bolesław gave shelter to him "for the sake of holy brother", Bishop Adalbert of Prague, according to the latter's hagiographies. A
Jadwiga of Poland
Jadwiga known as Hedwig, was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death. She was the youngest daughter of Louis the Great, King of Hungary and Poland, his wife Elizabeth of Bosnia. Jadwiga was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, but she had more close forebears among the Polish Piasts. In 1997 she was canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. In 1375 it was planned that she would marry William of Austria, she lived in Vienna from 1378 to 1380. Jadwiga's father is thought to have regarded her and William as his favoured successors in Hungary after the 1379 death of her eldest sister, since the Polish nobility had that same year pledged their homage to Louis' second daughter and Mary's fiancé, Sigismund of Luxemburg. However, Louis died, in 1382, at her mother's insistence, Mary was crowned "King of Hungary". Sigismund of Luxemburg tried to take control of Poland, but the Polish nobility countered that they would be obedient to a daughter of King Louis only if she settled in Poland.
Queen Elizabeth chose Jadwiga to reign there, but did not send her to Kraków to be crowned. During the interregnum, Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia, became a candidate for the Polish throne; the nobility of Greater Poland proposed that he marry Jadwiga. However, Lesser Poland's nobility opposed him and persuaded Queen Elizabeth to send Jadwiga to Poland. Jadwiga was crowned "king" in Poland's capital, Kraków, on 16 October 1384, her coronation either reflected the Polish nobility's opposition to her intended husband, becoming king without further negotiation, or emphasized her status as queen regnant. With her mother's consent, Jadwiga's advisors opened negotiations with Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, still a pagan, concerning his potential marriage to Jadwiga. Jogaila signed the Union of Krewo, pledging to convert to Roman Catholicism and to promote his pagan subjects' conversion. Meanwhile, William hastened to Kraków, hoping to marry his childhood fiancée Jadwiga, but in late August 1385 the Polish nobles expelled him.
Jogaila, who took the baptismal name Władysław, married Jadwiga on 15 February 1386. Legend says that she had agreed to marrying him only after lengthy prayer, seeking divine inspiration. Jogaila, now in Polish styled Władysław Jagiełło, was crowned King of Poland on 4 March 1386; as Jadwiga's co-ruler, Jagiełło worked with his wife. After rebellious nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary-Croatia had imprisoned her mother and sister, she marched into the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, under Hungarian rule, persuaded most of the inhabitants to become subjects of the Polish Crown, she mediated between her husband's quarreling kin, between Poland and the Teutonic Knights. After her sister Mary died in 1395, Jadwiga and Jagiełło laid claim to Hungary against the widowed Sigismund of Luxemburg, but the Hungarian lords failed to support them. Jadwiga was born in the capital of the Kingdom of Hungary, she was the third and youngest daughter of Louis I, King of Hungary and Poland, his second wife, Elizabeth of Bosnia.
Both her grandmothers were Polish princesses. Historian Oscar Halecki concluded that Jadwiga's "genealogical tree shows that had more Polish blood than any other", she was born between 3 October 1373 and 18 February 1374. She was named after her distant ancestor, Saint Hedwig of Silesia, venerated in the Hungarian royal court at the time of her birth. King Louis, who had not fathered any sons, wanted to ensure his daughters' right to inherit his realms. Therefore, European royals regarded his three daughters as attractive brides. Leopold III, Duke of Austria, proposed his eldest son, William, to Jadwiga on 18 August 1374; the envoys of the Polish nobles acknowledged that one of Louis's daughters would succeed him in Poland after he confirmed and extended their liberties in the Privilege of Koszyce on 17 September 1374. They took an oath of loyalty to Catherine on Louis's demand. Louis agreed to give Jadwiga in marriage to William of Austria on 4 March 1375; the children's sponsalia de futuro, or "provisional marriage", was celebrated at Hainburg on 15 June 1378.
The ceremony established the legal framework for the consummation of the marriage without any further ecclesiastical act as soon as they both reached the age of maturity. Duke Leopold agreed that Jadwiga would only receive Treviso, a town, to be conquered from the Republic of Venice, as dowry from her father. After the ceremony, Jadwiga stayed in Austria for two years. Catherine died in late 1378. Louis persuaded the most influential Polish lords to swear an oath of loyalty to her younger sister, Mary, in September 1379, she was betrothed to Sigismund of Luxemburg, a great-grandson of Casimir the Great, Louis's predecessor on the Polish throne. The "promised marriage" of Jadwiga and William was confirmed at their fathers' meeting in Zólyom on 12 February 1380. Hungarian lords approved the document, implying that Jadwiga and William were regarded as her father's successors in Hungary. A delegation of the Polish lords and clergy paid formal homage to Sigismund of Luxemburg as their future king on 25 July 1382.
The Poles believed that Louis planned to persuade the Hungarian lords and prelates to accept Jadwiga and William of Austria as his heirs in Hungary. However, he died on 11 September 1382. Jadwiga was present at her father's death bed. Jadwiga's sister, was crowned "king" of Hungary five days after their father's death. With the ceremony, their ambitious mother secured the right to gover
Wenceslaus III of Bohemia
Wenceslaus III was King of Hungary between 1301 and 1305, King of Bohemia and Poland from 1305. He was the son of Wenceslaus II, King of Bohemia, also crowned king of Poland, Judith of Habsburg. Still a child, Wenceslaus was betrothed to the sole daughter of Andrew III of Hungary. After Andrew III's death in early 1301, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates elected Wenceslaus king, although Pope Boniface VIII supported another claimant, Charles Robert, a member of the royal house of the Kingdom of Naples. Wenceslaus was crowned king of Hungary on 27 August 1301, he signed his charters under the name Ladislaus in Hungary. His rule was only nominal, because a dozen powerful lords held sway over large territories in the kingdom, his father realized that Wenceslaus's position could not be strengthened and took him back from Hungary to Bohemia in August 1304. Wenceslaus succeeded his father in Bohemia and Poland on 21 June 1305, he abandoned his claim to Hungary in favor of Otto III of Bavaria on 9 October.
Wenceslaus granted large parcels of the royal domains to his young friends in Bohemia. A claimant to the Polish throne, Władysław the Elbow-high, who had started conquering Polish territories during the rule of Wenceslaus's father, captured Cracow in early 1306. Wenceslaus decided to invade his rival's territories in Poland, but he was murdered before starting his campaign, he was the last of the male Přemyslid rulers of Bohemia. He was the second son of Wenceslaus II, King of Bohemia and Wenceslaus II's wife, Judith of Habsburg, he was born in Prague on 6 October 1289. His elder brother died before his birth and he was the only son of his parents to survive infancy. Wenceslaus was still a child when his mother, died on 18 June 1297, he was betrothed to Elizabeth of Hungary on 12 February 1298. She was the only child of Andrew III of Hungary. Andrew III was the last male member of the House of Árpád, the native royal dynasty of Hungary, but the legitimacy of his rule had not been unanimously acknowledged.
Wenceslaus's father occupied Greater Poland and other regions of Poland in early 1300. After his main opponent, Władysław the Elbow-high, was forced to leave the kingdom, Wenceslaus II was crowned king of Poland in Gniezno in late September 1300. However, Pope Boniface VIII refused to confirm Wenceslaus II's position in Poland. Andrew III of Hungary died on 14 January 1301; the late king's rival, Charles of Anjou, Béla IV of Hungary's great-great-grandson, had regarded himself as the lawful king of Hungary for years. On hearing Andrew III's death, Charles of Anjou hurried to Esztergom where Gregory Bicskei, Archbishop-elect of Esztergom, crowned him king. Being Pope Boniface VIII's candidate for the Hungarian throne, Charles had always been unpopular, because the Hungarian lords feared that they would "lose their freedom by accepting a king appointed by the Church", according to the Illuminated Chronicle. Charles's coronation was not performed with the Holy Crown of Hungary in Székesfehérvár, as it was required by customary law, but with a provisional crown in Esztergom.
Accordingly, the Diet of Hungary declared Charles's coronation invalid on 13 May 1301. Jan Muskata, Bishop of Cracow, Wenceslaus II of Bohemia's advisor, was the first to propose that Wenceslaus II's son and namesake should be elected king of Hungary; the younger Wenceslaus was not only Béla IV of Hungary's great-great-grandson, but the bride of the late Andrew III of Hungary's daughter. Bribed by Wenceslaus II's agents, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates decided to offer the crown to the young Wenceslaus and sent a delegation to his father to Bohemia. Wenceslaus II met the Hungarian envoys in Hodonín in August and accepted their offer in his eleven-year-old son's name. Wenceslaus II accompanied his son to Székesfehérvár where John Hont-Pázmány, Archbishop of Kalocsa, crowned the young Wenceslaus king with the Holy Crown on 27 August. Wenceslaus who assumed the name Ladislaus signed all his charters under that name in Hungary. After Wenceslaus II returned to Bohemia, Jan Muskata became the young king's principal advisor in Hungary.
Most lords and prelates accepted the rule of Wenceslaus-Ladislaus. In contrast with their Hungarian peers, the Croatian lords did not acknowledge Wenceslaus-Ladislaus as a lawful king and remained faithful to Charles of Anjou; the latter withdrew to the southern territories of Hungary after Ivan Kőszegi, a partisan of Wenceslaus-Ladislaus, captured Esztergom in late August 1301. However, both kings' authority remained nominal because Hungary had meanwhile disintegrated into a dozen provinces, each headed by a powerful lord, or "oligarch"; the Illuminated Chronicle writes that the Hungarian lords did not "grant a castle, or might and power, or royal authority" either to Wenceslaus-Ladislaus or to Charles of Anjou. In his letters to Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and Archbishop John of Kalocsa, Pope Boniface VIII emphasized that Wenceslaus-Ladislaus had been crowned without the authorization of the Holy See; the papal legate, Niccolo Boccasini, who came to Hungary in September, started negotiations with the Hungarian prelates to convince them to abandon Wenceslaus-Ladislaus and support Charles of Anjou's case.
In an attempt to buy the most powerful lords off, Wenceslaus-Ladislaus granted large estates and high offices to them. Matthew Csák received Nyitra and Trencsén Counties, along with the royal castles and the estates attached to them, in February 1302. Ivan Kőszegi was made Palatine of Hungary before 25 April 1302. In the first half of that year, many prelates abandoned Wenceslaus-Ladislaus. Ta