Llotja de la Seda
The Llotja de la Seda is a late Valencian Gothic-style civil building in Valencia, Spain. It is a principal tourist attraction in the city. Built between 1482 and 1548, la Lonja is composed of three parts; the main hall, Sala de Contratacion is a large lavishly decorated space supported by gorgeous twisted columns. This was the financial centre of La Lonja; the side-wing is named the Pavilion of the Consulate, this was the seat of the Tribunal del Mar - the first marine merchant tribunal to be formed in Spain. The first two floors were the main function rooms, with the upper one hosting a richly decorated ceiling; these rooms are still maintain original furnishings. On occasion, the Tribunal would imprison merchants for debts in the central tower of La Lonja - the third part of the structure. Behind the current building, there was an earlier one from the 14th century, called the Oil Exchange, it was used not only for all kind of business. Where in 1348 was traded perxal as some kind of silk. Valencia's commercial prosperity reached its peak during the 15th century, led to the construction of a new building.
The design of the new Lonja of Valencia was derived from a similar structure in the Lonja of Palma de Majorca, built by the architect Guillem Sagrera in 1448. The architect in charge of the new Lonja was Pere Compte, who built the main body of the building – the Trading Hall – in only fifteen years. So is written in a blue band that runs along all four walls of the Trading Hall called "Hall of Columns", it proclaims in golden letters the following inscription: Inclita domus sum annis aedificata quindecim. Gustate et videte concives quoniam bona est negotiatio, quae non agit dolum in lingua, quae jurat proximo et non deficit, quae pecuniam non dedit ad usuram eius. Mercator sic agens divitiis tandem vita fructur aeterna. According to the local Valencian scholar Joan Francesc Mira, this inscription showed that it was not a necessary to be a Protestant or a foreigner to establish the basis of a good trade. Other construction and decoration works lumbered on until 1548, such as the Consolat del Mar, a Renaissance building adjoined to La Lonja.
During subsequent centuries, La Lonja functioned as a silk exchange. The honesty of its traders is honored by the inscription; the UNESCO considered it as a World Heritage Site in 1996 since "the site is of outstanding universal value as it is a wholly exceptional example of a secular building in late Gothic style, which illustrates the power and wealth of one of the great Mediterranean mercantile cities." Llotja Materials from the World Heritage website
Habsburg Spain refers to Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries, when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg. The Habsburg rulers reached the zenith of their power, they controlled territory that included the Americas, the East Indies, the Low Countries and territories now in France and Germany in Europe, the Portuguese Empire from 1580 to 1640, various other territories such as small enclaves like Ceuta and Oran in North Africa. This period of Spanish history has been referred to as the "Age of Expansion". Under the Habsburgs, Spain dominated Europe politically and militarily for much of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries but experienced a gradual decline of influence in the second half of the seventeenth century under the Habsburg kings; the Habsburg years ushered in the Spanish Golden Age of cultural efflorescence. Among the most outstanding figures of this period were Teresa of Ávila, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Miguel de Cervantes, El Greco, Domingo de Soto, Francisco Suárez, Diego Velázquez, Francisco de Vitoria.
"Spain" or "the Spains" in this period covered the entire peninsula, politically a confederacy comprising several, nominally independent kingdoms or realms in personal union: Aragon, Castile, León, Navarre and, from 1580, Portugal. In some cases, these individual kingdoms themselves were confederations, most notably, the Crown of Aragon; the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469 had enabled the union of two of the greatest of these kingdoms and Aragón, which led to their successful campaign against the Moors, peaking at the conquest of Granada in 1492. Isabella and Ferdinand were bestowed the title of Most Catholic Monarchs by Pope Alexander VI in 1496, the term Monarchia Catholica remained in use for the monarchy under the Spanish Habsburgs; the Habsburg period is formative of the notion of "Spain" in the sense, institutionalized in the 18th century. From the 17th century and after the end of the Iberian Union, the Habsburg monarchy in Spain was known as "Spanish Monarchy" or "Monarchy of Spain", along with the common form Kingdom of Spain.
Spain as a unified state came into being de jure only after the Nueva Planta decrees of 1707 from the contested successor to the multiple Crowns of its former realms. After the death in 1700 of Charles II and with it the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty, the Spanish Succession war lasted for many years between its contesting dynasties from France and Austria and their respective supporting allies, until the ascension of Philip V and the inauguration of the Bourbon dynasty when this centralizing legal vehicle for new State formation, without legal precedent in the Iberian realms and of clear foreign origin, in all comparable after those in France under the Old Regime Absolutism, were established after de facto. In 1504, Isabella I died, although Ferdinand II tried to maintain his position over Castile in the wake of her death, the Castilian Cortes Generales chose to crown Isabella's daughter Joanna as queen, her husband Philip I was the Habsburg son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy.
Shortly thereafter Joanna began to lapse into insanity, though the extent of her mental illness was the topic of some debate. In 1506, Philip I was declared jure uxoris king, but he died that year under mysterious circumstances poisoned by his father-in-law, Ferdinand II. Since their oldest son Charles was only six, the Cortes reluctantly allowed Joanna's father Ferdinand II to rule the country as the regent of Joanna and Charles. Spain was now in personal union under Ferdinand II of Aragon; as undisputed ruler in most of the Peninsula, Ferdinand adopted a more aggressive policy than he had as Isabella's husband, going on to crystallize his long-running designs over Navarre into a full-blown invasion led by a Castilian military expedition, supported by Aragonese troops. He attempted to enlarge Spain's sphere of influence in Italy, strengthening it against France; as ruler of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and the Republic of Venice for control of Italy. Ferdinand's first investment of Spanish forces came in the War of the League of Cambrai against Venice, where the Spanish soldiers distinguished themselves on the field alongside their French allies at the Battle of Agnadello.
Only a year Ferdinand joined the Holy League against France, seeing a chance at taking both Naples — to which he held a dynastic claim — and Navarre, claimed through his marriage to Germaine of Foix. The war was less of a success than that against Venice, in 1516 France agreed to a truce that left Milan under French control and recognized Spanish hegemony in northern Navarre. Ferdinand would die that year. Ferdinand's death led to the ascension of young Charles to the throne as Charles I of Castile and Aragon founding the monarchy of Spain, his Spanish inheritance included all the Spanish possessions in the New World and around the Mediterranean. Upon the death of his Habsburg father in 1506, Charles had inherited the Netherlands and Franche-Comté, growing up in Flanders. In 1519, with the death of his paternal grandfather Maximilian I, Charles inherited the Habsburg territo
Military history of Spain
The military history of Spain, from the period of the Carthaginian conquests over the Phoenicians to the current Afghan War spans a period of more than 2200 years, includes the history of battles fought in the territory of modern Spain, as well as her former and current overseas possessions and territories, the military history of the people of Spain, regardless of geography. Spain's early military history emerged from her location on the western fringes of the Mediterranean, a base for attacks between Rome and Carthage. With the fall of the Roman Empire, Spain was devastated by successive barbarian invasions, with stability only appearing with the years of the Visigothic kingdom; the early Middle Ages for Spain saw the country forming the front line in a battle between Christian and Islamic forces in the Mediterranean. The 16th and 17th centuries marked the peak of the so-called Spanish Golden Age. Spain acquired vast empire by defeating the centralised states of the Americas, colonising the Philippines.
Her tercio units, backed by imperial gold and silver, were dominant in Europe. It was not until the years after the Thirty Years' War; the Napoleonic Wars changed Spanish military history dramatically. The collapse of central Spanish authority resulted in successful wars of independence amongst Spain's American colonies, drastically reducing the size of her empire, in turn led to a sequence of civil wars in Spain itself, many fought by frustrated veterans of the French and colonial campaigns. Attempts to reassert imperial power during the mid-19th century, enabled by the development of the steam frigate failed, leading to the collapse of the remnants of Spain's empire in the Americas and Asia in 1898 at the hands of a rising power, the United States of America; the political tensions that had driven the Carlist Wars remained unchecked, spilling over once again in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–9. Bringing a foretaste of the tactics of the Second World War, several nations used the conflict as a testing ground for new aerial and armoured warfare tactics.
In the post-war period, Spain has turned away from the last remaining colonial conflicts in Africa, played a growing modern military role within the context of the NATO alliance. In the classical period, Spain was a mix of Celtic and Iberian tribal states, Greek and Phoenician trading ports, with the largest state being the kingdom of Tartessus. With the eruption of war between Carthage, a Phoenician colony in North Africa and the Greeks, the Carthaginians begin extending their influence in Iberia, creating the city of New Carthage, in hopes of creating a trading empire. Following the First Punic War with Rome, in 237 BC, Hamilcar Barca, the famous Carthaginian general began the conquest of Turdetania and Gades to provide a springboard for further attacks on Rome. Hamilcar entrusted the conquest and military governance of the region to his son Hasdrubal the Fair – his other son, would march his troops across Hispania with elephants to lead them on Rome in the Second Punic War. During that war, Rome declared Hispania to be a Roman provincia in 218 BC, beginning a century-long campaign to subdue the people of Iberia to Roman.
After the expulsion of the Carthaginians from Hispania in the Second and Third Punic Wars, Rome attempted to subdue the native tribes. In the northeasterly province of Hispania Citerior, the Celtiberian Wars occupied Roman forces for the better part of the 2nd century. In Hispania Ulterior, the Lusitanian War did the same; the resistance of the Lusitani under Viriathus became legendary across the Empire. In the troubled final years of the Republic, Quintus Sertorius held most of Iberia as a de facto independent sovereign against the partisans of Sulla, his attitude towards the natives and his military reforms – he was a partisan of Marius – secured him the loyalty of the populace and the army and his general success until his assassination. The Spanish era, a dating system predominant in Iberia until the close of the Middle Ages, began in 38 BC; the last region of Hispania to be subjected was the northwest being conquered in the Cantabrian Wars, which ended in 19 BC. Under Roman rule, Hispania contributed, like the rest of empire, to the Roman military, providing both legionaries, auxiliary forces, in particular alae cavalry.
Hispania shaped Roman military affairs more subtely. The famous Roman infantry sword, the Gladius, stemmed directly or indirectly from the Spanish development of the Gladius Hispaniensis. Hispania provided several of Rome's more famous military Emperors, including Trajan and Marcus Aurelius. During the third through 6th centuries, the Roman Empire was beset by numerous barbarian invaders Germanic, who migrated through its borders and began warring and settling in its territories. While the Vandals and Alans were fighting each other for supremacy in southern Gaul, the confederation of the Suevi crossed the Pyrenees and passing through Vasconia, entered Gallaecia in 409; the Vandals soon followed the Suevi example, with the Alans close behind. The Alans settled in Lusitania and Carthaginiensis and the Siling Vandals in Baetica, while the Asding Vandals vied with the Suevi for Gallaecia; the Visigoths crossed the Pyrenees to expand thei
Al-Andalus known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain that in its early period occupied most of Iberia, today's Portugal and Spain. At its greatest geographical extent, it occupied the northwest of the Iberian peninsula and a part of present day southern France Septimania and for nearly a century extended its control from Fraxinet over the Alpine passes which connect Italy with the remainder of Western Europe; the name more describes the parts of the peninsula governed by Muslims at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed as the Christian Reconquista progressed shrinking to the south around modern-day Andalusia and to the Emirate of Granada. Following the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, al-Andalus at its greatest extent, was divided into five administrative units, corresponding to modern Andalusia and Galicia, Castile and León, Aragon, the County of Barcelona, Septimania; as a political domain, it successively constituted a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, initiated by the Caliph Al-Walid I.
Rule under these kingdoms led to a rise in cultural exchange and cooperation between Muslims and Christians. Christians and Jews were subject to a special tax called Jizya, to the state, which in return provided internal autonomy in practicing their religion and offered the same level of protections by the Muslim rulers. Under the Caliphate of Córdoba, al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, the city of Córdoba, the largest in Europe, became one of the leading cultural and economic centres throughout the Mediterranean Basin and the Islamic world. Achievements that advanced Islamic and Western science came from al-Andalus, including major advances in trigonometry, surgery, pharmacology and other fields. Al-Andalus became a major educational center for Europe and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea as well as a conduit for cultural and scientific exchange between the Islamic and Christian worlds. For much of its history, al-Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north. After the fall of the Umayyad caliphate, al-Andalus was fragmented into minor states and principalities.
Attacks from the Christians intensified, led by the Castilians under Alfonso VI. The Almoravid empire intervened and repelled the Christian attacks on the region, deposing the weak Andalusi Muslim princes and included al-Andalus under direct Berber rule. In the next century and a half, al-Andalus became a province of the Berber Muslim empires of the Almoravids and Almohads, both based in Marrakesh; the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian Peninsula overpowered the Muslim states to the south. In 1085, Alfonso VI captured Toledo. With the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south fell under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later. In 1249, the Portuguese Reconquista culminated with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III, leaving Granada as the last Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula. On January 2, 1492, Emir Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Granada to Queen Isabella I of Castile, completing the Christian Reconquista of the peninsula.
Although al-Andalus ended as a political entity, the nearly eight centuries of Islamic rule which preceded and accompanied the early formation of the Spanish nation-state and identity has left a profound effect on the country's culture and language in Andalusia. The toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia; these coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic. The etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. In 1986, Joaquín Vallvé proposed that "al-Andalus" was a corruption of the name Atlantis, Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Georg Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate. During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, the commander Tariq ibn-Ziyad led a small force that landed at Gibraltar on April 30, 711, ostensibly to intervene in a Visigothic civil war. After a decisive victory over King Roderic at the Battle of Guadalete on July 19, 711, Tariq ibn-Ziyad, joined by Arab governor Musa ibn Nusayr of Ifriqiya, brought most of the Visigothic Kingdom under Muslim occupation in a seven-year campaign.
They occupied Visigothic Septimania in southern France. Most of the Iberian peninsula became part of the expanding Umayyad Empire, under the name of al-Andalus, it was organized as a province subordinate to Ifriqiya, so, for the first few decades, the governors of al-Andalus were appointed by the emir of Kairouan, rather than the Caliph in Damascus. The regional capital was set at Córdoba, the first influx of Muslim settlers was distributed; the small army Tariq led in the initial conquest consisted of Berbers, while Musa's Arab force of over 12,000 soldiers was accompanied by a group of mawālī, that is, non-Arab Muslims, who were clients of the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Valencia in Spain
The Archdiocese of Valencia is a Catholic ecclesiastical territory located in north-eastern Spain, in the province of Valencia, part of the autonomous community of Valencia. The archdiocese heads the ecclesiastical province of Valencia, with authority over the suffragan dioceses of Ibiza, Minorca, Orihuela-Alicante and Segorbe-Castellón; the archbishops are seated in Valencia Cathedral. On 28 August 2014, Pope Francis appointed Cardinal Antonio Cañizares Llovera as the next archbishop of Valencia. Diocese created in Roman times, Pope Innocent VIII elevated it to an archdiocese in 1492; the cathedral in the early days of the Reconquest was called Església Major Seu, at the present time, in virtue of the papal concession of 16 October 1866, it is called the Basílica metropolitana. It is situated in the centre of the ancient Roman city. In Gothic times it seems to have been dedicated to the most Holy Saviour; the Moorish mosque, converted into a Christian church by the conqueror, appeared unworthy of the title of the cathedral of Valencia, in 1262 Bishop Andreu d'Albalat laid the cornerstone of the new Gothic building, with three naves.
Bishop Vidal de Blanes built the magnificent chapter hall, Jaume of Aragon added the tower, called "Micalet" because it was blessed on St. Michael's day, about 166 feet high and finished at the top with a belfry. In the 15th century the dome was added and the naves extended back of the choir, uniting the building to the tower and forming a main entrance. Archbishop Luis Alfonso de los Cameros began the building of the main chapel in 1674. At the beginning of the 18th century the German Conrad Rudolphus built the façade of the main entrance; the other two doors lead into the transept. The additions made to the back of the cathedral detract from its height; the 18th-century restoration rounded the pointed arches, covered the Gothic columns with Corinthian pillars, redecorated the walls. The dome has its plain ceiling being pierced by two large side windows. There are four chapels on either side, besides that at the end and those that open into the choir, the transept, the presbyterium, it contains many paintings by eminent artists.
A magnificent silver reredos, behind the altar, was carried away in the war of 1808, converted into coin to meet the expenses of the campaign. Behind the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament is a beautiful little Renaissance chapel built by Pope Callixtus III. Beside the cathedral is the chapel dedicated to the Virgen de los desamparados. In 1409 a hospital was placed under the patronage of Santa María de los Innocentes. At the end of the 15th century this confraternity separated from the hospital, continued this work under the name of Cofradía para el amparo de los desamparados. King Philip IV and the Duke of Arcos suggested the building of the new chapel, in 1647 the Viceroy Conde de Orpesa, preserved from the bubonic plague, insisted on carrying out their project; the Blessed Virgin under the title of Virgen de los desamparados was proclaimed patroness of the city, Archbishop Pedro de Urbina y Montoya, on 31 June 1652, laid the cornerstone of the new chapel of this name. The Archiepiscopal Palace, a grain market in the time of the Moors, is simple in design, with an inside cloister and a handsome chapel.
In 1357 the arch which connects it with the cathedral was built. In the council chamber are preserved the portraits of all the prelates of Valencia. Among the parish churches those deserving special mention are: Sts. John, rebuilt in 1368, whose dome, decorated by Palonino, contains some of the best frescoes of Spain; the Temple, the ancient church of the Knights Templar, which passed into the hands of the Order of Montesa and, rebuilt in the reigns of Ferdinand VI and Charles III. The former convent of the Dominicans, at present the headquarters of the capital general, the cloister of which has a beautiful Gothic wing and the chapter room, large columns imitating palm trees; the Colegio del Corpus Christi, devoted to the exclusive worship of the Blessed Sacrament, in which perpetual adoration is carried on. The Jesuit college, destroyed by the revolutionary Committee, but rebuilt on the same site; the Colegio de San Juan, the former college of the nobles, now a provincial institute for secondary instruction.
The Seminary was built in 1831. Since the Concordat of 1851 it ranks as a central seminary with the faculty of conferring academic degrees. There have been in Valencia, since remote times, schools founded by the bishops and directed by ecclesiastics. In 1412 a studium generale with special statutes was established. Pope Alexander VI raised it to the rank of a university on 23 January 1500. King Ferdinand the Catholic confirmed this two years later. In 1830 the building was reconstructed. Among the hospitals and charitable institutions may be mentione
The Metropolitan Cathedral–Basilica of the Assumption of Our Lady of Valencia, alternatively known as Saint Mary's Cathedral or Valencia Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic parish church in Valencia, Spain. The cathedral was consecrated in 1238 by the first bishop of Valencia after the Reconquista, Pere d'Albalat, Archbishop of Tarragona, was dedicated to Saint Mary by order of James I the Conqueror, it was built over the site of the former Visigothic cathedral, which under the Moors had been turned into a mosque. Valencian Gothic is the predominant architectural style of the cathedral, although it contains Romanesque, French Gothic, Renaissance and Neoclassical elements; the cathedral contains numerous 15th-century paintings, some by local artists, others by artists from Rome engaged by the Valencian Pope Alexander VI who, when still a cardinal, made the request to elevate the Valencian See to the rank of metropolitan see, a category granted by Pope Innocent VIII in 1492. Most of Valencia Cathedral was built between the 13th century and the 15th century, this style was Gothic.
However, its construction went on for centuries. As a consequence there is a mixture of artistic styles, ranging from the early Romanesque, Valencian Gothic, Renaissance and Neoclassical. Excavations of Almoina Archaeological Centre have unearthed the remains of the ancient Visigothic cathedral, which became a mosque. There is documentary evidence that some decades after the Christian conquest of the city, the mosque-cathedral remained standing with the Koranic inscriptions on the walls, until 22 June 1262, when the bishop Andreu d'Albalat resolved to knock it down and build a new cathedral in its place according to the plans of the architect Arnau Vidal. Hypothetically, the ancient Muslim mosque would correspond with the current transept of the cathedral, the Apostles' gate would be the entrance to the mosque and the Almoina gate the mihrab. Stones from neighboring quarries in Burjassot and Godella were used to build the cathedral, but from other more distant quarries such as those in Benidorm and Xàbia which came by boat.
Some reasons for the simplicity and sobriety of Valencia Cathedral are that it was built to mark the Christian territory against the Muslims, that it was not a work by a king, but by the local bourgeoisie. Although there are several styles of construction, this cathedral is a Gothic building, a cruciform plan with transepts north and south, a crossing covered by an octagonal tower, with an ambulatory and a polygonal apse; this cathedral was begun at the end of the 13th century at the same time as the mosque was being demolished. The first part to be finished was the ambulatory with its eight radiating chapels, the Almoina Romanesque gate. Between 1300 and 1350 the crossing was finished and its west side went up as far as the Baroque Apostles' Gate. Three out of the four sections of the naves and transepts were built; the crossing tower was begun. The old chapter house, where the canons met to discuss internal affairs, the belfry, known as "Micalet" or "El Miguelete", were separate from the rest of the church, but in 1459 the architects Francesc Baldomar and Pere Compte expanded the nave and transepts in a further section, known as Arcada Nova, joined both the chapter house and the Micalet with the rest of the cathedral, thereby attaining 94 metres in length and 53.65 metres in width.
The centuries of the Renaissance had little influence on the architecture of the cathedral but much more on its pictorial decoration, such as the one at the high altar, sculptural decoration, such as the one in the Resurrection chapel. During the Baroque period, the German Konrad Rudolf designed in 1703 the main door of the cathedral, known as the Iron gate due to the cast-iron fence that surrounds it; because of the War of the Spanish Succession he could not finish it, this task fell to the sculptors Francisco Vergara and Ignacio Vergara. Its concave shape, which causes a unique and studied perspective effect, was distorted during the 20th century because of the demolition of some adjacent buildings to expand the square. A project to renew the building was launched during the last third of the 18th century, whose intention was to give a uniform neoclassical appearance to the church, different from the original Gothic style, considered a vulgar work in comparison. Works started in 1774, directed by the architect Antoni Gilabert Fornés.
The reshuffle affected both constructive and ornamental elements: the pinnacles were removed outside, the Gothic structure was masked by stucco and other pseudo-classical elements. In 1931 the church was declared a historic and artistic landmark by the Spanish government, but during the Spanish Civil War it was burned, which meant that it lost part of its decorative elements; the choir, located in the central part, was dismantled in 1940 and moved to the bottom of the high altar. The musical organs, which had suffered major damage during the war, were never rebuilt. In 1970, the Houses of Canons, a building attached to the chapels facing Micalet street, were demolished to give the cathedral back its previous appearance, at the same time elements of little or no architectural value were removed; the task of removing the Neoclassical elements in order to recover the original Gothic aspect was u
Umayyad conquest of Hispania
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania extending from 711 to 788. The conquest resulted in the destruction of the Visigothic Kingdom and the establishment of the independent Emirate of Córdoba under Abd ar-Rahman I, who completed the unification of Muslim-ruled Iberia, or al-Andalus; the conquest marks the westernmost expansion of both the Umayyad Caliphate and Muslim rule into Europe. During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, forces led by Tariq ibn Ziyad disembarked in early 711 in Gibraltar at the head of an army consisting of Berbers, he campaigned his way northward after the decisive Battle of Guadalete against the usurper Roderic, after which he was reinforced by an Arab force led by his superior wali Musa ibn Nusair. By 717, the combined Arab-Berber force had crossed the Pyrenees into Provence; the historian al-Tabari transmits a tradition attributed to the Caliph Uthman who stated that the road to Constantinople was through Hispania, "Only through Spain can Constantinople be conquered.
If you conquer you will share the reward of those who conquer." The conquest of Hispania followed the conquest of North Africa. Walter Kaegi calls Tabari's tradition dubious, states that the conquest of far western reaches of the Mediterranean was motivated by exploiting military and religious opportunities, he considers that it was not a shift in direction due to the Muslims failing to conquer Constantinople in 678. Historian Jessica Coope of University of Nebraska considers that the pre-modern Islamic thought believed that the conquest of dar al-harb was motivated by belief that others were better off under Islamic rule and the belief in the superiority of the concept of Islamic society. What happened in Iberia in the early 8th century is uncertain. There is one contemporary Christian source, the Chronicle of 754, regarded as reliable but vague. There are no contemporary Muslim accounts, Muslim compilations, such as that of Al-Maqqari from the 17th century, reflect ideological influence; this paucity of early sources means.
The manner of King Roderic's ascent to the throne is unclear. Regnal lists, which cite Achila and omit Roderic, are consistent with the contemporary account of civil war. Numismatic evidence suggests a division of royal authority, with several coinages being struck, that Achila II remained king of the Tarraconsense and Septimania until circa 713; the nearly contemporary Chronicle of 754 describes Roderic as a usurper who earned the allegiance of other Goths by deception, while the less reliable late-ninth century Chronicle of Alfonso III shows a clear hostility towards Oppa, bishop of Seville and a brother of Wittiza, who appears in an unlikely heroic dialogue with Pelagius. There is a story of one Julian, count of Ceuta, whose wife or daughter was raped by Roderic and who sought help from Tangier. However, these stories are not included in the earliest accounts of the conquest. According to the chronicler Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, the Tangier governor Tariq ibn Ziyad led a raiding force 1,700 men strong from North Africa to southern Spain in 711.
However, 12,000 seems a more accurate figure. Ibn Abd-el-Hakem reports, one and a half centuries that "the people of Andalus did not observe them, thinking that the vessels crossing and recrossing were similar to the trading vessels which for their benefit plied backwards and forwards", they defeated the Visigothic army, led by King Roderic, in a decisive battle at Guadalete in 712. Tariq's forces were reinforced by those of his superior, the wali Musa ibn Nusair, both took control of most of Iberia with an army estimated at 10,000–15,000 combatants. According to the Muslim historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Iberia was first invaded some sixty years earlier during the caliphate of Uthman. Another prominent Muslim historian of the 13th century, Ibn Kathir, quoted the same narration, pointing to a campaign led by Abd Allah bin Nafi al Husayn and Abd Allah bin Nafi al Abd al Qays in 32 AH. However, this putative invasion is not accepted by modern historians; the first expedition led by Tariq was made up of Berbers who had themselves only come under Muslim influence.
It is probable that this army represented a continuation of a historic pattern of large-scale raids into Iberia dating to the pre–Islamic period, hence it has been suggested that actual conquest was not planned. Both the Chronicle of 754 and Muslim sources speak of raiding activity in previous years, Tariq's army may have been present for some time before the decisive battle, it has been argued that this possibility is supported by the fact that the army was led by a Berber and that Musa, the Umayyad Governor of North Africa, only arrived the following year – the governor had not stooped to lead a mere raid, but hurried across once the unexpected triumph became clear. The historian Abd al-Wāḥid Dhannūn Ṭāhā mentions that several Arab-Muslim writers mention the fact that Tariq has decided to cross the strait without informing his superior and wali Musa; the Chronicle of 754 states that many townspeople fled to the hills rather than defend their cities, which might support the view that this was expected to be a temporary raid rather than a permanent change of government.
The Chronicle of 754 stated that "the entire army of the Goths, which had come with him fraudulently and in rivalry out of hopes of the Kingship, fled". This is the only contemporary acco