Timeline of historic inventions
The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of important or significant technological inventions and the people who created the inventions. Note: Dates for inventions are controversial. Inventions are invented by several inventors around the same time, or may be invented in an impractical form many years before another inventor improves the invention into a more practical form. Where there is ambiguity, the date of the first known working version of the invention is used here; the dates listed in this section refer to the earliest evidence of an invention found and dated by archaeologists. Dates are approximate and change as more research is done and seen. Older examples of any given technology are found often; the locations listed are for the site where the earliest solid evidence has been found, but for the earlier inventions, there is little certainty how close that may be to where the invention took place. 23.5 million years ago: Beds, composed of a sleeping platform including wooden pillows A few non-invention dates are included in italics, for context.
This time period is characterized as an ice age with regular periodic warmer periods – interglacial episodes – every 41,000 years slowing to 3.3-2.6 million years ago: Stone tools – found in present-day Kenya, they are so old that only a pre-human species could have invented them. The otherwise earliest known stone tools were found in Ethiopia developed by Australopithecus garhi or Homo habilis 2.3 Ma: Earliest control of fire and cooking, by Homo habilis 1.76 Ma: Advanced stone tools in Kenya by Homo erectus 900-40 thousand years ago: Boats 790 ka: Hearths, at Gesher Benot Ya'akov, in Israel 400 ka: Pigments in Zambia 400-300 ka: Spears in Germany by Homo heidelbergensis 350-150 ka: Estimated origin of language 300 ka: Anatomically modern humans 200 ka: Glue in Italy 170-83 ka: Clothing 164 ka: Heat treating of stone blades. 135-100 ka: Beads in Israel and Algeria ~130-115 ka: Eemian interglacial period begins and ends, followed by the last glacial period 100 ka: Burial in Israel 90 ka: Harpoons in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
77 ka: Bug-repellent bedding in South Africa 64–61 ka: Bone tool technology in South Africa, evidenced by the find of a spearhead along with what may be an arrowhead, suggesting bow and arrow, a sewing needle 49-30 ka: Ground stone tools – fragments of an axe in Australia date to 49-45 ka, more appear in Japan closer to 30 ka, elsewhere closer to the Neolithic. 40-50+ ka: Behavioral modernity 44–42 ka: Tally sticks in Swaziland 40–20 ka: Cremation in Australia 40 ka: Cave painting in Spain and Indonesia 37 ka: Mortar and pestle in Southwest Asia. 36 -- 9 ka: Weaving -- Indirect. The earliest actual piece of woven cloth was found in Çatalhöyük, Turkey 35 ka: Flute in Germany 28 ka: Spun rope 28 ka: Phallus in Germany 16 ka: Pottery in China 15 ka: Bullroarer in Ukraine 14.5 ka: Bread in Jordan 14 ka: Dentistry in northern Italy 13–12 ka: Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent 13–11 ka: Domestication of sheep in Southwest Asia Note the shift from Ma and ka to BC and AD – 8000 BC is the same as 10 ka. 11.7 ka: Last glacial period ends, followed by the Holocene 11-8 ka: Domestication of rice in China 11 ka: Constructed stone monument – Göbekli Tepe, in Turkey 8000–7500 BC: Proto-city – large permanent settlements, such as Jericho and Çatalhöyük 7000 BC: Alcohol fermentation – mead, in China 6500 BC: Evidence of lead smelting in Çatalhöyük in Turkey 6000 BC: Kiln in Mesopotamia 5000 BC: Copper smelting in Serbia 5th millennium BC: Lacquer in China 5000–4500 BC: Rowing oars in China 4500–3500 BC: Lost-wax casting in Israel 4400 BC: Copper Sewing needle in Naqada, Egypt 4000–3500 BC: Wheel: potter's wheels in Mesopotamia and wheeled vehicles in Mesopotamia, the Northern Caucasus and Central Europe.
3630 BC: Silk garments in China 3500 BC: Domestication of the horse 3200 BC: Sailing in ancient Egypt 3000 BC: Writing – Cuneiform in Sumer, Mesopotamia 3000 BC: Tin extraction in Central Asia 3000 BC: Bronze in Mesopotamia 3000 BC: Papyrus in Egypt 3000 BC: Comb in Persia. 3000 BC: Star chart in Korea. 2500 BC: Docks in Ancient Egypt 2000 BC: Musical notation in Sumer 2000 BC: Chariot in Russia and Kazakhstan 2000 BC: Glass in Ancient Egypt 1700 BC: Alphabet in Phoenicia 1500 BC: Seed drill in Babylonia 1500 BC: Coins in Phoenicia or Lydia 1500 BC: Scissors in Ancient Egypt 1300 BC: Lathe in Ancient Egypt 600 BC Lighthouse in Egypt Late 7th or early 6th century BC: Wagonway called Diolkos across the Isthmus of Corinth in Ancient Greece Late 6th century BC: Crank motion in Carthage or 5th century BC Celtiberian Spain c. 515 BC: Crane in Ancient Greece 5th century BC: Cast iron in Ancient China: Confirmed by archaeological evidence, the earliest cast iron is developed in China by the early 5th century BC during the Zhou Dynasty, the oldest specimens found in a tomb of Luhe County in Jiangsu province.
5th century BC: Crossbow in Ancient China and Ancient Greece: In Ancient China, the earliest evidence of bronze crossbow bolts dates as early as the mid-5th century BC in Yutaishan, Hubei. In Ancient Greece, the terminus ante quem of the gastraphetes is 421 BC. 5th–4th century BC: Traction trebuchet in Ancient China. Before 421 BC: Catapult in Ancient Greece or Phoenician Carthage c. 480 BC: Spiral
History of science and technology in China
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, medicine, military technology, mathematics and astronomy. Among the earliest inventions were the abacus, the "shadow clock," and the first items such as Kongming lanterns; the Four Great Inventions,the compass, gunpowder and printing – were among the most important technological advances, only known to Europe by the end of the Middle Ages 1000 years later. The Tang dynasty in particular was a time of great innovation. A good deal of exchange occurred between Chinese discoveries up to the Qing dynasty; the Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy undergoing its own revolution, to China, knowledge of Chinese technology was brought to Europe. In the 19th and 20th centuries the introduction of Western technology was a major factor in the modernization of China. Much of the early Western work in the history of science in China was done by Joseph Needham.
The Warring States period began 2500 years ago at the time of the invention of the crossbow. Needham notes that the invention of the crossbow "far outstripped the progress in defensive armor", which made the wearing of armor useless to the princes and dukes of the states. At this time, there were many nascent schools of thought in China — the Hundred Schools of Thought, scattered among many polities; the schools served as communities. Mo Di introduced concepts useful to one such as defensive fortification. One of these concepts, fa was extended by the School of Names, which began a systematic exploration of logic; the development of a school of logic was cut short by the defeat of Mohism's political sponsors by the Qin dynasty, the subsumption of fa as law rather than method by the Legalists. Needham further notes that the Han dynasty, which conquered the short-lived Qin, were made aware of the need for law by Lu Chia and by Shu-Sun Thung, as defined by the scholars, rather than the generals.
You conquered the empire on horseback. Derived from Taoist philosophy, one of the newest longstanding contributions of the ancient Chinese are in Traditional Chinese medicine, including acupuncture and herbal medicine; the practice of acupuncture can be traced back as far as the 1st millennium BC and some scientists believe that there is evidence that practices similar to acupuncture were used in Eurasia during the early Bronze Age. Using shadow clocks and the abacus, the Chinese were able to record observations, documenting the first recorded solar eclipse in 2137 BC, making the first recording of any planetary grouping in 500 BC; these claims, are disputed and rely on much supposition. The Book of Silk was the first definitive atlas of comets, written c. 400 BC. It listed 29 comets that appeared over a period of about 300 years, with renderings of comets describing an event its appearance corresponded to. In architecture, the pinnacle of Chinese technology manifested itself in the Great Wall of China, under the first Chinese Emperor Qin Shi Huang between 220 and 200 BC.
Typical Chinese architecture changed little from the succeeding Han dynasty until the 19th century. The Qin dynasty developed the crossbow, which became the mainstream weapon in Europe. Several remains of crossbows have been found among the soldiers of the Terracotta Army in the tomb of Qin Shi Huang; the Eastern Han Dynasty scholar and astronomer Zhang Heng invented the first water-powered rotating armillary sphere, catalogued 2,500 stars and over 100 constellations. In 132, he invented the first seismological detector, called the "Houfeng Didong Yi". According to the History of Later Han Dynasty, this seismograph was an urn-like instrument, which would drop one of eight balls to indicate when and in which direction an earthquake had occurred. On June 13, 2005, Chinese seismologists announced; the mechanical engineer Ma Jun was another impressive figure from ancient China. Ma Jun improved the design of the silk loom, designed mechanical chain pumps to irrigate palatial gardens, created a large and intricate mechanical puppet theatre for Emperor Ming of Wei, operated by a large hidden waterwheel.
However, Ma Jun's most impressive invention was the south-pointing chariot, a complex mechanical device that acted as a mechanical compass vehicle. It incorporated the use of a differential gear in order to apply equal amount of torque to wheels rotating at different speeds, a device, found in all modern automobiles. Sliding calipers were invented in China 2,000 years ago; the Chinese civilization was the earliest civilization to experiment with aviation, with the kite and Kongming lantern being the first flying machines. The "Four Great Inventions" are the compass, gunpowder and printing. Paper and printing were developed first. Printing was recorded in China in the Tang Dynasty, although the earliest surviving examples of printed cloth patterns date to before 220. Pin-pointing the development of the compass can be difficult: the magnetic attraction of a nee
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on 26 December 1991 granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union; the declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States, although five of the signatories ratified it much or did not do so at all. On the previous day, 25 December, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the USSR, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers—including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes—to Russian President Boris Yeltsin; that evening at 7:32 p.m. the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag. From August to December all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had either seceded from the union or at the least denounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR.
The week before formal dissolution, eleven republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol formally establishing the CIS and declaring that the USSR had ceased to exist. Both the Revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the USSR marked the end of the Cold War. Several of the former Soviet republics have retained close links with the Russian Federation and formed multilateral organizations such as the Commonwealth of Independent States, Eurasian Economic Community, the Union State, the Eurasian Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Union to enhance economic and security cooperation. On the other hand, the Baltic states have joined the European Union. Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo on March 11, 1985, three hours after predecessor Konstantin Chernenko's death at age 73. Gorbachev, aged 54, was the youngest member of the Politburo, his initial goal as general secretary was to revive the Soviet economy, he realized that doing so would require reforming underlying political and social structures.
The reforms began with personnel changes of senior Brezhnev-era officials who would impede political and economic change. On April 23, 1985, Gorbachev brought two protégés, Yegor Ligachev and Nikolai Ryzhkov, into the Politburo as full members, he kept the "power" ministries happy by promoting KGB Head Viktor Chebrikov from candidate to full member and appointing Minister of Defence Marshal Sergei Sokolov as a Politburo candidate. This liberalization, fostered nationalist movements and ethnic disputes within the Soviet Union, it led indirectly to the revolutions of 1989, in which Soviet-imposed socialist regimes of the Warsaw Pact were toppled peacefully, which in turn increased pressure on Gorbachev to introduce greater democracy and autonomy for the Soviet Union's constituent republics. Under Gorbachev's leadership, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1989 introduced limited competitive elections to a new central legislature, the Congress of People's Deputies. In May 1985, Gorbachev delivered a speech in Leningrad advocating reforms and an anti-alcohol campaign to tackle widespread alcoholism.
Prices of vodka and beer were raised, intended to discourage drinking by increasing the cost of liquor. A rationing program was introduced, where citizens were assigned punch cards detailing how much liquor they could buy in a certain time frame. Unlike most forms of rationing, adopted as a strategy to conserve scarce goods, this was done to restrict sales with the overt goal of curtailing drunkenness. Gorbachev's plan included billboards promoting sobriety, increased penalties for public drunkenness, censorship of drinking scenes from old movies; this mirrored Tsar Nicholas II's program during the First World War, intended to eradicate drunkenness in order to bolster the war effort. However, that earlier effort was intended to preserve grain for only the most essential purposes, which did not appear to be a goal in Gorbachev's program. Gorbachev soon faced the same adverse economic reaction to his prohibition; the disincentivization of alcohol consumption was a serious blow to the state budget according to Alexander Yakovlev, who noted annual collections of alcohol taxes decreased by 100 billion rubles.
Alcohol sales migrated to the black market and moonshining became more prevalent as some made "bathtub vodka" with homegrown potatoes. Poorer, less educated Soviets resorted to drinking unhealthy substitutes such as nail-polish remover, rubbing alcohol, or men's cologne, resulting in an additional burden on Russia's healthcare sector due to the increased poisoning cases; the underlying purpose of these reforms was to prop up the existing command economy, in contrast to reforms, which tended toward market socialism. On July 1, 1985, Gorbachev promoted Eduard Shevardnadze, First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party, to full member of the Politburo, the following day appointed him minister of foreign affairs, replacing longtime Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko; the latter, disparaged as "Mr Nyet" in the West, had served for 28 years as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Gromyko was relegated to the ceremonial position of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, as he was considered an "old thinker".
On July 1, Gorbachev sidelined his main rival by removing Grigory Romanov from the Politburo and he brought Boris Yeltsin and Lev Zaikov into the CPSU Central Committee Secretariat. In the fall of 1985, Gorbachev continued to bring more energetic men into government. On September 27, 55-year-ol
Portuguese discoveries are the numerous territories and maritime routes discovered by the Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and 16th centuries. Portuguese sailors were at the vanguard of European overseas exploration and mapping the coasts of Africa, Canada and Brazil, in what became known as the Age of Discovery. Methodical expeditions started in 1419 along West Africa's coast under the sponsorship of prince Henry the Navigator, with Bartolomeu Dias reaching the Cape of Good Hope and entering the Indian Ocean in 1488. Ten years in 1498, Vasco da Gama led the first fleet around Africa to India, arriving in Calicut and starting a maritime route from Portugal to India. Portuguese explorations proceeded to southeast Asia, where they reached Japan in 1542, forty-four years after their first arrival in India. In 1500, the Portuguese nobleman Pedro Álvares Cabral became the first European to discover Brazil. In 1139 the Kingdom of Portugal achieved independence from León, having doubled its area with the Reconquista under Afonso Henriques.
In 1297 king Denis of Portugal took personal interest in the development of exports, having organized the export of surplus production to European countries. On May 10, 1293 he instituted a maritime insurance fund for Portuguese traders living in the County of Flanders, which were to pay certain sums according to tonnage, accrued to them when necessary. Wine and dried fruits from Algarve were sold in Flanders and England, salt from Setúbal and Aveiro was a profitable export to northern Europe, leather and kermes, a scarlet dye, were exported. Portuguese imported armors and munitions, fine clothes and several manufactured products from Flanders and Italy. In 1317 king Denis made an agreement with Genoese merchant sailor Manuel Pessanha, appointing him first Admiral with trade privileges with his homeland in return for twenty war ships and crews, with the goal of defending the country against Muslim pirate raids, thus laying the basis for the Portuguese Navy and establishment of a Genoese merchant community in Portugal.
Forced to reduce their activities in the Black Sea, the Republic of Genoa had turned to north African trade of wheat, olive oil and a search for gold – navigating into the ports of Bruges and England. Genoese and Florentine communities established since in Portugal, who profited from the enterprise and financial experience of these rivals of the Republic of Venice. In the second half of the fourteenth century outbreaks of bubonic plague led to severe depopulation: the economy was localized in a few towns, migration from the country led to agricultural land being abandoned and resulting in village unemployment rise. Only the sea offered alternatives, with most people trading coastal areas. Between 1325–1357 Afonso IV of Portugal granted public funding to raise a proper commercial fleet and ordered the first maritime explorations, with the help of Genoese, under command of admiral Manuel Pessanha. In 1341 the Canary Islands known to Genoese, were discovered under the patronage of the Portuguese king, but in 1344 Castile disputed them, further propelling the Portuguese navy efforts.
In 1415, Ceuta was occupied by the Portuguese aiming to control navigation of the African coast, moved by expanding Christianity with the avail of the Pope and a desire of the unemployed nobility for epic acts of war after the reconquista. Young prince Henry the Navigator was there and became aware of profit possibilities in the Saharan trade routes. Governor of the rich Order of Christ since 1420 and holding valuable monopolies on resources in Algarve, he invested in sponsoring voyages down the coast of Mauritania, gathering a group of merchants, shipowners and participants interested in the sea lanes, his brother Prince Pedro, granted him a royal monopoly of all profits from trading within the areas discovered. Soon the Atlantic islands of Madeira and Azores were reached. There wheat and sugarcane were cultivated, like in Algarve, by the Genoese, becoming profitable activities; this helped. Henry the Navigator took the lead role in encouraging Portuguese maritime exploration until his death in 1460.
At the time, Europeans did not know. Henry wished to know how far the Muslim territories in Africa extended, whether it was possible to reach Asia by sea, both to reach the source of the lucrative spice trade and to join forces with the long-lost Christian kingdom of Prester John, rumoured to exist somewhere in the "Indies". In 1419 two of Henry's captains, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira were driven by a storm to Madeira, an uninhabited island off the coast of Africa, known to Europeans since the 14th century. In 1420 Zarco and Teixeira returned with Bartolomeu Perestrelo and began Portuguese settlement of the islands. A Portuguese attempt to capture Grand Canary, one of the nearby Canary Islands, settled by Spaniards in 1402 was unsuccessful and met with protestations from Castile. Although the exact details are uncertain, cartographic evidence suggests the Azores were discovered in 1427 by Portuguese ships sailing under Henry's direction, settled in 1432, suggesting that the Portuguese were able to navigate at least 745 miles from the Portuguese coast.
At around the same time as the unsuccessful attack on the Canary Islands, the Portuguese began to explore the North African coast. Sailors feared what lay beyond Cape Bojador, whether it was possible to return once it was passed. In 1434 one of Prince Henry's ca
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Timeline of United States inventions (1946–1991)
A timeline of United States inventions encompasses the ingenuity and innovative advancements of the United States within a historical context, dating from the era of the Cold War, which have been achieved by inventors who are either native-born or naturalized citizens of the United States. Copyright protection secures a person's right to his or her first-to-invent claim of the original invention in question, highlighted in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution which gives the following enumerated power to the United States Congress: In 1641, the first patent in North America was issued to Samuel Winslow by the General Court of Massachusetts for a new method of making salt. On April 10, 1790, President George Washington signed the Patent Act of 1790 into law which proclaimed that patents were to be authorized for "any useful art, engine, machine, or device, or any improvement therein not before known or used." On July 31, 1790, Samuel Hopkins of Pittsford, Vermont became the first person in the United States to file and to be granted a patent for an improved method of "Making Pot and Pearl Ashes."
The Patent Act of 1836 further clarified United States patent law to the extent of establishing a patent office where patent applications are filed and granted, contingent upon the language and scope of the claimant's invention, for a patent term of 14 years with an extension of up to an additional 7 years. However, the Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994 changed the patent term in the United States to a total of 20 years, effective for patent applications filed on or after June 8, 1995, thus bringing United States patent law further into conformity with international patent law; the modern-day provisions of the law applied to inventions are laid out in Title 35 of the United States Code. From 1836 to 2011, the United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted a total of 7,861,317 patents relating to several well-known inventions appearing throughout the timeline below; some examples of patented inventions between the years 1946 and 1991 include William Shockley's transistor, John Blankenbaker's personal computer, Vinton Cerf's and Robert Kahn's Internet protocol/TCP, Martin Cooper's mobile phone.
1946 Space observatory A space observatory is any instrument, such as a telescope, in outer space, used for observation of distant planets and other outer space objects. In 1946, American theoretical astrophysicist Lyman Spitzer was proposed the idea of a telescope in outer space, a decade before the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik into orbit. However, German scientist Hermann Oberth had first conceived the idea of a space based telescope. Spitzer's proposal called for a large telescope. After lobbying in the 1960s and 1970s for such a system to be built, Spitzer's vision materialized into the world's first space-based optical telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, launched on April 20, 1990 by the Space Shuttle Discovery.1946 Blowout preventer An annular blowout preventer is a large valve that uses a wedge to seal off a wellhead. It has a donut-like rubber seal, known as an elastomeric packing unit. During drilling or well interventions, the valve may be closed if overpressure from an underground zone causes formation fluids such as oil or natural gas to enter the wellbore and threaten the rig.
The annular blowout preventer was invented by Granville Sloan Knox in 1946 who received a patent on September 9, 1952.1946 Tupperware Tupperware is airtight plastic containers used for the preparation, storage and serving of perishable food in the kitchen and home. Tupperware was invented in 1946 by American chemist Earl Silas Tupper who devised a method of purifying black polyethylene slag, a waste product produced in oil refinement, into a molded substance, flexible, non-porous, non-greasy and translucent. Available in many colors, the plastic containers with "burp seal" did not become a commercial success until Brownie Wise, a Florida housewife, began throwing Tupperware parties in 1951 in order to demonstrate the product and explain the features.1946 Spoonplug A spoonplug is a form of fishing lure. The spoonplug was invented by Elwood L. "Buck" Perry a physics and math teacher in Hickory, North Carolina. Elwood Perry combined science with a logical approach to fishing to create a "total fishing system."
He is credited as being the father of structure fishing and was inducted into the National Freshwater Fishing Hall of Fame.1946 Chipper teeth A chipper teeth is a variant of a saw chain used on a chainsaw. Using a tooth, curled over the top of the chain, there are alternate teeth which point left and right. In 1946, American logger Joseph Buford Cox of Portland, Oregon invented chipper teeth, still used today and represents one of the biggest influences in the history of timber harvesting.1946 Filament tape Filament tape or strapping tape is a pressure-sensitive tape used for several packaging functions such as closing corrugated fiberboard boxes, reinforcing packages, bundling items, pallet utilizing, etc. It consists of a pressure-sensitive adhesive coated onto a backing material, a polypropylene or polyester film and fiberglass filaments embedded to add high tensile strength. Filament tape was invented in 1946 by Cyrus Woodrow Bemmels. In 1949, it was placed on the market and was an immediate success.1946 Credit card A credit card is part of a system of payments named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system.
The issuer of the card grants a line of credit to the consu
The Portuguese inventions are the inventions created by people born in Portugal or whose nationality is Portuguese. These inventions were created during the age of Portuguese Discoveries, but as well, during modernity. Relying on trade secret explains, in part, the difficulty experienced by researchers in documenting Portuguese inventions, as many are not described in patent documents, or other technical documents. On the other hand, there are cases, like some types of swords, where the inventions themselves or the underlying documents were lost, having been destroyed, for example, during the French invasions. There are as well documentation and objects of Portuguese origin in private collections or museums outside of Portugal; the creation of new inventions in Portugal took its peak during the Age of Discovery. These inventions consisted in the improvement of devices and techniques of ocean navigation and coastal cartography, such as the mariner's astrolabe and the chart of latitudes. On the field of military applications, the construction of cannons and new types of swords, like the carracks black sword.
More the technical domain varies from computers to medicine. Such examples might be Via Verde, an automatic system for collecting tolls for vehicles, the Multibanco, an automatic teller machine network with a multitude of functions ranging from bank transfers to the payment of tickets for shows, or in the field of medicine, a treatment of epilepsy, the drug Zebinix by Bial Laboratories. List of Portuguese inventions and discoveries Pyreliophorus Volta do mar Ballastella Armillary sphere Caravel Carrack Chip log Galleon