History of Los Angeles
The written history of Los Angeles city and county began with a small Mexican town that changed little in the three decades after 1848, when California became part of the United States. Much greater changes came from the completion of the Santa Fe railroad line from Chicago to Los Angeles in 1885, immigrants flooded in, especially white Protestants from the Midwest. Los Angeles had an economic base in farming, tourism, real estate. It grew rapidly with many suburban areas inside and outside the city limits, Hollywood made the city world famous, and World War II brought new industry, especially high-tech aircraft construction. Politically the city was moderately conservative, with a labor union sector. Since the 1960s growth has slowed—and traffic delays have become famous, LA was a pioneer in freeway development as the public transit system deteriorated. New arrivals, especially from Mexico and Asia, have transformed the demographic base since the 1960s, old industries have declined, including farming, oil and aircraft, but tourism and high tech remain strong.
By 3000 B. C. the area was occupied by the Hokan-speaking people of the Milling Stone Period who fished, hunted sea mammals and they were replaced by migrants — possibly fleeing drought in the Great Basin — who spoke a Uto-Aztecan language called Tongva. The Tongva people called the Los Angeles region Yaa in Tongva, by the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 18th century A. D. there were 250,000 to 300,000 native people in California and 5,000 in the Los Angeles basin. Since contact with Europeans, the people in what became Los Angeles were known as Gabrielinos and Fernandeños, the land occupied and used by the Gabrielinos covered about four thousand square miles. They were part of a group of trading partners that included the Chumash to the west, the Cahuilla and Mojave to the east. Their trade extended to the Colorado River and included slavery, the lives of the Gabrielinos were governed by a set of religious and cultural practices that included belief in creative supernatural forces.
They worshipped a god, and a female virgin god. Their Great Morning Ceremony was based on a belief in the afterlife, in a purification ritual similar to the Eucharist, they drank tolguache, a hallucinogenic made from jimson weed and salt water. Their language was called Kizh or Kij, and they practiced cremation, generations before the arrival of the Europeans, the Gabrielinos had identified and lived in the best sites for human occupation. The survival and success of Los Angeles would depend greatly on the presence of a nearby and its residents would provide the colonists with seafood, bowls and baskets. For pay, they would dig ditches, haul water, and they often intermarried with the Mexican colonists. In 1542 and 1602 the first Europeans to visit the region were Captain Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo and it would be another 166 years before another European would visit the region
Presidio of San Francisco
It had been a fortified location since September 17,1776, when New Spain established it to gain a foothold on Alta California and the San Francisco Bay. It passed to Mexico, which in turn passed it to the United States in 1848. As part of a 1989 military reduction program under the Base Realignment, on October 1,1994, it was transferred to the National Park Service, ending 219 years of military use and beginning its next phase of mixed commercial and public use. In 1996, the United States Congress created the Presidio Trust to oversee and manage the interior 80% of the parks lands, with the National Park Service managing the coastal 20%. In a first-of-its-kind structure, Congress mandated that the Presidio Trust make the Presidio financially self-sufficient by 2013, the park is characterized by many wooded areas and scenic vistas overlooking the Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. It was recognized as a California Historical Landmark in 1933 and as a National Historic Landmark in 1962, battery Chamberlin, seacoast defense museum and artillery display at Baker Beach built in 1904.
Fort Point,1861 brick and granite fortification located under the Golden Gate Bridge, the visitor center, open on Friday and Sunday, offers video orientations, guided tours, self-guiding materials, and a bookstore. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Visitor Center, This center offers hands-on marine-life exhibits, the building was used by the Coast Guard from 1890 to 1990. Golden Gate Bridge Pavilion, opened May 2012 for the 75th anniversary of the Golden Gate Bridge and it is located just east of the southern end of the bridge. Crissy Field Center is an environmental education center with programs for schools, public workshops, after-school programs, summer camps. The Center is operated by the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, the facilities include interactive environmental exhibits, a media lab, resource library, arts workshop, science lab, gathering room, teaching kitchen, café and bookstore. The landscape of Crissy Field was designed by George Hargreaves, the project restored a naturally functioning and sustaining tidal wetland as a habitat for flora and fauna, which were previously not in evidence on the site.
It restored a historic grass airfield that functioned as a significant military airfield between 1919 and 1936. The park at Crissy Field expanded and widened the recreational opportunities of the existing 1 1⁄2-mile San Francisco shore to a number of Presidio residents. 1776, Spanish Captain Juan Bautista de Anza led 193 soldiers, women,1794, Castillo de San Joaquin, an artillery emplacement was built above present-day Fort Point, San Francisco, complete with iron or bronze cannon. Six cannons may be seen in the Presidio today, 1776–1821, The Presidio was a simple fort made of adobe and wood. It often was damaged by earthquakes or heavy rains, in 1783, its company was only 33 men. Presidio soldiers duties were to support Mission Dolores by controlling Indian workers in the Mission, and farming, support from Spanish authorities in Mexico was very limited
History of Pasadena, California
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Famous for its history and the hosting of the Tournament of Roses Parade since 1890. Pasadena was founded in 1874 and incorporated in 1886, the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Indians Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They spoke the Tongva language that lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years, Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present-day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. They lived in thatched, dome-shape lodges, for food, they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, and other small animals. They traded for fish with the coastal Tongva. They made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island and that trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use up what is now called Salvia Canyon. When the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people Gabrielino Indians, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.
The Rancho comprised the lands of todays communities of Pasadena, prior to the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area, Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton, much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians, was owner of the Rancho Jurupa. He is the grandfather of WWII General George S. Patton, Jr. and had Mount Wilson named for him. In 1873, Wilson was visited by one Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana who was looking for a place in the country that could offer better climate to his patients, most of whom suffered from tuberculosis. Berry was an asthmatic and claimed that he had his best three nights sleep at Rancho San Pascual, to keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area Muscat after the grape that Wilson grew.
To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange, the newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31,1874, they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of useless highland property, at the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue. On the other side of the street was Wilsons Lake Vineyard development, after more than a decade of parallel development on both sides, the two settlements merged into the City of Pasadena
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
History of Piedmont, California
The history of Piedmont, covers the history of the area in Californias San Francisco Bay Area that is now known as Piedmont, up to and beyond the legal establishment of a city. In 1850, what is now Piedmont was part of Rancho San Antonio and this area, owned by the Peralta family, covered much of the northeastern shore of San Francisco Bay, now northern Alameda County. Rancho San Antonio was sparsely populated except for cattle and the vaqueros who tended them, in 1860, retired South Carolinian Congressman Isaac Holmes bought a piece of land from his neighbor Reed. The area included Bushy Dell Creek, a creek runs through the dog-walking trail of modern-day Piedmont. Holmes bathed in the foul-smelling pink water of a spring, believing the water beneficial for his rheumatism. In 1870, Walter Blair bought over 800 acres of land in the foothills of East Bay, where the spring was located he built the Piedmont Springs Hotel, of 20 bedrooms and five dining rooms. The water of the spring was thought to have curative powers, wealthy San Franciscans retired to the hotel during trips to the country.
In addition to the hotel, Blair built a farm on what is now Highland Avenue. In April 1877, James Gamble bought a 350-acre tract of land from Blair, and formed the Piedmont Land Company, along with James deFremery, George W. Beaver, L. A. Booth, and T. L. Barker. The Piedmont Land Company hired landscape engineer William Hammond Hall to plan the avenues, the first auction of land took place on April 10,1877. In January 1891, the women of Piedmont led a movement to block the sale of liquor at the Piedmont Springs Hotel. They petitioned the Alameda County Board of Supervisors to withdraw the license granted to the owner of the hotel. Prominent signers included Annie Barton, Anna Richardson, N. Randall, Florence Wing, Inez Craig, M. Laurence, Ethyl Robert, the liquor controversy ended quickly with the Piedmont Springs Hotel fire. On November 17,1892, sparks from the chimney of the set the roof on fire. Newspapers reported that Firefighters had to arrive from Oakland, two later, at 11,30 a. m. to contain the flames.
Jack London never actually lived in Piedmont, because in 1900, after marrying Bess Maddern, the newlywed couple settled in a redwood bungalow in the eastern hills of unincorporated Oakland, to become part of the present-day city of Piedmont. At the time, this area was growing into a community for artists and it was here that London wrote his novel Call of the Wild. Londons two daughters, including Joan London, were born during this time, in 1902, London moved to 206 Scenic Avenue, and tried to create a childhood he never had, Piedmont historian Ann Swift wrote
Spanish colonization of the Americas
The Colonial expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions and it is estimated that during the colonial period, a total of 18.6 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era. Spains loss of these last territories politically ended the Spanish rule in the Americas, the Catholic Monarchs Isabella of Castile, Queen of Castile and her husband King Ferdinand, King of Aragon, pursued a policy of joint rule of their kingdoms and created a single Spanish monarchy. Even though Castile and Aragon were ruled jointly by their respective monarchs, the Catholic Monarchs gave official approval for the plans of Genoese mariner Christopher Columbus for a voyage to reach India by sailing West. The funding came from the queen of Castile, so the profits from Spanish expedition flowed to Castile, in the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions of discovery and settlement resided in the monarchy.
Columbus made four voyages to the West Indiesas the monarchs granted Columbus the governorship of the new territories and he founded La Navidad on the island named Hispaniola, in what is present day Haiti on his first voyage. After its destruction by the indigenous Taino people, the town of Isabella was begun in 1493, in 1496 his brother, founded Santo Domingo. By 1500, despite a death rate, there were between 300 and 1000 Spanish settled in the area. The local Taíno people continued to resist, refusing to plant crops, the first mainland explorations were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. In 1500 the city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the island of Cubagua, the Spanish founded San Sebastian de Uraba in 1509 but abandoned it within the year. There is indirect evidence that the first permanent Spanish mainland settlement established in the Americas was Santa María la Antigua del Darién, the Spanish conquest of Mexico is generally understood to be the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire which was the base for conquests of other regions.
Later conquests were protracted campaigns with less spectacular results than conquest of the Aztecs, but not until the Spanish conquest of Peru was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scope by the victory over the Inca empire in 1532. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire was led by Hernán Cortés, the victory over the Aztecs was relatively quick, from 1519 to 1521, and aided by his Tlaxcala and other allies from indigenous city-states or altepetl. These polities allied against the Aztec empire, to which they paid tribute following conquest or threat of conquest, leaving the political hierarchy. The Spanish conquest of Yucatán was a longer campaign, from 1551 to 1697, against the Maya peoples in the Yucatán Peninsula of present-day Mexico. When Hernán Cortés landed ashore at present day Veracruz and founded the Spanish city there on April 22,1519, Spain colonized and exerted control of Alta California through the Spanish missions in California until the Mexican secularization act of 1833.
It was the first step in a campaign that took decades of fighting to subdue the mightiest empire in the Americas. In the following years Spain extended its rule over the Empire of the Inca civilization, in the following years the conquistadors and indigenous allies extended control over Greater Andes Region
Pioneer Race Course
Pioneer Race Course, known as the Pioneer Race Track, was a horse race track opened in March 1851 in the southern Mission District of San Francisco, California. Pioneer was the first race course in San Francisco, at the time it was built, no streets existed in the neighborhood. After construction, it appears to have bounded by 24th St. 26th St. Capp St. It was funded and built by local businessmen George Treat and his brother John Treat, the racetrack was physically built by Alfred Green. The race course was sold to the San Francisco Homestead Association in 1862 or 1863 for $500 per acre, lots within the property were auctioned in 1864. Early houses built within the property are now part of the Shotwell Street historic district, on May 21,1854 the Pioneer Race Course was the site of a duel between lawyer George T. Hunt and his friend Numa Hubert, an ex-member of the California state assembly. On the third round, Hunt was shot in the abdomen, in October 1854, the race course was the site of the stock show at the first California State Fair.
From 1862 until 1863 the site of the course served a civil war encampment called Camp Alert for the 2nd California Cavalry, before moved to Salt Lake City. The course was the site of a celebration of the completion of the San Francisco-San Jose Railway in October 1863, and for a time served as the railways San Francisco station
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
With the defeat of its army and the fall of its capital, Mexico entered into negotiations to end the war. The treaty called for the U. S. to pay $15 million to Mexico, Mexicans in those annexed areas had the choice of relocating to within Mexicos new boundaries or receiving American citizenship with full civil rights. Over 90% chose to become U. S. citizens, the U. S. Senate advised and consented to ratification of the treaty by a vote of 38–14. The opponents of this treaty were led by the Whigs, who had opposed the war and rejected Manifest destiny in general, and rejected this expansion in particular. The peace talks were negotiated by Nicholas Trist, chief clerk of the US State Department, Nicholas Trist negotiated with a special commission representing the collapsed government led by Don José Bernardo Couto, Don Miguel de Atristain, and Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas of Mexico. Instead, Article V of the treaty simply described the new U. S. –Mexico border. Comparing the boundary in the Adams–Onís Treaty to the Guadalupe Hidalgo boundary, Mexico conceded about 55% of its pre-war, pre-Texas territorial claims, articles VIII and IX ensured safety of existing property rights of Mexican citizens living in the transferred territories.
Despite assurances to the contrary, the property rights of Mexican citizens were not honored by the U. S. in accordance with modifications to. The U. S. agreed to assume $3.25 million in debts that Mexico owed to United States citizens, the residents had one year to choose whether they wanted American or Mexican citizenship, Over 90% chose American citizenship, which included full voting rights. The others returned to Mexico, or in cases in New Mexico were allowed to remain in place as Mexican citizens. Article XII engaged the United States to pay, In consideration of the acquired,15 million dollars. Article XI of the treaty was important to Mexico. S, would return captives of the Indians to Mexico. Mexicans believed that the United States had encouraged and assisted the Comanche and Apache raids that had devastated northern Mexico in the years before the war and this article promised relief to them Article XI, proved unenforceable. Destructive Indian raids continued despite a heavy U. S. presence near the Mexican border, Mexico filed 366 claims with the U. S.
government for damages done by Comanche and Apache raids between 1848 and 1853. In 1853, in the Treaty of Mesilla concluding the Gadsden Purchase, the remainder of New Mexico and Arizona were peacefully purchased under the Gadsden Purchase, which was carried out in 1853. In this purchase the United States paid an additional $10 million, the American Civil War delayed construction of such a route, and it was not until 1881 that the Southern Pacific Railroad finally was completed, fulfilling the purpose of the acquisition. Mexico had claimed the area in question since winning its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. About 80,000 Mexicans lived in the areas of California, New Mexico and Texas during the period of 1845 to 1850, and far fewer in Nevada, in southern and western Colorado, and in Utah
Union Iron Works
The Donahue Brothers Peter and James, Irish immigrants, founded Union Iron Works in the south of Market area of San Francisco in 1849. After years as the producer of mining, railroad and locomotive machinery in California, Union Iron Works. In 1885, the Union Iron Works launched the first steel hulled ship on the west coast, in 1886, UIW was awarded a $1,000,000 contract to build a Naval cruiser, the Charleston, which they completed in eighteen months. From the completion of the Arago in 1884 to 1902, UIW built seventy-five marine vessels, an 1892 description of the yards stated that between 1200 and 1500 men were employed and the yearly gross revenue was between $2,000,000 and $4,000,000. By the turn of the century, the shipyard had expanded in area and these industrial facilities used five types of power, distributed throughout, compressed air, steam and coal or gas fire. Union Iron works built a number of ships for the United States Navy and these ships include the USS Oregon laid down in 1891, and Adder-class submarines Grampus and Pike which were launched in 1902 and 1903, respectively.
The latter two were subcontracted from the Holland Torpedo Boat Company, and were the first submarines built on the West Coast, in 1902, the Union Iron Works was absorbed into a combine called the United States Shipbuilding Company and was mired in three years of litigation. In 1905, the entire 40-acre shipyard was purchased by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation for one million dollars, charles M. Schwab stood on the steps of the UIW office building on 20th Street during the auction. At this point, he was the only bidder, Schwab was widely believed to have engineered the demise of the U. S. Shipbuilding Corporation in order to control of the industry. Whether or not that was true, he benefited from the collapse of the US Shipbuilding combine. At the time of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the passenger liner Columbia of the San Francisco. The earthquake caused the iron hulled Columbia to shift off her supports and this rendered the drydock, a key feature of the yard, damaged beyond economic repair.
The Columbia on the hand, despite being partially flooded and damaged, was repaired and returned to service in January 1907. In 1908, Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation bought the Hunters Point, San Francisco, in the pre-World War I era, Union Iron Works built several navy ships that became internationally famous due to the Spanish–American War, Commodore Deweys flagship the Olympia. After 1905, the shipyard operated as part of Bethlehem Steel, first complete ferry built by Union Iron Works San Pablo, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad passenger ferry. Hull became first fish reduction plant on San Pablo Bay Tamalpais,1900 Northwest Railroad Passenger Ferry, fred W. Weller Steel tanker S. S. Invincible 1918 Freighter S. S. auto ferry, short-lived ferry company funded by Sunny Jim James Rolph Went to Puget Sound in 1940 S. S