Pic Tyndall is a minor summit below the Matterhorn in the Pennine Alps, on the boundary between Aosta Valley and Switzerland. Because of its small prominence it was included in the enlarged list of alpine four-thousanders and it was named in honour of John Tyndall who made the first ascent. Pic Tyndall was not considered as a goal in itself but it was located on the Lion ridge and its summit was effectively reached during one of those attempts by John Tyndall accompanied by his guides Johann Joseph Bennen and Walter. Jean-Antoine Carrel and César Carrel were engaged as porters, the five men started from Breuil on July 27,1863. A wooden ladder, which Tyndall had taken him, helped them over the most difficult passage. They could not go any higher than Pic Tyndall since the cleft that separated it from the peak of the Matterhorn, named the enjambée. It was at the time, the highest altitude reached by man on the Matterhorn, John Tyndall wrote, We reached the first summit, and planted a flag upon it.
The same thought had probably brooded in other minds, still it angered me slightly to hear misgiving obtain audible expression, from the point on which we planted our first flagstaff a hacked and extremely acute ridge ran, and abutted against the final precipice. Along this we moved cautiously, while the face of the precipice came clearer and clearer into view, the ridge on which we stood ran right against it, it was the only means of approach, while ghastly abysses fell on either side. We sat down, and inspected the place, no glass was needed, three out of the four men muttered almost simultaneously, It is impossible. Bennen was the man of the four who did not utter the word. A jagged stretch of the ridge still separated us from the precipice, I pointed to a spot at some distance from the place where we sat, and asked the three doubters whether that point might not be reached without much danger. We think so, was the reply and we reached the place, and sat down there. The men again muttered despairingly, and at length they said distinctly, I by no means wished to put on pressure, but directing their attention to a point at the base of the precipice, I asked them whether they could not reach that point without much risk.
Then, I said, let us go there and we moved cautiously along, and reached the point aimed at. The ridge was here split by a cleft which separated it from the final precipice. So savage a spot I had never seen, and I sat down upon it with the sickness of disappointed hope, the summit was within almost a stones throw of us, and the thought of retreat was bitter in the extreme. Bennen excitedly pointed out a track which he thought practicable and he spoke of danger, of difficulty, never of impossibility, but this was the ground taken by the other three men
Matthias Zurbriggen was a Swiss mountaineer, one of the great 19th-century alpinists and mountain guides. He climbed throughout the Alps, and in South America, during the same expedition Zurbriggen made the first ascent of Tupungato with the Englishman Stuart Vines. The Zurbriggen Ridge on Aoraki/Mount Cook in New Zealand is named after him, on 14 March 1895, Zurbriggen made the first ascent of the ridge and in the process made the second ascent of the mountain and the first solo ascent. Later in life, his fortune declined and he lived his last decade as a vagrant in his home country, and was found hanged in Geneva in 1917, an apparent suicide
The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people
Charles Hudson (climber)
Charles Hudson was an Anglican chaplain and mountain climber from Skillington, England. Hudson was one of the most important climbers of the age of alpinism. S. Kennedy, Charles Ainslie and G. C, joad on 8 August 1855, a guideless ascent of the Breithorn and a near ascent of the Aiguille du Goûter solo in winter, being forced back close to the summit by fresh snow. During the first ascent of the Matterhorn on 14 July 1865 Hudson was killed in an accident during the descent. Edward Whymper was planning to climb the mountain with Lord Francis Douglas, Whymper wrote, Lord Francis Douglas and I dined at the Monte Rosa hotel, and had just finished when Mr. Hudson and a friend entered the salle à manger. They had returned from inspecting the mountain and some idlers in the room demanded their intentions and we heard a confirmation of Crozs statement, and learned that Mr. Hudson intended to set off on the morrow at the same hour as ourselves. We left the room to consult, and agreed that it was undesirable for two independent parties to be on the mountain at the same time with the same object.
Mr Hudson was therefore invited to join us, and he accepted our proposal. Hadow—I took the precaution of asking what he had done in the Alps, some have blamed Hudson for insisting on the presence of the inexperienced Hadow in the party, and for not checking the quality of the rope or the boots Hadow was wearing. Hudsons body was retrieved from the Matterhorn glacier and was buried in the Zermatt churchyard, Arthur, ‘Hudson, Charles ’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press,2004 Engel, Claire. Mountaineering in the Alps, An Historical Survey, where theres a Will theres a Way, An Ascent of Mont Blanc by a New Route and without Guides
J. Norman Collie
Prof John Norman Collie FRSE FRS, commonly referred to as J. Norman Collie, was a British scientist and explorer. He was born in Alderley Edge, the second of four sons to John Collie, in 1870 the family moved to Clifton, near Bristol, and John was educated initially at Windlesham in Surrey and in 1873 at Charterhouse School. The family money had been made in the trade. Collie had to leave Charterhouse and transfer to Clifton College, Bristol where he realised he was unsuited for the classics. He attended University College in Bristol and developed an interest in chemistry and he earned a PhD in chemistry under Johannes Wislicenus at Wurzburg in 1884. He left to join University College London as an assistant to William Ramsay and his early work was the study of phosphonium and phosphine derivatives and allied ammonium compounds. Collie served as Professor of Organic Chemistry at UCL from 1896 to 1913 and he performed important research that led to the taking of the first x-ray for diagnosing medical conditions.
According to Bentley, Collie worked with Ramsay on the gases, constructed the first neon lamp, proposed a dynamic structure for benzene. The work on neon discare lamps was conducted in 1909, the effect of glowing neon in contact with mercury was some times called Collier effect. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1888 and his proposers included Alexander Crum Brown and Edmund Albert Letts. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June,1896, Collies professional career was spent as a scientist but his avocation was mountaineering. Collie appears to have begun climbing in Skye in 1886 and he went there with his brothers to fish but made an ascent of Sgùrr nan Gillean. After two unsuccessful attempts he was given advice on the route by John Mackenzie, a Skye crofter, Collie returned regularly to Skye and climbed with MacKenzie, the two men becoming firm friends and making many first ascents. In 1899 he discovered the Cioch, a rock feature on the Coire Laggan face of Sron na Ciche.
This he climbed in 1906 with Mackenzie, who named if from the Gaelic word for a breast, Collie was instrumental in producing much better maps of the Cuillin which had previously defied the skills of cartographers. Collier on 29 March 1894. The ridge had one previous descent by the Hopkinsons in 1892, in 1895, Collie and fellow climber Geoffrey Hastings went to the Himalaya Range for the worlds first attempt at a Himalayan 8, 000-metre peak, Nanga Parbat. They were years ahead of their time, and the mountain claimed the first of its victims, Mummery. The story of this expedition is told in Collies book
Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants, the town lies at the upper end of Mattertal at an elevation of 1,620 m, at the foot of Switzerlands highest peaks. It lies about 10 km from the over 10,800 ft high Theodul Pass bordering Italy, Zermatt is famed as a mountaineering and ski resort of the Swiss Alps. The year round population is 5,759, though there may be several times as many tourists in Zermatt at any one time. Much of the economy is based on tourism, with about half of the jobs in town in hotels or restaurants. Just over one-third of the permanent population was born in the town, the name of Zermatt, as well as that of the Matterhorn itself, derives from the alpine meadows, or matten, in the valley. The name appeared first as Zur Matte and became Zermatt and it does not appear until 1495 on a map or 1546 in a text, but may have been employed long before. Praborno or Prato Borno are the names of Zermatt, they appear in the ancient maps as early as the thirteenth century.
The Romand-speaking people from the Aosta Valley and from the Romand-speaking part of canton Wallis used this name until about 1860 in the form of Praborne, the reason of this change from Praborno to Zermatt is attributed to the gradual replacement of the Romance-speaking people by German-speaking colony. The town of Zermatt lies at the end of the Matter Valley. Zermatt is almost completely surrounded by the mountains of the Pennine Alps among which Monte Rosa. It is followed by the Dom, Lyskamm and the Matterhorn, most of the Alpine four-thousanders are located around Zermatt or in the neighbouring valleys. The town of Zermatt, while dense, is geographically small, there are three main streets which run along the banks of the river Matter Vispa, and numerous cross-streets, especially around the station and the church which forms the centre of Zermatt. In general anything is at most a thirty-minute walk away, there are several suburbs within Zermatt. Winkelmatten, which was once a hamlet, lies on a hill on the southern side.
Steinmatten is located on the bank of the main river. Many hamlets are located in the valleys above Zermatt, however they are not usually inhabited all year round, zum See lies south of Zermatt on the west bank of the Gorner gorge, near Furi where a cable car station is located. On the side of Zmutt valley lies the hamlet of Zmutt, findeln is located in the eastern valley above the Findelbach river
James Eccles FGS was an English mountaineer and geologist who is noted for making a number of first ascents in the Alps during the silver age of alpinism. Eccles was born in Blackburn in 1838, the eldest son of Edward Eccles of Liverpool and he was a Fellow of the Geological Society from 1867 to 1915. Eccles married in 1863 and moved to London by 1874, where he lived at 15, Durham Villas, Fillimore Gardens and he died in 1915, leaving £163,334 in his will. Alpine historian C. Douglas Milner called Eccles a climber of exceptional calibre and this party made the first ascent of the Aiguille de Rochefort in 1873 and the Dôme de Rochefort in 1881, the latter via its north-west face. Eccles made the first ascent of the part of the Peuterey ridge. Milner writes that Eccles had failed in an attempt in 1875. Back in London, while walking down the Strand, he saw displayed in a window a telephoto showing Mont Blanc. This photo revealed the best exit from the amphitheatre, by the couloir to the Peuterey ridge, Milner implies that photo was the key to success of the climb.
On their successful ascent, Eccless party reached the foot of the climb by crossing the Innominata ridge from the Brouillard glacier, when Eccles reached the summit of Mont Blanc itself he was appalled by the amount of litter that he found. The party descended to Chamonix in the time of three hours and forty minutes. Pic Eccles at the foot of the Innominata ridge on Mont Blanc is named after him, col Eccles on the Brenva side of Mont Blanc is named after him. Eccles was one of the first British mountaineers to make ascents of the peaks of the Rockies. On 7 August 1878, in a party of eight including surveyor Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden, topographer A. D. D. Wilson and Payot. Eccles offers the following description of Wilson, who is a mountaineer, led the way at a pace which. I struggled on in dignified silence, but Michels remonstrances if not generally intelligible were sufficiently audible, Eccles attempted to make the first ascent of Grand Teton in 1878 with Wilson, his assistant Harry Yount, and Payot.
Eccles and Payot were unfortunately held up by the disappearance of two mules, and so were unable to accompany Wilson and Yount, Eccles described many geological phenomena in the north of England, as well as in the Alps and the Rockies. Of his 1878 trip with Haydens team he wrote in preface to his On the Mode of Occurrence of some of the Volcanic Rocks of Montana, in the autumn of 1878 I had the good fortune to accompany Dr. Rutleys description of their microscopic characters. In 1881 Eccles befriended T. G. Bonney, an alpinist of some repute and professor of geology at University College, Bonney wrote Eccless obituary in the Alpine Journal
Lucy Walker (climber)
Lucy Walker was a British mountaineer and the first woman to climb the Matterhorn. She was born in Canada, and raised in Liverpool where her father was a lead merchant, Walker began her climbing rather modestly in 1858 when she was advised by her doctor to take up walking as a cure for rheumatism. Walkers achievements were, at first, largely unnoticed except by those in her immediate company, early successes included the first ascent of the Balmhorn, and the first female ascent of the Eiger, Wetterhorn and Piz Bernina. In 1871 she learned that her rival Meta Brevoort, an American female mountaineer, was planning an expedition to climb the Matterhorn. Walker hastily assembled a group and on 22 August, while wearing a white print dress, she became the first woman to stand atop the Matterhorn, and with it gained world renown. Also in that year she completed her fourth ascent of the Eiger during which she is said to have lived on a diet of sponge cake, champagne, in all Lucy Walker completed a total of 98 expeditions.
In 1909 she became a member of the newly formed Ladies Alpine Club where she was acclaimed as the pioneer of women climbers, in 1913 she was elected its second President and served in that capacity until 1915. She died at her home in Liverpool, England, on 10 September 1916, women on high, pioneers of mountaineering. Janet Adam Smith, Lucy, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press,2004
Marguerite Meta Brevoort, an American mountain climber, spent her early years in a Paris convent school. In contrast to Walker, who always wore dresses, Brevoort was the first female mountaineer to wear trousers, Meta Brevoort was the aunt of W. A. B. Coolidge, whom she brought to Europe in 1865, when he was 15 years of age, Coolidge eventually became an outstanding mountaineer, with over 1,700 ascents in the Alps, and the greatest alpine historian of the Victorian age. The two climbed together for ten seasons, and were joined in many of their adventures by Tschingel. Later, she would refer to their canine companion as the only Honorary Lady member of the Alpine Club. She and Coolidge journeyed to the Dauphiné several times in order to attempt the Meije, but encountered bad weather each trip. In 1876, she had her final opportunity for a first ascent, the Victorian Mountaineers, B. T. Batsford, London Women on high, pioneers of mountaineering
Second ascent of the Matterhorn
The second ascent of the Matterhorn was accomplished in July 1865, only three days after the successful expedition led by Edward Whymper on the Zermatt side. The second was effected on the Italian side by Jean-Antoine Carrel and Jean-Baptiste Bich with the abbé Amé Gorret, the party started from Breuil on 16 July and reached the top the following day. The successful ascent followed a series of attempts that took place on the southwest ridge of the Matterhorn. The Italian side was considered easier than the Swiss side but despite appearances, the routes were harder. On the first fine day they began their work, and about midday on the 14th got on to the Shoulder, the counsels of the party were divided. Two —Jean-Antoine Carrel and Joseph Maquignaz wished to go on, the others were not eager about it, a discussion took place, and the result was they all commenced to descend, and whilst upon the cravate they heard Whymper and others crying from the summit. Upon the 15th they went down to Breuil and reported their ill-success to Giordano, wrote the latter in his diary, dating the entry the 15th.
Early in the morning Carrel, more dead than alive, came to me he had been forestalled. He had reckoned on climbing to the top today, and expected to be able to force a passage not by the highest tower, which he considers impossible, but on the Zmutt side, where the snow is. I have decided that he and others shall at least try and ascend, so Giordano attempted to recruit men from Breuil to make another attempt. He was in a most unfavourable position, he was at any rate uncertain whether the last bit was passable, the men who had been with Carrel steadily refused to try again, as if they were overcome with terror of the mountain. The guides replies were most discouraging but the abbé Amé Gorret came forward, the latter accepted the volunteer, and thus two of those who, eight years before, had taken the first steps towards climbing the Matterhorn, were together in the last attempt. Carrel and Gorret would have set out by themselves had not Jean-Baptiste Bich, for his own credit, desired Carrel to state as much in writing.
At the end of the day he makes the note in his pocket-book, Walked a mile. A very bad night with fever, on Sunday, the 16th, after hearing mass at the chapel of Breuil, the party started. Giordano was left sad and lonely at Breuil, I have once more made the great sacrifice of waiting at the foot of the peak instead of climbing it, he wrote in another letter to Sella, and I assure you that this has been most painful to me. The four men, having left Breuil at 6.30 a. m. arrived at the third tent platform at 1 a. m. and there passed the night. The passage of the cleft that separates the Pic Tyndall from the peak, named the enjambée